Abstract

Design curves for insertion loss of multimode polymer waveguide 90° bends are reported as a function of bend radius for several waveguide widths. For the first time, to our knowledge, in multimode rectangular waveguides the insertion loss is resolved into its components of transition, radiation and propagation loss, in order of decreasing strength, separating them from input and output coupling loss by calibration and comparison of experimentally measured and beam propagation method (BPM) modeled curves. We used the method of nested bends for the first time in multimode polymer waveguides to calculate the propagation loss on a small substrate without using destructive cut-back. The lowest loss of 0.74 dB occurred for a 50 μm square cross section, Δn=0.0296, 13.5 mm radius waveguide bend.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Ladoucer, and P. Labeye "A new general approach to optical waveguide path design," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 481-492 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Cardenas, L. Li, S. Kim, and G. P. Nordin, "Compact low loss single air interface bends in polymer waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 5314-5324 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T , Sakamoto, H. Tsuda, M. Hikita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, and C. Amano, "Optical interconnection using VCSELs and polymeric waveguide circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2083-2090 (2004).
  4. I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. A. Pitwon and D. Milward, "Low cost, precision self-alignment technique for coupling laser and photodiode arrays to waveguide arrays," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., (submitted for publication).
  5. S. Musa, A. Borreman, A. A. M. Kok, M. B. J. Diemeer, and A. Driessen, "Experimental study of bent multimode optical waveguides," Appl. Opt. 43, 5705-5707 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. Dellmann, R. Dangel, R. Beyeler, Ch. Berger, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and G. L. Bona, "Polymer waveguides for high-speed optical interconnects," in Proceedings of EOS Topical Meeting on Optics in Computing, (Engelberg, Switzerland, 2004), pp. 131-132.
  7. M. Hikita, S. Tomarum K. Enbutsu, N. Ooba, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, T. Yoshida, and S. Imamura, "Polymeric optical waveguide films for short-distance optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron.,  5, 1237-1242 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, "Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990-997 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, "Reflection at a curved dielectric interface - electromagnetic tunneling," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 23, 134-141 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. C. Goyal, R. L. Gallawa and A. K. Ghatak, "Bent planar waveguides and whispering gallery modes: A new method of analysis," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 768-774 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Ladoucer, J. D. Love, and T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 141:44,242-248 (1994).
  12. D. Marcuse, "Power distribution and radiation loss in multimode dielectric slab waveguides," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 429-454 (1972).
  13. Exxelis Ltd., "TruemodeTM wet film datasheet" (2006), http://www.exxelis.com/products/truemode.php.

2004 (3)

1999 (1)

M. Hikita, S. Tomarum K. Enbutsu, N. Ooba, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, T. Yoshida, and S. Imamura, "Polymeric optical waveguide films for short-distance optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron.,  5, 1237-1242 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, "Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990-997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

F. Ladoucer, and P. Labeye "A new general approach to optical waveguide path design," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 481-492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

F. Ladoucer, J. D. Love, and T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 141:44,242-248 (1994).

1990 (1)

I. C. Goyal, R. L. Gallawa and A. K. Ghatak, "Bent planar waveguides and whispering gallery modes: A new method of analysis," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 768-774 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, "Reflection at a curved dielectric interface - electromagnetic tunneling," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 23, 134-141 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

D. Marcuse, "Power distribution and radiation loss in multimode dielectric slab waveguides," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 429-454 (1972).

Amano, C.

Borreman, A.

Boyd, J. T.

V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, "Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990-997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cardenas, J.

De Brabander, G. N.

V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, "Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990-997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Diemeer, M. B. J.

Driessen, A.

Gallawa, R. L.

I. C. Goyal, R. L. Gallawa and A. K. Ghatak, "Bent planar waveguides and whispering gallery modes: A new method of analysis," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 768-774 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ghatak, A. K.

I. C. Goyal, R. L. Gallawa and A. K. Ghatak, "Bent planar waveguides and whispering gallery modes: A new method of analysis," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 768-774 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Goyal, I. C.

I. C. Goyal, R. L. Gallawa and A. K. Ghatak, "Bent planar waveguides and whispering gallery modes: A new method of analysis," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 768-774 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hikita, M.

T , Sakamoto, H. Tsuda, M. Hikita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, and C. Amano, "Optical interconnection using VCSELs and polymeric waveguide circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2083-2090 (2004).

M. Hikita, S. Tomarum K. Enbutsu, N. Ooba, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, T. Yoshida, and S. Imamura, "Polymeric optical waveguide films for short-distance optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron.,  5, 1237-1242 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kagawa, T.

Kim, S.

Kok, A. A. M.

Labeye, P.

F. Ladoucer, and P. Labeye "A new general approach to optical waveguide path design," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 481-492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ladoucer, F.

F. Ladoucer, and P. Labeye "A new general approach to optical waveguide path design," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 481-492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Ladoucer, J. D. Love, and T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 141:44,242-248 (1994).

Li, L.

Love, J. D.

F. Ladoucer, J. D. Love, and T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 141:44,242-248 (1994).

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, "Reflection at a curved dielectric interface - electromagnetic tunneling," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 23, 134-141 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, "Power distribution and radiation loss in multimode dielectric slab waveguides," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 429-454 (1972).

Musa, S.

Naghski, D. H.

V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, "Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990-997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nordin, G. P.

Sakamoto, T

Senden, T. J.

F. Ladoucer, J. D. Love, and T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 141:44,242-248 (1994).

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, "Reflection at a curved dielectric interface - electromagnetic tunneling," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 23, 134-141 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, V.

V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, "Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990-997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tateno, K.

Tsuda, H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Marcuse, "Power distribution and radiation loss in multimode dielectric slab waveguides," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 429-454 (1972).

IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. (1)

F. Ladoucer, J. D. Love, and T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 141:44,242-248 (1994).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. (1)

M. Hikita, S. Tomarum K. Enbutsu, N. Ooba, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, T. Yoshida, and S. Imamura, "Polymeric optical waveguide films for short-distance optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron.,  5, 1237-1242 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. (1)

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, "Reflection at a curved dielectric interface - electromagnetic tunneling," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 23, 134-141 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

I. C. Goyal, R. L. Gallawa and A. K. Ghatak, "Bent planar waveguides and whispering gallery modes: A new method of analysis," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 768-774 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. Subramaniam, G. N. De Brabander, D. H. Naghski, J. T. Boyd, "Measurement of mode field profiles and bending and transition losses in curved optical channel waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990-997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Ladoucer, and P. Labeye "A new general approach to optical waveguide path design," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 481-492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T , Sakamoto, H. Tsuda, M. Hikita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, and C. Amano, "Optical interconnection using VCSELs and polymeric waveguide circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2083-2090 (2004).

Opt. Express (1)

Other (3)

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. A. Pitwon and D. Milward, "Low cost, precision self-alignment technique for coupling laser and photodiode arrays to waveguide arrays," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., (submitted for publication).

L. Dellmann, R. Dangel, R. Beyeler, Ch. Berger, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and G. L. Bona, "Polymer waveguides for high-speed optical interconnects," in Proceedings of EOS Topical Meeting on Optics in Computing, (Engelberg, Switzerland, 2004), pp. 131-132.

Exxelis Ltd., "TruemodeTM wet film datasheet" (2006), http://www.exxelis.com/products/truemode.php.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of one set of waveguide bends. Three sets of waveguides with widths w = 50 μm, 75 μm, and 100 μm respectively were fabricated. Radius R, varied between 5.5 mm < R < 34.5 mm while the separation of adjacent waveguides was ΔR = 1 mm. Straight sections lin = 11.5 mm and lout = 24.5 mm. (b) Light through a waveguide bend of R = 5.5 mm. Light lost due to scattering, transition loss, radiation loss, reflection and back-scattering at the end of the waveguide can be clearly seen. Waveguide was butt-coupled to a MM fiber illuminated with a red-laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photograph of the end face of a 50 μm × 50 μm waveguide cross section recorded with an infrared sensitive CCD camera. Dashed lines determine the boundaries of the upper- and lower- claddings both of which are ∼50 μm thick. It can be seen that light is mainly confined in the core of the waveguide. The light from the waveguide end face was imaged directly onto a CCD camera chip with the aid of a × 20 microscope objective lens, NA = 0.47. Neutral density filters were used to avoid overexposing the camera.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Loss of waveguide bends for three widths w = 50 μm, 75 μm and 100 μm as a function of bend radius after normalization by subtracting the loss of similar straight waveguides of lstr = 65.5 mm to remove coupling loss and partially remove propagation loss.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Propagation of the optical field around two waveguide segments of a bend for a launch field consisting of fully filled waveguide modes for w = 50 μm, R = 13 mm (a) in the first segment (first 10°). (b) in the 30° to 40° degree segment.

Fig.  5.
Fig. 5.

Power as a function of angle propagated by cascading the results from nine 10° segments and its derivative for w = 75 μm, R = 5 mm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

BPM modeled loss (TransA + TransB + RL) for launched fully filled 50/125 μm MM fiber modes and for fully filled waveguide modes compared to normalized experimental loss as a function of bend radius for 50 μm × 50 μm waveguides. The experimental normalization removed propagation loss to match the slope of the modeled waveguide mode curve for R > 20 mm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Transition, radiation loss from the BPM modelling and propagation loss from both the experiment and BPM modelling for 50 μm × 50 μmm, 75 μm × 50 μm and 100 μmm × 50 μmm waveguides.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Minimum loss for several waveguide widths

Tables Icon

Table 2. Parameters used in BPM modeling

Tables Icon

Table 3. Curve slopes and propagation loss

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

TL = CouplI + TransA + RL + TransB + CouplO + PL .
PL = ( l in + l out + l bend ) α ( w ) , α ( w ) = α exp ( w ) α BPM ( w ) .
P norm 2 = P norm 1 + ( l in + l out + l bend l str ) α ( w ) .
P bend w R = P in TL .
P norm 2 = RL TransA TransB .

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