Abstract

We investigate the potential of microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) for highly sensitive absorption and fluorescence measurements by infiltrating a dye solution in the holey structure. Generally in a MOF only the evanescent part of the electromagnetic field penetrates into the sample material, providing a weak light-matter interaction. We compare such a MOF with a selectively filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF), in which most of the field energy propagates in the sample material. We show that dye concentrations down to 1×10-10 M can be detected in a HCPCF using only nanoliter sample volumes. Our experiments proof that HCPCFs are well suited for demanding sensing applications, outperforming existing fiber tools that rely on evanescent sensing.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. D. Nielsen, et al., "Low-loss photonic crystal fibers for transmission systems and their dispersion properties," Opt. Express 12, 1372-1376 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar et al., "Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 10, 1520-1525 (2002).
  3. J. B. Jensen, et al., "Selective detection of antibodies in microstructured polymer optical fibers," Opt. Express 13, 5883-5889 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. B. J. Eggleton, et al., "Microstructured optical fiber devices," Opt. Express 9, 698-713 (2001).
  6. J. B. Jensen, et al., "Photonic crystal fiber based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of biomolecules in aqueous solutions," Opt. Lett. 29, 1974-1976 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Rindorf, et al., "Towards biochips using microstructured optical fiber sensors," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 1370-1375 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. M. B. Cordeiro, et al., "Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications," Opt. Express 14, 13056-13066 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. F. Creganet, et al., "Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Yiou, et al., "Stimulated Raman scattering in an ethanol core microstructured optical fiber," Opt. Express 13, 4786-4791 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Nielsen et al., "Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L13-L20 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Fini, "Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1120-1128 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Benabid, et al., "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Ritari et al., "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 4080-4087 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Lelek, et al., "High sensitivity autocorrelator based on a fluorescent liquid core fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061117 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Rindorf, et al., "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Express 14, 8224- 8231 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Smolka, et al., "Selectively coated photonic crystal fiber for highly sensitive fluorescence detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. O. Konorov, et al., "Photonic-crystal fiber as a multifunctional optical sensor and sample collector," Opt. Express 13, 3454-3459 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. M. B. Cordeiro, et al., "Lateral access to the holes of photonic crystal fibers - selective filling and sensing applications," Opt. Express 14, 8403-8512 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. J. Myers, et al., "Manipulation of spontaneous emission in a tapered photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Express 14, 12439-12444 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. Xiao, et al., "Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer," Opt. Express 13, 9014-9022 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Yan, et al., "Hollow core photonic crystal fiber surface-enhanced Raman probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 204101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Zhang, et al., "Liquid core photonic crystal fiber sensor based on surface enhanced Raman scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 193504 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007

S. Smolka, et al., "Selectively coated photonic crystal fiber for highly sensitive fluorescence detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, et al., "Liquid core photonic crystal fiber sensor based on surface enhanced Raman scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 193504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

2003

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

B. J. Eggleton, et al., "Microstructured optical fiber devices," Opt. Express 9, 698-713 (2001).

T. M. Monro, et al., "Sensing with microstructured optical fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854-858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. F. Creganet, et al., "Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, et al., "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

Creganet, R. F.

R. F. Creganet, et al., "Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).

Eggleton, B. J.

Fini, J. M.

J. M. Fini, "Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1120-1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. B.

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Konorov, S. O.

Lelek, M.

M. Lelek, et al., "High sensitivity autocorrelator based on a fluorescent liquid core fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

T. M. Monro, et al., "Sensing with microstructured optical fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854-858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Myers, S. J.

Nielsen, K.

K. Nielsen et al., "Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L13-L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M.D.

Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V.

Rindorf, L.

L. Rindorf, et al., "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Express 14, 8224- 8231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Rindorf, et al., "Towards biochips using microstructured optical fiber sensors," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 1370-1375 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ritari, T.

Russell, P.

P. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smolka, S.

S. Smolka, et al., "Selectively coated photonic crystal fiber for highly sensitive fluorescence detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, L.

Yan, H.

H. Yan, et al., "Hollow core photonic crystal fiber surface-enhanced Raman probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 204101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yiou, S.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, et al., "Liquid core photonic crystal fiber sensor based on surface enhanced Raman scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 193504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

L. Rindorf, et al., "Towards biochips using microstructured optical fiber sensors," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 1370-1375 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Lelek, et al., "High sensitivity autocorrelator based on a fluorescent liquid core fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Smolka, et al., "Selectively coated photonic crystal fiber for highly sensitive fluorescence detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, et al., "Hollow core photonic crystal fiber surface-enhanced Raman probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 204101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, et al., "Liquid core photonic crystal fiber sensor based on surface enhanced Raman scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 193504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

K. Nielsen et al., "Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L13-L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

J. M. Fini, "Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1120-1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, et al., "Sensing with microstructured optical fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854-858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, et al., "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

B. J. Eggleton, et al., "Microstructured optical fiber devices," Opt. Express 9, 698-713 (2001).

V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar et al., "Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 10, 1520-1525 (2002).

M. D. Nielsen, et al., "Low-loss photonic crystal fibers for transmission systems and their dispersion properties," Opt. Express 12, 1372-1376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ritari et al., "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 4080-4087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Konorov, et al., "Photonic-crystal fiber as a multifunctional optical sensor and sample collector," Opt. Express 13, 3454-3459 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Yiou, et al., "Stimulated Raman scattering in an ethanol core microstructured optical fiber," Opt. Express 13, 4786-4791 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Jensen, et al., "Selective detection of antibodies in microstructured polymer optical fibers," Opt. Express 13, 5883-5889 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Xiao, et al., "Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer," Opt. Express 13, 9014-9022 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Rindorf, et al., "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Express 14, 8224- 8231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. M. B. Cordeiro, et al., "Lateral access to the holes of photonic crystal fibers - selective filling and sensing applications," Opt. Express 14, 8403-8512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Myers, et al., "Manipulation of spontaneous emission in a tapered photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Express 14, 12439-12444 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. M. B. Cordeiro, et al., "Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications," Opt. Express 14, 13056-13066 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Science

P. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Creganet, et al., "Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).

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