Abstract

Quantum key distribution with pulsed heralded single photon source was performed over 40 km of fiber for the first time to our knowledge. QBER was measured to be 4.23% suggesting security against unconditional attack.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C.H. Bennett and G. Brassard, in proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signals Processing, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York1984), pp.175–179.
  2. C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5,3–28 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, “Single photon interference in a 10 km long optical fiber interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 29,634–639 (1993a).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85,1330–1333 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. Scarani, A. Acín, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography protocols robust against photon number splitting attacks for weak laser pulse implementations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92,0579014 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Inoue and T. Honjo, “Robustness of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against photon-numbersplitting attack,” Phys. Rev. A 71,042305(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen,“Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,230504 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian,“Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96,070502 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Fasel, O. Alibart, A. Beveratos, S. Tanzilli, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, and N. Gisin,“High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength,” New J. of Phys. 6,163 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Shigeki Takeuchi, Ryo Okamoto, and Keiji Sasaki,“High-yield single-photon source using gated spontaneous parametric downconversion,” Appl. Opt. 43 ,5708–5711 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Ryo Okamoto, Shigeki Takeuchi, and Keiji Sasaki, “Detailed analysis of a single-photon source using gated spontaneous parametric downconversion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22,2393–2401 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Trifonov and A. Zavriyev,“Secure communication with a heralded single-photon source,” J. Opt. B 7,S772–S777 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74,145–195 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Waks, A. Zeevi, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65,052310 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller,“Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81,5932–5935 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Soujaeff, S. Takeuchi, K. Sasaki, T. Hasegawa, and M. Matsui, “Heralded single photon source at 1550 nm from pulsed parametric downconversion,” quant-ph/0611112, (2006).
  17. D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,Quantum inf. comput. 4,325–360 (2004).
  18. H. K. Hong and L. Mandel, “Experimental realization of a localized one-photon state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56,58–60 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Using a model presented in reference [10, 11, 16], we estimated the average number of photon pairs μ at the crystal output to be 0.168 at the maximum pump power (195 mW), and 3 pairs event probability at the crystal ouput to be a fraction equal to 0.056 of the two pairs generation probability for this pump power.
  20. C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68,3121–3124 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Koashi, “Efficient quantum key distribution with practical sources and detectors,” quant-ph/0609180, (2006).
  22. M. Hayashi, “Practical evaluation of security for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 74,022307 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Adachi, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Simple and efficient quantum key distribution with parametric down-conversion,” quant-ph/0610118, (2006).

2006 (3)

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian,“Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96,070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Soujaeff, S. Takeuchi, K. Sasaki, T. Hasegawa, and M. Matsui, “Heralded single photon source at 1550 nm from pulsed parametric downconversion,” quant-ph/0611112, (2006).

M. Hayashi, “Practical evaluation of security for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 74,022307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

Ryo Okamoto, Shigeki Takeuchi, and Keiji Sasaki, “Detailed analysis of a single-photon source using gated spontaneous parametric downconversion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22,2393–2401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Trifonov and A. Zavriyev,“Secure communication with a heralded single-photon source,” J. Opt. B 7,S772–S777 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue and T. Honjo, “Robustness of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against photon-numbersplitting attack,” Phys. Rev. A 71,042305(2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen,“Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

S. Fasel, O. Alibart, A. Beveratos, S. Tanzilli, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, and N. Gisin,“High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength,” New J. of Phys. 6,163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shigeki Takeuchi, Ryo Okamoto, and Keiji Sasaki,“High-yield single-photon source using gated spontaneous parametric downconversion,” Appl. Opt. 43 ,5708–5711 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Scarani, A. Acín, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography protocols robust against photon number splitting attacks for weak laser pulse implementations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92,0579014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,Quantum inf. comput. 4,325–360 (2004).

2002 (2)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74,145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Waks, A. Zeevi, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65,052310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85,1330–1333 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

H. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller,“Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81,5932–5935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, “Single photon interference in a 10 km long optical fiber interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 29,634–639 (1993a).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5,3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68,3121–3124 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

H. K. Hong and L. Mandel, “Experimental realization of a localized one-photon state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56,58–60 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acín, A.

V. Scarani, A. Acín, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography protocols robust against photon number splitting attacks for weak laser pulse implementations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92,0579014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, Y.

Y. Adachi, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Simple and efficient quantum key distribution with parametric down-conversion,” quant-ph/0610118, (2006).

Alibart, O.

S. Fasel, O. Alibart, A. Beveratos, S. Tanzilli, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, and N. Gisin,“High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength,” New J. of Phys. 6,163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baldi, P.

S. Fasel, O. Alibart, A. Beveratos, S. Tanzilli, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, and N. Gisin,“High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength,” New J. of Phys. 6,163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5,3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68,3121–3124 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, C.H.

C.H. Bennett and G. Brassard, in proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signals Processing, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York1984), pp.175–179.

Bessette, F.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5,3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Beveratos, A.

S. Fasel, O. Alibart, A. Beveratos, S. Tanzilli, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, and N. Gisin,“High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength,” New J. of Phys. 6,163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85,1330–1333 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5,3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C.H. Bennett and G. Brassard, in proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signals Processing, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York1984), pp.175–179.

Briegel, H.

H. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller,“Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81,5932–5935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen,“Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cirac, J. I.

H. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller,“Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81,5932–5935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dür, W.

H. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller,“Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81,5932–5935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fasel, S.

S. Fasel, O. Alibart, A. Beveratos, S. Tanzilli, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, and N. Gisin,“High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength,” New J. of Phys. 6,163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

S. Fasel, O. Alibart, A. Beveratos, S. Tanzilli, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, and N. Gisin,“High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength,” New J. of Phys. 6,163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Scarani, A. Acín, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography protocols robust against photon number splitting attacks for weak laser pulse implementations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92,0579014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74,145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gottesman, D.

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,Quantum inf. comput. 4,325–360 (2004).

Hasegawa, T.

A. Soujaeff, S. Takeuchi, K. Sasaki, T. Hasegawa, and M. Matsui, “Heralded single photon source at 1550 nm from pulsed parametric downconversion,” quant-ph/0611112, (2006).

Hayashi, M.

M. Hayashi, “Practical evaluation of security for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 74,022307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hong, H. K.

H. K. Hong and L. Mandel, “Experimental realization of a localized one-photon state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56,58–60 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honjo, T.

K. Inoue and T. Honjo, “Robustness of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against photon-numbersplitting attack,” Phys. Rev. A 71,042305(2005).
[CrossRef]

Imoto, N.

Y. Adachi, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Simple and efficient quantum key distribution with parametric down-conversion,” quant-ph/0610118, (2006).

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue and T. Honjo, “Robustness of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against photon-numbersplitting attack,” Phys. Rev. A 71,042305(2005).
[CrossRef]

Koashi, M.

M. Koashi, “Efficient quantum key distribution with practical sources and detectors,” quant-ph/0609180, (2006).

Y. Adachi, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Simple and efficient quantum key distribution with parametric down-conversion,” quant-ph/0610118, (2006).

Lo, H.-K.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian,“Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96,070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen,“Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,Quantum inf. comput. 4,325–360 (2004).

Lütkenhaus, N.

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,Quantum inf. comput. 4,325–360 (2004).

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85,1330–1333 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, X.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian,“Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96,070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen,“Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandel, L.

H. K. Hong and L. Mandel, “Experimental realization of a localized one-photon state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56,58–60 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsui, M.

A. Soujaeff, S. Takeuchi, K. Sasaki, T. Hasegawa, and M. Matsui, “Heralded single photon source at 1550 nm from pulsed parametric downconversion,” quant-ph/0611112, (2006).

Mor, T.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85,1330–1333 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, Ryo

Preskill, J.

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,Quantum inf. comput. 4,325–360 (2004).

Qi, B.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian,“Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96,070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, L.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian,“Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96,070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rarity, J. G.

P. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, “Single photon interference in a 10 km long optical fiber interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 29,634–639 (1993a).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

V. Scarani, A. Acín, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography protocols robust against photon number splitting attacks for weak laser pulse implementations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92,0579014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74,145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Salvail, L.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5,3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, B. C.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85,1330–1333 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, K.

A. Soujaeff, S. Takeuchi, K. Sasaki, T. Hasegawa, and M. Matsui, “Heralded single photon source at 1550 nm from pulsed parametric downconversion,” quant-ph/0611112, (2006).

Sasaki, Keiji

Scarani, V.

V. Scarani, A. Acín, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography protocols robust against photon number splitting attacks for weak laser pulse implementations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92,0579014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smolin, J.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5,3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soujaeff, A.

A. Soujaeff, S. Takeuchi, K. Sasaki, T. Hasegawa, and M. Matsui, “Heralded single photon source at 1550 nm from pulsed parametric downconversion,” quant-ph/0611112, (2006).

Takeuchi, S.

A. Soujaeff, S. Takeuchi, K. Sasaki, T. Hasegawa, and M. Matsui, “Heralded single photon source at 1550 nm from pulsed parametric downconversion,” quant-ph/0611112, (2006).

Takeuchi, Shigeki

Tanzilli, S.

S. Fasel, O. Alibart, A. Beveratos, S. Tanzilli, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, and N. Gisin,“High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength,” New J. of Phys. 6,163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tapster, P. R.

P. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, “Single photon interference in a 10 km long optical fiber interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 29,634–639 (1993a).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74,145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P.

P. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, “Single photon interference in a 10 km long optical fiber interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 29,634–639 (1993a).
[CrossRef]

Trifonov, A.

A. Trifonov and A. Zavriyev,“Secure communication with a heralded single-photon source,” J. Opt. B 7,S772–S777 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Waks, E.

E. Waks, A. Zeevi, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65,052310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

Y. Adachi, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Simple and efficient quantum key distribution with parametric down-conversion,” quant-ph/0610118, (2006).

Yamamoto, Y.

E. Waks, A. Zeevi, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65,052310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zavriyev, A.

A. Trifonov and A. Zavriyev,“Secure communication with a heralded single-photon source,” J. Opt. B 7,S772–S777 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

S. Fasel, O. Alibart, A. Beveratos, S. Tanzilli, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, and N. Gisin,“High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength,” New J. of Phys. 6,163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74,145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeevi, A.

E. Waks, A. Zeevi, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65,052310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian,“Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96,070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoller, P.

H. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller,“Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81,5932–5935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, “Single photon interference in a 10 km long optical fiber interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 29,634–639 (1993a).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryptology (1)

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5,3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B (1)

A. Trifonov and A. Zavriyev,“Secure communication with a heralded single-photon source,” J. Opt. B 7,S772–S777 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

New J. of Phys. (1)

S. Fasel, O. Alibart, A. Beveratos, S. Tanzilli, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, and N. Gisin,“High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength,” New J. of Phys. 6,163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

E. Waks, A. Zeevi, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65,052310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue and T. Honjo, “Robustness of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against photon-numbersplitting attack,” Phys. Rev. A 71,042305(2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Hayashi, “Practical evaluation of security for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 74,022307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68,3121–3124 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen,“Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian,“Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96,070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85,1330–1333 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Scarani, A. Acín, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography protocols robust against photon number splitting attacks for weak laser pulse implementations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92,0579014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller,“Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81,5932–5935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Hong and L. Mandel, “Experimental realization of a localized one-photon state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56,58–60 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum inf. comput. (1)

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,Quantum inf. comput. 4,325–360 (2004).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74,145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

A. Soujaeff, S. Takeuchi, K. Sasaki, T. Hasegawa, and M. Matsui, “Heralded single photon source at 1550 nm from pulsed parametric downconversion,” quant-ph/0611112, (2006).

Using a model presented in reference [10, 11, 16], we estimated the average number of photon pairs μ at the crystal output to be 0.168 at the maximum pump power (195 mW), and 3 pairs event probability at the crystal ouput to be a fraction equal to 0.056 of the two pairs generation probability for this pump power.

C.H. Bennett and G. Brassard, in proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signals Processing, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York1984), pp.175–179.

M. Koashi, “Efficient quantum key distribution with practical sources and detectors,” quant-ph/0609180, (2006).

Y. Adachi, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Simple and efficient quantum key distribution with parametric down-conversion,” quant-ph/0610118, (2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

HSPS experimental set up, bandpass filter (BPF) and highpass filter (HPF) reject residual pump in idler and signal path.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Pc (2) of HSPS as a function of pump power for a constant P(1) of 0.296. Black circles are measurement results, plotted with error bars. The dashed red line is the linear regression curve for Pc (2).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

QKD system, thick blue lines are DSF channel, red line is the HSPS heralding signal and green line is the 82 MHz clock signal. Black lines represent driving signal for phase modulation and APD gated operation. Doted black lines are output signals from APD, and dashed-doted black lines are signals exchange between personal computers and EA and EB.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated gain figure of our QKD system with HSPS (dashed), for a single photon source with same P(1) as our HSPS (black) and for WCP based on original BB84 protocol with optimum average photon number (dot). The Black cross is the gain figure for the 40 km QKD experiment.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. HSPS photon number distribution and triggering rate. For P(1), statistical fluctuation were negligible (less than 2% of the total count)

Equations (2)

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G = 1 2 p exp [ ( 1 p m p exp ) ( 1 H ( Q ( 1 p m p exp ) ) ) H ( Q ) ]
H = Q log 2 ( Q ) ( 1 Q ) log 2 ( 1 Q )

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