Abstract

Retinal sampling poses a fundamental limit to resolution acuity in the periphery. However, reduced image quality from optical aberrations may also influence peripheral resolution. In this study, we investigate the impact of different degrees of optical correction on acuity in the periphery. We used an adaptive optics system to measure and modify the off-axis aberrations of the right eye of six normal subjects at 20° eccentricity. The system consists of a Hartmann-Shack sensor, a deformable mirror, and a channel for visual testing. Four different optical corrections were tested, ranging from foveal sphero-cylindrical correction to full correction of eccentric low- and high-order monochromatic aberrations. High-contrast visual acuity was measured in green light using a forced choice procedure with Landolt C’s, viewed via the deformable mirror through a 4.8-mm artificial pupil. The Zernike terms mainly induced by eccentricity were defocus and with- and against-the-rule astigmatism and each correction condition was successfully implemented. On average, resolution decimal visual acuity improved from 0.057 to 0.061 as the total root-mean-square wavefront error changed from 1.01 μm to 0.05 μm. However, this small tendency of improvement in visual acuity with correction was not significant. The results suggest that for our experimental conditions and subjects, the resolution acuity in the periphery cannot be improved with optical correction.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. N. Thibos, D. J. Walsh, and F. E. Cheney, "Vision beyond the resolution limit: aliasing in the periphery," Vision Res. 27, 2193-2197 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, "Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision," Vision Res. 35, 939-947 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, "Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye," Vision Res. 36, 1103-1114 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Navarro, P. Artal, and D. R. Williams, "Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 201-212 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Guirao and P. Artal, "Off-axis monochromatic aberrations estimated from double pass measurements in the human eye," Vision Res. 39, 207-217 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Seidemann, F. Schaeffel, A. Guirao, N. Lopez-Gil, and P. Artal, "Peripheral refractive errors in myopic, emmetropic, and hyperopic young subjects," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2363-2373 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo. "Vision evaluation of eccentric refractive correction," accepted for publication in Optom. Vision Sci. (2007).
  8. M. Millodot, C. A. Johnson, A. Lamont, and H. W. Leibowitz, "Effect of dioptrics on peripheral visual-acuity," Vision Res. 15, 1357-1362 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, "Influence of correction of peripheral refractive errors on peripheral static vision," Ophthalmologica 173, 128-135 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. N. Thibos, D. L. Still, and A. Bradley, "Characterization of spatial aliasing and contrast sensitivity in peripheral vision," Vision Res. 36, 249-258 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, "Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 2134-2143 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  12. D. W. Jackson, E. A. Paysse, K. R. Wilhelmus, M. A. Hussein, G. Rosby, and D. K. Coats, "The effect of off-the-visual-axis retinoscopy on objective refractive measurement," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 1101-1104 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, I. Svensson, and P. Unsbo, "Assessment of objective and subjective eccentric refraction," Optom. Vision Sci. 82, 298-306 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. S. Anderson, "The selective effect of optical defocus on detection and resolution acuity in peripheral vision," Curr. Eye Res. 15, 351-353 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, and L. Hyvarinen, "Resolution of gratings oriented along and across meridians in peripheral vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 23, 666-670 (1982).
    [PubMed]
  16. J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, and P. Unsbo, "Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393-400 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. J. Fernández, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "Closed-loop adaptive optics in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 26, 746-748 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics visual simulator," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 634-638 (2002).
  19. P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, "Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1388-1398 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Lundström and P. Unsbo, "Transformation of Zernike coefficients: scaled, translated, and rotated wavefronts with circular and elliptical pupils," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 569-577 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Llorente, L. Díaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, "Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 26-35 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, P. M. Prieto, B. Hermann, W. Drexler, and P. Artal, "Ocular aberrations as a function of wavelength in the near infrared measured with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Express 13, 400- 409 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, "Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 6-14 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. A. Atchison, "Recent advances in measurement of monochromatic aberrations of human eyes," Clin. Exp. Optom. 88, 5-27 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, D. R. Williams, "Dynamics of the eye´s wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 497-506 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, "Topography of ganglion cells in human retina," J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5-25 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2005 (3)

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, P. M. Prieto, B. Hermann, W. Drexler, and P. Artal, "Ocular aberrations as a function of wavelength in the near infrared measured with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Express 13, 400- 409 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Atchison, "Recent advances in measurement of monochromatic aberrations of human eyes," Clin. Exp. Optom. 88, 5-27 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, I. Svensson, and P. Unsbo, "Assessment of objective and subjective eccentric refraction," Optom. Vision Sci. 82, 298-306 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. W. Jackson, E. A. Paysse, K. R. Wilhelmus, M. A. Hussein, G. Rosby, and D. K. Coats, "The effect of off-the-visual-axis retinoscopy on objective refractive measurement," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 1101-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, "Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 6-14 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Llorente, L. Díaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, "Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 26-35 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

A. Guirao and P. Artal, "Off-axis monochromatic aberrations estimated from double pass measurements in the human eye," Vision Res. 39, 207-217 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, "Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 2134-2143 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996 (3)

L. N. Thibos, D. L. Still, and A. Bradley, "Characterization of spatial aliasing and contrast sensitivity in peripheral vision," Vision Res. 36, 249-258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Anderson, "The selective effect of optical defocus on detection and resolution acuity in peripheral vision," Curr. Eye Res. 15, 351-353 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, "Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye," Vision Res. 36, 1103-1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, "Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision," Vision Res. 35, 939-947 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, "Topography of ganglion cells in human retina," J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5-25 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

L. N. Thibos, D. J. Walsh, and F. E. Cheney, "Vision beyond the resolution limit: aliasing in the periphery," Vision Res. 27, 2193-2197 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, and L. Hyvarinen, "Resolution of gratings oriented along and across meridians in peripheral vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 23, 666-670 (1982).
[PubMed]

1976 (1)

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, "Influence of correction of peripheral refractive errors on peripheral static vision," Ophthalmologica 173, 128-135 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

M. Millodot, C. A. Johnson, A. Lamont, and H. W. Leibowitz, "Effect of dioptrics on peripheral visual-acuity," Vision Res. 15, 1357-1362 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, "Topography of ganglion cells in human retina," J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5-25 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. S.

R. S. Anderson, "The selective effect of optical defocus on detection and resolution acuity in peripheral vision," Curr. Eye Res. 15, 351-353 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aragon, J. L.

Artal, P.

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, P. M. Prieto, B. Hermann, W. Drexler, and P. Artal, "Ocular aberrations as a function of wavelength in the near infrared measured with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Express 13, 400- 409 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Seidemann, F. Schaeffel, A. Guirao, N. Lopez-Gil, and P. Artal, "Peripheral refractive errors in myopic, emmetropic, and hyperopic young subjects," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2363-2373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics visual simulator," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 634-638 (2002).

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, D. R. Williams, "Dynamics of the eye´s wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 497-506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "Closed-loop adaptive optics in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 26, 746-748 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, "Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1388-1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Guirao and P. Artal, "Off-axis monochromatic aberrations estimated from double pass measurements in the human eye," Vision Res. 39, 207-217 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, "Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye," Vision Res. 36, 1103-1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, "Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision," Vision Res. 35, 939-947 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Navarro, P. Artal, and D. R. Williams, "Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 201-212 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atchison, D. A.

D. A. Atchison, "Recent advances in measurement of monochromatic aberrations of human eyes," Clin. Exp. Optom. 88, 5-27 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, A.

Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, "Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 2134-2143 (1997).
[PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, D. L. Still, and A. Bradley, "Characterization of spatial aliasing and contrast sensitivity in peripheral vision," Vision Res. 36, 249-258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brainard, D. H.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, "Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye," Vision Res. 36, 1103-1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchheister, J.

J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, and P. Unsbo, "Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393-400 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheney, F. E.

L. N. Thibos, D. J. Walsh, and F. E. Cheney, "Vision beyond the resolution limit: aliasing in the periphery," Vision Res. 27, 2193-2197 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coats, D. K.

D. W. Jackson, E. A. Paysse, K. R. Wilhelmus, M. A. Hussein, G. Rosby, and D. K. Coats, "The effect of off-the-visual-axis retinoscopy on objective refractive measurement," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 1101-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombo, E.

P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, "Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision," Vision Res. 35, 939-947 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, "Topography of ganglion cells in human retina," J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5-25 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derrington, A. M.

P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, "Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision," Vision Res. 35, 939-947 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Díaz-Santana, L.

L. Llorente, L. Díaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, "Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 26-35 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Fernández, E. J.

Gasser, W.

T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, "Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 6-14 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goelz, S.

Guirao, A.

A. Seidemann, F. Schaeffel, A. Guirao, N. Lopez-Gil, and P. Artal, "Peripheral refractive errors in myopic, emmetropic, and hyperopic young subjects," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2363-2373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Guirao and P. Artal, "Off-axis monochromatic aberrations estimated from double pass measurements in the human eye," Vision Res. 39, 207-217 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gustafsson, J.

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, I. Svensson, and P. Unsbo, "Assessment of objective and subjective eccentric refraction," Optom. Vision Sci. 82, 298-306 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, and P. Unsbo, "Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393-400 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hofer, H.

Hoogenboom, W. P. H.

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, "Influence of correction of peripheral refractive errors on peripheral static vision," Ophthalmologica 173, 128-135 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoogerheide, J.

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, "Influence of correction of peripheral refractive errors on peripheral static vision," Ophthalmologica 173, 128-135 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hussein, M. A.

D. W. Jackson, E. A. Paysse, K. R. Wilhelmus, M. A. Hussein, G. Rosby, and D. K. Coats, "The effect of off-the-visual-axis retinoscopy on objective refractive measurement," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 1101-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyvarinen, L.

J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, and L. Hyvarinen, "Resolution of gratings oriented along and across meridians in peripheral vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 23, 666-670 (1982).
[PubMed]

Iglesias, I.

Jackson, D. W.

D. W. Jackson, E. A. Paysse, K. R. Wilhelmus, M. A. Hussein, G. Rosby, and D. K. Coats, "The effect of off-the-visual-axis retinoscopy on objective refractive measurement," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 1101-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, C. A.

M. Millodot, C. A. Johnson, A. Lamont, and H. W. Leibowitz, "Effect of dioptrics on peripheral visual-acuity," Vision Res. 15, 1357-1362 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kenmore, T.

T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, "Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 6-14 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamont, A.

M. Millodot, C. A. Johnson, A. Lamont, and H. W. Leibowitz, "Effect of dioptrics on peripheral visual-acuity," Vision Res. 15, 1357-1362 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lara-Saucedo, D.

L. Llorente, L. Díaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, "Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 26-35 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurinen, P.

J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, and L. Hyvarinen, "Resolution of gratings oriented along and across meridians in peripheral vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 23, 666-670 (1982).
[PubMed]

Leibowitz, H. W.

M. Millodot, C. A. Johnson, A. Lamont, and H. W. Leibowitz, "Effect of dioptrics on peripheral visual-acuity," Vision Res. 15, 1357-1362 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Llorente, L.

L. Llorente, L. Díaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, "Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 26-35 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez-Gil, N.

Lundström, L.

L. Lundström and P. Unsbo, "Transformation of Zernike coefficients: scaled, translated, and rotated wavefronts with circular and elliptical pupils," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 569-577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, I. Svensson, and P. Unsbo, "Assessment of objective and subjective eccentric refraction," Optom. Vision Sci. 82, 298-306 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manzanera, S.

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics visual simulator," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 634-638 (2002).

Marcos, S.

L. Llorente, L. Díaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, "Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 26-35 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMahon, M. J.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, "Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye," Vision Res. 36, 1103-1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millodot, M.

M. Millodot, C. A. Johnson, A. Lamont, and H. W. Leibowitz, "Effect of dioptrics on peripheral visual-acuity," Vision Res. 15, 1357-1362 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Navarro, R.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, "Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye," Vision Res. 36, 1103-1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Navarro, P. Artal, and D. R. Williams, "Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 201-212 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paysse, E. A.

D. W. Jackson, E. A. Paysse, K. R. Wilhelmus, M. A. Hussein, G. Rosby, and D. K. Coats, "The effect of off-the-visual-axis retinoscopy on objective refractive measurement," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 1101-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piers, P.

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics visual simulator," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 634-638 (2002).

Prieto, P. M.

Rempt, F.

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, "Influence of correction of peripheral refractive errors on peripheral static vision," Ophthalmologica 173, 128-135 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosby, G.

D. W. Jackson, E. A. Paysse, K. R. Wilhelmus, M. A. Hussein, G. Rosby, and D. K. Coats, "The effect of off-the-visual-axis retinoscopy on objective refractive measurement," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 1101-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rovamo, J.

J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, and L. Hyvarinen, "Resolution of gratings oriented along and across meridians in peripheral vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 23, 666-670 (1982).
[PubMed]

Salmon, T. O.

T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, "Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 6-14 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaeffel, F.

Seidemann, A.

Singer, B.

Still, D. L.

L. N. Thibos, D. L. Still, and A. Bradley, "Characterization of spatial aliasing and contrast sensitivity in peripheral vision," Vision Res. 36, 249-258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svensson, I.

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, I. Svensson, and P. Unsbo, "Assessment of objective and subjective eccentric refraction," Optom. Vision Sci. 82, 298-306 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terenius, E.

J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, and P. Unsbo, "Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393-400 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thibos, L. N.

Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, "Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 2134-2143 (1997).
[PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, D. L. Still, and A. Bradley, "Characterization of spatial aliasing and contrast sensitivity in peripheral vision," Vision Res. 36, 249-258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, D. J. Walsh, and F. E. Cheney, "Vision beyond the resolution limit: aliasing in the periphery," Vision Res. 27, 2193-2197 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unsbo, P.

L. Lundström and P. Unsbo, "Transformation of Zernike coefficients: scaled, translated, and rotated wavefronts with circular and elliptical pupils," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 569-577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, I. Svensson, and P. Unsbo, "Assessment of objective and subjective eccentric refraction," Optom. Vision Sci. 82, 298-306 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, and P. Unsbo, "Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393-400 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

Vargas-Martin, F.

Virsu, V.

J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, and L. Hyvarinen, "Resolution of gratings oriented along and across meridians in peripheral vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 23, 666-670 (1982).
[PubMed]

Walsh, D. J.

L. N. Thibos, D. J. Walsh, and F. E. Cheney, "Vision beyond the resolution limit: aliasing in the periphery," Vision Res. 27, 2193-2197 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, "Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 2134-2143 (1997).
[PubMed]

West, R. W.

T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, "Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 6-14 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilhelmus, K. R.

D. W. Jackson, E. A. Paysse, K. R. Wilhelmus, M. A. Hussein, G. Rosby, and D. K. Coats, "The effect of off-the-visual-axis retinoscopy on objective refractive measurement," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 1101-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. W. Jackson, E. A. Paysse, K. R. Wilhelmus, M. A. Hussein, G. Rosby, and D. K. Coats, "The effect of off-the-visual-axis retinoscopy on objective refractive measurement," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 1101-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Exp. Optom. (1)

D. A. Atchison, "Recent advances in measurement of monochromatic aberrations of human eyes," Clin. Exp. Optom. 88, 5-27 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Eye Res. (1)

R. S. Anderson, "The selective effect of optical defocus on detection and resolution acuity in peripheral vision," Curr. Eye Res. 15, 351-353 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (2)

J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, P. Laurinen, and L. Hyvarinen, "Resolution of gratings oriented along and across meridians in peripheral vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 23, 666-670 (1982).
[PubMed]

Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, "Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 2134-2143 (1997).
[PubMed]

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, "Topography of ganglion cells in human retina," J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5-25 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics visual simulator," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 634-638 (2002).

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

J. Gustafsson, E. Terenius, J. Buchheister, and P. Unsbo, "Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21, 393-400 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmologica (1)

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, "Influence of correction of peripheral refractive errors on peripheral static vision," Ophthalmologica 173, 128-135 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optom. Vision Sci. (3)

L. Llorente, L. Díaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, "Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 26-35 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, "Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 6-14 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, I. Svensson, and P. Unsbo, "Assessment of objective and subjective eccentric refraction," Optom. Vision Sci. 82, 298-306 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (6)

L. N. Thibos, D. L. Still, and A. Bradley, "Characterization of spatial aliasing and contrast sensitivity in peripheral vision," Vision Res. 36, 249-258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Millodot, C. A. Johnson, A. Lamont, and H. W. Leibowitz, "Effect of dioptrics on peripheral visual-acuity," Vision Res. 15, 1357-1362 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, D. J. Walsh, and F. E. Cheney, "Vision beyond the resolution limit: aliasing in the periphery," Vision Res. 27, 2193-2197 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, "Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision," Vision Res. 35, 939-947 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, "Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye," Vision Res. 36, 1103-1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guirao and P. Artal, "Off-axis monochromatic aberrations estimated from double pass measurements in the human eye," Vision Res. 39, 207-217 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo. "Vision evaluation of eccentric refractive correction," accepted for publication in Optom. Vision Sci. (2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Main components of the optical setup. The entrance pupil of the eye is conjugated to the deformable mirror and the wavefront sensor via telescopes. For the sake of clarity, lenses and some mirrors have been excluded and the setup is not drawn to scale.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Remaining peripheral aberrations for each correction level: A - Foveal sphero-cylindrical correction, B - Eccentric defocus correction, C - Eccentric sphero-cylindrical correction, D - Full eccentric aberration correction. The columns show the average defocus, C(2,0), oblique astigmatism, C(2,-2), horizontal/vertical astigmatism, C(2,2), and the root-mean-square error of high-order wavefront aberrations, RMSHOA. The colored dots are the values for each individual subject. All values are given in μm over a circular pupil of 4.8 mm in diameter (λ = 532 nm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Wavefront map and associated PSF for subject LL for each correction level (A-D, same as in Fig. 2). The brightness of the PSFs has been increased.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Peripheral resolution threshold values in decimal visual acuity for the six subjects (SM, NG, GP, LL, EV, and AM) with the same optical corrections (A-D) as in Fig. 2. The bars are the average of three visual evaluation measurements, which are also shown individually by the black dots.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Mean peripheral resolution threshold values plotted against the aberration root-mean-square (including defocus and astigmatism). The different markers denote the four optical corrections presented in Fig. 2 (A-D). The error bars are the standard deviation of the three visual testing runs.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

freq . of seeing = 100 % 25 % 1 + e ( t t 0 ) Δ t + 25 % .

Metrics