Abstract

Using magnetic fields to differentiate the effects of electrons and x-rays, it was discovered that single strand breaks in supercoiled DNA were mainly caused by the energetic ultrafast electrons rather than the ultrafast x-ray photons emitted from the same table-top ultrafast x-ray source. At constant pulse energy of the driving laser pulses, shorter laser pulses produced more strand breaks than longer ones. This was attributed to the increased flux of electrons produced with the shorter laser pulses. Other factors contributing to the DNA damage were investigated and discussed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. J. Hall. In Radiobiology for the Radiologist, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1973.
  2. C. von Sonntag. In The Chemical Basis for Radiation Biology, Taylor and Francis, London, 1987.
  3. R. V. Bensasson, Land E. J., and Truscott T. G. In Excited States and Free Radicals in Biology and Medcine, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993.
  4. M. M. Murnane, Kapteyn H. C., Rosen M. D., and Falcone R. W. “Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses From Laser-Produced Plasmas,” Science. 251.531–536 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. Crowell, Gosztola D., Shkrob I., D. Oulianov, C. Jonah, and T. Rajh, “Ultrafast processes in radiation chemistry,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 70.501–509 (2004).
  6. X. Wang, N. Saleh, M. Krishnan, H. Wang, S. Backus, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, D. Umstadter, and Q. Wang, et al. “Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132–137 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Kozawa, T. Kobayashi, T. Ueda, and M. Uesaka “Generation of high-current (1kA) subpicosecond electron single pulse,” Nucl. Instru. Methods Phys. Res. Rev. A 399.180–184 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to Petawatt Subpicosecond Lasers,” Science. 264.917–924 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. T. Guo, C. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, and C. P. J. Barty “Generation of hard x rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72.41–47 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  10. N. Saleh, K. Flippo, K. Nemoto, D. Umstadter, R. Crowell, C. Jonah, and A. Trifunac “Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71.2305–2308 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. J. Cheng, F. Shan, A. Freyer, and T. Guo, “Compact 50-Hz terawatt Ti: sapphire laser for x-ray and nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 41.5148–5154 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. F. Shan, V. Couch, and T. Guo “Atomic tungsten for ultrafast hard X-ray generation,” J. Phys. Chem. A. 109.4216–4220 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  13. F. Shan and T. Guo, “Ultrafast selected energy X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations of Ni and Zn species,” J. Chem. Phys. 122.244710 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. E. Foley, J. Carter, F. Shan, and T. Guo, “Enhanced relaxation of nanoparticle-bound supercoiled DNA in X-ray radiation,” Chem. Commun.3192–3194 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. Porter, F. Shan, and T. Guo “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with spectrally tailored ultrafast pulses,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76.043108 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. C. Wilks and W. L. Kruer, “Absorption of Ultrashort, Ultra-Intense Laser Light By Solids and Overdense Plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 33.1954–1968 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. Reich, P. Gibbon, I. Uschmann, and E. Forster, “Yield optimization and time structure of femtosecond laser plasma K alpha sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84.4846–4849 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

F. Shan, V. Couch, and T. Guo “Atomic tungsten for ultrafast hard X-ray generation,” J. Phys. Chem. A. 109.4216–4220 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Shan and T. Guo, “Ultrafast selected energy X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations of Ni and Zn species,” J. Chem. Phys. 122.244710 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Foley, J. Carter, F. Shan, and T. Guo, “Enhanced relaxation of nanoparticle-bound supercoiled DNA in X-ray radiation,” Chem. Commun.3192–3194 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Porter, F. Shan, and T. Guo “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with spectrally tailored ultrafast pulses,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76.043108 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

R. Crowell, Gosztola D., Shkrob I., D. Oulianov, C. Jonah, and T. Rajh, “Ultrafast processes in radiation chemistry,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 70.501–509 (2004).

2003 (1)

X. Wang, N. Saleh, M. Krishnan, H. Wang, S. Backus, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, D. Umstadter, and Q. Wang, et al. “Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132–137 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

T. Guo, C. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, and C. P. J. Barty “Generation of hard x rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72.41–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

N. Saleh, K. Flippo, K. Nemoto, D. Umstadter, R. Crowell, C. Jonah, and A. Trifunac “Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71.2305–2308 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. Reich, P. Gibbon, I. Uschmann, and E. Forster, “Yield optimization and time structure of femtosecond laser plasma K alpha sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84.4846–4849 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

S. C. Wilks and W. L. Kruer, “Absorption of Ultrashort, Ultra-Intense Laser Light By Solids and Overdense Plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 33.1954–1968 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Kozawa, T. Kobayashi, T. Ueda, and M. Uesaka “Generation of high-current (1kA) subpicosecond electron single pulse,” Nucl. Instru. Methods Phys. Res. Rev. A 399.180–184 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to Petawatt Subpicosecond Lasers,” Science. 264.917–924 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

M. M. Murnane, Kapteyn H. C., Rosen M. D., and Falcone R. W. “Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses From Laser-Produced Plasmas,” Science. 251.531–536 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

X. Wang, N. Saleh, M. Krishnan, H. Wang, S. Backus, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, D. Umstadter, and Q. Wang, et al. “Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132–137 (2003).
[Crossref]

Barty, C. P. J.

T. Guo, C. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, and C. P. J. Barty “Generation of hard x rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72.41–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bensasson, R. V.

R. V. Bensasson, Land E. J., and Truscott T. G. In Excited States and Free Radicals in Biology and Medcine, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993.

Carter, J.

E. Foley, J. Carter, F. Shan, and T. Guo, “Enhanced relaxation of nanoparticle-bound supercoiled DNA in X-ray radiation,” Chem. Commun.3192–3194 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cheng, G. J.

Couch, V.

F. Shan, V. Couch, and T. Guo “Atomic tungsten for ultrafast hard X-ray generation,” J. Phys. Chem. A. 109.4216–4220 (2005).
[Crossref]

Crowell, R.

R. Crowell, Gosztola D., Shkrob I., D. Oulianov, C. Jonah, and T. Rajh, “Ultrafast processes in radiation chemistry,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 70.501–509 (2004).

N. Saleh, K. Flippo, K. Nemoto, D. Umstadter, R. Crowell, C. Jonah, and A. Trifunac “Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71.2305–2308 (2000).
[Crossref]

D., Gosztola

R. Crowell, Gosztola D., Shkrob I., D. Oulianov, C. Jonah, and T. Rajh, “Ultrafast processes in radiation chemistry,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 70.501–509 (2004).

E. J., Land

R. V. Bensasson, Land E. J., and Truscott T. G. In Excited States and Free Radicals in Biology and Medcine, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993.

Flippo, K.

N. Saleh, K. Flippo, K. Nemoto, D. Umstadter, R. Crowell, C. Jonah, and A. Trifunac “Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71.2305–2308 (2000).
[Crossref]

Foley, E.

E. Foley, J. Carter, F. Shan, and T. Guo, “Enhanced relaxation of nanoparticle-bound supercoiled DNA in X-ray radiation,” Chem. Commun.3192–3194 (2005).
[Crossref]

Forster, E.

C. Reich, P. Gibbon, I. Uschmann, and E. Forster, “Yield optimization and time structure of femtosecond laser plasma K alpha sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84.4846–4849 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freyer, A.

Gibbon, P.

C. Reich, P. Gibbon, I. Uschmann, and E. Forster, “Yield optimization and time structure of femtosecond laser plasma K alpha sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84.4846–4849 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, T.

E. Foley, J. Carter, F. Shan, and T. Guo, “Enhanced relaxation of nanoparticle-bound supercoiled DNA in X-ray radiation,” Chem. Commun.3192–3194 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Porter, F. Shan, and T. Guo “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with spectrally tailored ultrafast pulses,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76.043108 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Shan and T. Guo, “Ultrafast selected energy X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations of Ni and Zn species,” J. Chem. Phys. 122.244710 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Shan, V. Couch, and T. Guo “Atomic tungsten for ultrafast hard X-ray generation,” J. Phys. Chem. A. 109.4216–4220 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. J. Cheng, F. Shan, A. Freyer, and T. Guo, “Compact 50-Hz terawatt Ti: sapphire laser for x-ray and nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 41.5148–5154 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Guo, C. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, and C. P. J. Barty “Generation of hard x rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72.41–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. C., Kapteyn

M. M. Murnane, Kapteyn H. C., Rosen M. D., and Falcone R. W. “Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses From Laser-Produced Plasmas,” Science. 251.531–536 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hall, E. J.

E. J. Hall. In Radiobiology for the Radiologist, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1973.

I., Shkrob

R. Crowell, Gosztola D., Shkrob I., D. Oulianov, C. Jonah, and T. Rajh, “Ultrafast processes in radiation chemistry,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 70.501–509 (2004).

Jonah, C.

R. Crowell, Gosztola D., Shkrob I., D. Oulianov, C. Jonah, and T. Rajh, “Ultrafast processes in radiation chemistry,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 70.501–509 (2004).

N. Saleh, K. Flippo, K. Nemoto, D. Umstadter, R. Crowell, C. Jonah, and A. Trifunac “Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71.2305–2308 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H.

X. Wang, N. Saleh, M. Krishnan, H. Wang, S. Backus, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, D. Umstadter, and Q. Wang, et al. “Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132–137 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, T.

T. Kozawa, T. Kobayashi, T. Ueda, and M. Uesaka “Generation of high-current (1kA) subpicosecond electron single pulse,” Nucl. Instru. Methods Phys. Res. Rev. A 399.180–184 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kozawa, T.

T. Kozawa, T. Kobayashi, T. Ueda, and M. Uesaka “Generation of high-current (1kA) subpicosecond electron single pulse,” Nucl. Instru. Methods Phys. Res. Rev. A 399.180–184 (1997).
[Crossref]

Krishnan, M.

X. Wang, N. Saleh, M. Krishnan, H. Wang, S. Backus, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, D. Umstadter, and Q. Wang, et al. “Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132–137 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kruer, W. L.

S. C. Wilks and W. L. Kruer, “Absorption of Ultrashort, Ultra-Intense Laser Light By Solids and Overdense Plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 33.1954–1968 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. D., Rosen

M. M. Murnane, Kapteyn H. C., Rosen M. D., and Falcone R. W. “Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses From Laser-Produced Plasmas,” Science. 251.531–536 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to Petawatt Subpicosecond Lasers,” Science. 264.917–924 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murnane, M.

X. Wang, N. Saleh, M. Krishnan, H. Wang, S. Backus, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, D. Umstadter, and Q. Wang, et al. “Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132–137 (2003).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

M. M. Murnane, Kapteyn H. C., Rosen M. D., and Falcone R. W. “Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses From Laser-Produced Plasmas,” Science. 251.531–536 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nemoto, K.

N. Saleh, K. Flippo, K. Nemoto, D. Umstadter, R. Crowell, C. Jonah, and A. Trifunac “Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71.2305–2308 (2000).
[Crossref]

Oulianov, D.

R. Crowell, Gosztola D., Shkrob I., D. Oulianov, C. Jonah, and T. Rajh, “Ultrafast processes in radiation chemistry,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 70.501–509 (2004).

Perry, M. D.

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to Petawatt Subpicosecond Lasers,” Science. 264.917–924 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Porter, R.

R. Porter, F. Shan, and T. Guo “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with spectrally tailored ultrafast pulses,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76.043108 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. W., Falcone

M. M. Murnane, Kapteyn H. C., Rosen M. D., and Falcone R. W. “Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses From Laser-Produced Plasmas,” Science. 251.531–536 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajh, T.

R. Crowell, Gosztola D., Shkrob I., D. Oulianov, C. Jonah, and T. Rajh, “Ultrafast processes in radiation chemistry,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 70.501–509 (2004).

Reich, C.

C. Reich, P. Gibbon, I. Uschmann, and E. Forster, “Yield optimization and time structure of femtosecond laser plasma K alpha sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84.4846–4849 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saleh, N.

X. Wang, N. Saleh, M. Krishnan, H. Wang, S. Backus, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, D. Umstadter, and Q. Wang, et al. “Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132–137 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Saleh, K. Flippo, K. Nemoto, D. Umstadter, R. Crowell, C. Jonah, and A. Trifunac “Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71.2305–2308 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shan, F.

R. Porter, F. Shan, and T. Guo “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with spectrally tailored ultrafast pulses,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76.043108 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Shan, V. Couch, and T. Guo “Atomic tungsten for ultrafast hard X-ray generation,” J. Phys. Chem. A. 109.4216–4220 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Shan and T. Guo, “Ultrafast selected energy X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations of Ni and Zn species,” J. Chem. Phys. 122.244710 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Foley, J. Carter, F. Shan, and T. Guo, “Enhanced relaxation of nanoparticle-bound supercoiled DNA in X-ray radiation,” Chem. Commun.3192–3194 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. J. Cheng, F. Shan, A. Freyer, and T. Guo, “Compact 50-Hz terawatt Ti: sapphire laser for x-ray and nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 41.5148–5154 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spielmann, C.

T. Guo, C. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, and C. P. J. Barty “Generation of hard x rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72.41–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. G., Truscott

R. V. Bensasson, Land E. J., and Truscott T. G. In Excited States and Free Radicals in Biology and Medcine, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993.

Trifunac, A.

N. Saleh, K. Flippo, K. Nemoto, D. Umstadter, R. Crowell, C. Jonah, and A. Trifunac “Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71.2305–2308 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ueda, T.

T. Kozawa, T. Kobayashi, T. Ueda, and M. Uesaka “Generation of high-current (1kA) subpicosecond electron single pulse,” Nucl. Instru. Methods Phys. Res. Rev. A 399.180–184 (1997).
[Crossref]

Uesaka, M.

T. Kozawa, T. Kobayashi, T. Ueda, and M. Uesaka “Generation of high-current (1kA) subpicosecond electron single pulse,” Nucl. Instru. Methods Phys. Res. Rev. A 399.180–184 (1997).
[Crossref]

Umstadter, D.

X. Wang, N. Saleh, M. Krishnan, H. Wang, S. Backus, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, D. Umstadter, and Q. Wang, et al. “Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132–137 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Saleh, K. Flippo, K. Nemoto, D. Umstadter, R. Crowell, C. Jonah, and A. Trifunac “Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71.2305–2308 (2000).
[Crossref]

Uschmann, I.

C. Reich, P. Gibbon, I. Uschmann, and E. Forster, “Yield optimization and time structure of femtosecond laser plasma K alpha sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84.4846–4849 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von Sonntag, C.

C. von Sonntag. In The Chemical Basis for Radiation Biology, Taylor and Francis, London, 1987.

Walker, B. C.

T. Guo, C. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, and C. P. J. Barty “Generation of hard x rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72.41–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

X. Wang, N. Saleh, M. Krishnan, H. Wang, S. Backus, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, D. Umstadter, and Q. Wang, et al. “Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132–137 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

X. Wang, N. Saleh, M. Krishnan, H. Wang, S. Backus, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, D. Umstadter, and Q. Wang, et al. “Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132–137 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, N. Saleh, M. Krishnan, H. Wang, S. Backus, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, D. Umstadter, and Q. Wang, et al. “Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132–137 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wilks, S. C.

S. C. Wilks and W. L. Kruer, “Absorption of Ultrashort, Ultra-Intense Laser Light By Solids and Overdense Plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 33.1954–1968 (1997).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Commun. (1)

E. Foley, J. Carter, F. Shan, and T. Guo, “Enhanced relaxation of nanoparticle-bound supercoiled DNA in X-ray radiation,” Chem. Commun.3192–3194 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

S. C. Wilks and W. L. Kruer, “Absorption of Ultrashort, Ultra-Intense Laser Light By Solids and Overdense Plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 33.1954–1968 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

F. Shan and T. Guo, “Ultrafast selected energy X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations of Ni and Zn species,” J. Chem. Phys. 122.244710 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. (1)

X. Wang, N. Saleh, M. Krishnan, H. Wang, S. Backus, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, D. Umstadter, and Q. Wang, et al. “Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.-Opt. Phys. 20.132–137 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. A. (1)

F. Shan, V. Couch, and T. Guo “Atomic tungsten for ultrafast hard X-ray generation,” J. Phys. Chem. A. 109.4216–4220 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instru. Methods Phys. Res. Rev. A (1)

T. Kozawa, T. Kobayashi, T. Ueda, and M. Uesaka “Generation of high-current (1kA) subpicosecond electron single pulse,” Nucl. Instru. Methods Phys. Res. Rev. A 399.180–184 (1997).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. Reich, P. Gibbon, I. Uschmann, and E. Forster, “Yield optimization and time structure of femtosecond laser plasma K alpha sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84.4846–4849 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

R. Porter, F. Shan, and T. Guo “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with spectrally tailored ultrafast pulses,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76.043108 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Guo, C. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, and C. P. J. Barty “Generation of hard x rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72.41–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

N. Saleh, K. Flippo, K. Nemoto, D. Umstadter, R. Crowell, C. Jonah, and A. Trifunac “Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71.2305–2308 (2000).
[Crossref]

Science. (2)

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to Petawatt Subpicosecond Lasers,” Science. 264.917–924 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Murnane, Kapteyn H. C., Rosen M. D., and Falcone R. W. “Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses From Laser-Produced Plasmas,” Science. 251.531–536 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

R. Crowell, Gosztola D., Shkrob I., D. Oulianov, C. Jonah, and T. Rajh, “Ultrafast processes in radiation chemistry,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 70.501–509 (2004).

E. J. Hall. In Radiobiology for the Radiologist, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1973.

C. von Sonntag. In The Chemical Basis for Radiation Biology, Taylor and Francis, London, 1987.

R. V. Bensasson, Land E. J., and Truscott T. G. In Excited States and Free Radicals in Biology and Medcine, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental layout. X-rays and electrons are produced from the x-ray target and collimated with the lead slits.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

X-ray spectra at shorter and longer optical pulses. The slope indicates the electron temperature. The dark line represents the x-ray photon histogram of the longer pulse, and the gray line of the shorter pulse.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

DNA damage by LEXS. Fig. 3A shows the arrangement of the sample with respect to the source. Fig. 3B shows the gel results. The top band in each lane represents the damage scDNA, and the lower band is the scDNA.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

DNA damage by LEXS with magnetic field shielding. Fig. 4A shows the arrangement, and 4B shows the gel results. Little damage to scDNA was observed in all three cases.

Metrics