Abstract

Design curves for insertion loss of multimode polymer waveguide 90º bends are reported as a function of bend radius for several waveguide widths. For the first time, to our knowledge, in multimode rectangular waveguides the insertion loss is resolved into its components of transition, radiation and propagation loss, in order of decreasing strength, separating them from input and output coupling loss by calibration and comparison of experimentally measured and beam propagation method (BPM) modeled curves. We used the method of nested bends for the first time in multimode polymer waveguides to calculate the propagation loss on a small substrate without using destructive cut-back. The lowest loss of 0.74 dB occurred for a 50 μm square cross section, Δn=0.0296, 13.5 mm radius waveguide bend.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Ladoucer, and P. Labeye "A new general approach to optical waveguide path design," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 481-492 (1995).
  2. J. Cardenas, L. Li, S. Kim, and G. P. Nordin, "Compact low loss single air interface bends in polymer waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 5314-5324 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T , Sakamoto, H. Tsuda, M. Hikita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, and C. Amano, "Optical interconnection using VCSELs and polymeric waveguide circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2083-2090 (2004).
  4. I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. A. Pitwon and D. Milward, "Low cost, precision self-alignment technique for coupling laser and photodiode arrays to waveguide arrays," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., (submitted for publication).
  5. S. Musa, A. Borreman, A. A. M. Kok, M. B. J. Diemeer, and A. Driessen, "Experimental study of bent multimode optical waveguides," Appl. Opt. 43, 5705-5707 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Dellmann, R. Dangel, R. Beyeler, Ch. Berger, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and G. L. Bona, "Polymer waveguides for high-speed optical interconnects," in Proceedings of EOS Topical Meeting on Optics in Computing, (Engelberg, Switzerland, 2004), pp. 131-132.
  7. M. Hikita, S. Tomarum K. Enbutsu, N. Ooba, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, T. Yoshida, and S. Imamura, "Polymeric optical waveguide films for short-distance optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron.,  5, 1237-1242 (1999).
  8. V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, "Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990-997 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, "Reflection at a curved dielectric interface - electromagnetic tunneling," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 23, 134-141 (1975).
  10. I. C. Goyal, R. L. Gallawa and A. K. Ghatak, "Bent planar waveguides and whispering gallery modes: A new method of analysis," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 768-774 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Ladoucer, J. D. Love, and T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 141:44,242-248 (1994).
  12. D. Marcuse, "Power distribution and radiation loss in multimode dielectric slab waveguides," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 429-454 (1972).
  13. Exxelis Ltd., "TruemodeTM wet film datasheet" (2006), http://www.exxelis.com/products/truemode.php.

2004 (3)

1999 (1)

M. Hikita, S. Tomarum K. Enbutsu, N. Ooba, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, T. Yoshida, and S. Imamura, "Polymeric optical waveguide films for short-distance optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron.,  5, 1237-1242 (1999).

1997 (1)

V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, "Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990-997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

F. Ladoucer, and P. Labeye "A new general approach to optical waveguide path design," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 481-492 (1995).

1994 (1)

F. Ladoucer, J. D. Love, and T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 141:44,242-248 (1994).

1990 (1)

I. C. Goyal, R. L. Gallawa and A. K. Ghatak, "Bent planar waveguides and whispering gallery modes: A new method of analysis," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 768-774 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, "Reflection at a curved dielectric interface - electromagnetic tunneling," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 23, 134-141 (1975).

1972 (1)

D. Marcuse, "Power distribution and radiation loss in multimode dielectric slab waveguides," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 429-454 (1972).

Amano, C.

Borreman, A.

Boyd, J. T.

V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, "Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990-997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cardenas, J.

De Brabander, G. N.

V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, "Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990-997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Diemeer, M. B. J.

Driessen, A.

Gallawa, R. L.

I. C. Goyal, R. L. Gallawa and A. K. Ghatak, "Bent planar waveguides and whispering gallery modes: A new method of analysis," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 768-774 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ghatak, A. K.

I. C. Goyal, R. L. Gallawa and A. K. Ghatak, "Bent planar waveguides and whispering gallery modes: A new method of analysis," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 768-774 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Goyal, I. C.

I. C. Goyal, R. L. Gallawa and A. K. Ghatak, "Bent planar waveguides and whispering gallery modes: A new method of analysis," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 768-774 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hikita, M.

T , Sakamoto, H. Tsuda, M. Hikita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, and C. Amano, "Optical interconnection using VCSELs and polymeric waveguide circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2083-2090 (2004).

M. Hikita, S. Tomarum K. Enbutsu, N. Ooba, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, T. Yoshida, and S. Imamura, "Polymeric optical waveguide films for short-distance optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron.,  5, 1237-1242 (1999).

Kagawa, T.

Kim, S.

Kok, A. A. M.

Labeye, P.

F. Ladoucer, and P. Labeye "A new general approach to optical waveguide path design," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 481-492 (1995).

Ladoucer, F.

F. Ladoucer, and P. Labeye "A new general approach to optical waveguide path design," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 481-492 (1995).

F. Ladoucer, J. D. Love, and T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 141:44,242-248 (1994).

Li, L.

Love, J. D.

F. Ladoucer, J. D. Love, and T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 141:44,242-248 (1994).

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, "Reflection at a curved dielectric interface - electromagnetic tunneling," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 23, 134-141 (1975).

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, "Power distribution and radiation loss in multimode dielectric slab waveguides," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 429-454 (1972).

Musa, S.

Naghski, D. H.

V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, "Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990-997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nordin, G. P.

Sakamoto, T

Senden, T. J.

F. Ladoucer, J. D. Love, and T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 141:44,242-248 (1994).

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, "Reflection at a curved dielectric interface - electromagnetic tunneling," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 23, 134-141 (1975).

Subramaniam, V.

V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, "Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990-997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tateno, K.

Tsuda, H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Marcuse, "Power distribution and radiation loss in multimode dielectric slab waveguides," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 429-454 (1972).

IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. (1)

F. Ladoucer, J. D. Love, and T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 141:44,242-248 (1994).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. (1)

M. Hikita, S. Tomarum K. Enbutsu, N. Ooba, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, T. Yoshida, and S. Imamura, "Polymeric optical waveguide films for short-distance optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron.,  5, 1237-1242 (1999).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. (1)

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, "Reflection at a curved dielectric interface - electromagnetic tunneling," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 23, 134-141 (1975).

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

I. C. Goyal, R. L. Gallawa and A. K. Ghatak, "Bent planar waveguides and whispering gallery modes: A new method of analysis," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 768-774 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, "Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990-997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T , Sakamoto, H. Tsuda, M. Hikita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, and C. Amano, "Optical interconnection using VCSELs and polymeric waveguide circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2083-2090 (2004).

F. Ladoucer, and P. Labeye "A new general approach to optical waveguide path design," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 481-492 (1995).

Opt. Express (1)

Other (3)

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. A. Pitwon and D. Milward, "Low cost, precision self-alignment technique for coupling laser and photodiode arrays to waveguide arrays," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., (submitted for publication).

L. Dellmann, R. Dangel, R. Beyeler, Ch. Berger, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and G. L. Bona, "Polymer waveguides for high-speed optical interconnects," in Proceedings of EOS Topical Meeting on Optics in Computing, (Engelberg, Switzerland, 2004), pp. 131-132.

Exxelis Ltd., "TruemodeTM wet film datasheet" (2006), http://www.exxelis.com/products/truemode.php.

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