Abstract

We demonstrate excitation of whispering gallery modes in optical ring resonators using a gold-clad pedestal planar waveguide structure. The gold-clad structure provides a strong evanescent field for light-coupling into the resonator while enabling low transmission loss throughout much of the visible and near-infrared region. This is advantageous compared to the previously demonstrated anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) structure, which can only transmit a narrow wavelength band. We show that the height of the pedestal waveguide can be designed to optimize the coupling conditions for the ring resonator. This technology enhances the practicality of optical ring resonators for sensing devices, laser systems, and many other important applications.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006

N. M. Hanumegowda, I. M. White, and X. Fan, "Aqueous mercuric ion detection with microsphere optical ring resonator sensors," Sens. Actuators B 120, 207-212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of Biomolecules using Microring Resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, "Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, "Liquid-core optical ring-resonator sensors," Opt. Lett. 31, 1319-1321 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2003

M. Zourob, S. Mohr, B. J. Treves Brown, P. R. Fielden, M. McDonnell, and N. J. Goddard, "The development of a metal clad leaky waveguide sensor for the detection of particles," Sens. Actuators B 90, 296-307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

1994

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, "High-Q optical whispering-gallery microresonators: precession approach for spherical mode analysis and emission patterns with prism couplers," Opt. Commun. 113, 133-143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sakaki, and K. Iga, "Loss reduction of an ARROW waveguide in shorter wavelength and its stack configuration," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440 - 1445 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

1984

Aldridge, J. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of Biomolecules using Microring Resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anthes-Washburn, M.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of Biomolecules using Microring Resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

M. Noto, F. Vollmer, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Nanolayer characterization through wavelength multiplexing of a microsphere resonator," Opt. Lett. 30, 510-512 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sakaki, and K. Iga, "Loss reduction of an ARROW waveguide in shorter wavelength and its stack configuration," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440 - 1445 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Braun, D.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cai, M.

Chang, C. L.

Chbouki, N.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of Biomolecules using Microring Resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of Biomolecules using Microring Resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

Desai, T. A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of Biomolecules using Microring Resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

N. M. Hanumegowda, I. M. White, and X. Fan, "Aqueous mercuric ion detection with microsphere optical ring resonator sensors," Sens. Actuators B 120, 207-212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, "Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, "Liquid-core optical ring-resonator sensors," Opt. Lett. 31, 1319-1321 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White, and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, N. M. Hanumegowda, and X. Fan, "Subfemtomole detection of small molecules with microsphere sensors," Opt. Lett. 30, 3189-3191 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feth, J. R.

Fielden, P. R.

M. Zourob, S. Mohr, B. J. Treves Brown, P. R. Fielden, M. McDonnell, and N. J. Goddard, "The development of a metal clad leaky waveguide sensor for the detection of particles," Sens. Actuators B 90, 296-307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of Biomolecules using Microring Resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goddard, N. J.

M. Zourob, S. Mohr, B. J. Treves Brown, P. R. Fielden, M. McDonnell, and N. J. Goddard, "The development of a metal clad leaky waveguide sensor for the detection of particles," Sens. Actuators B 90, 296-307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of Biomolecules using Microring Resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, "Optical microsphere resonators: optimal coupling to high-Q whispering-gallery modes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 147-155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, "High-Q optical whispering-gallery microresonators: precession approach for spherical mode analysis and emission patterns with prism couplers," Opt. Commun. 113, 133-143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hanumegowda, N. M.

N. M. Hanumegowda, I. M. White, and X. Fan, "Aqueous mercuric ion detection with microsphere optical ring resonator sensors," Sens. Actuators B 120, 207-212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White, and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, N. M. Hanumegowda, and X. Fan, "Subfemtomole detection of small molecules with microsphere sensors," Opt. Lett. 30, 3189-3191 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

Horvath, R.

Hryniewicz, J.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of Biomolecules using Microring Resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sakaki, and K. Iga, "Loss reduction of an ARROW waveguide in shorter wavelength and its stack configuration," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440 - 1445 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Keng, D.

Khoshsima, M.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

King, O.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of Biomolecules using Microring Resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sakaki, and K. Iga, "Loss reduction of an ARROW waveguide in shorter wavelength and its stack configuration," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440 - 1445 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J. -P.

Libchaber, A.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

Little, B. E.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of Biomolecules using Microring Resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. -P. Laine, D. R. Lim, H. A. Haus, L. C. Kimerling, and S. T. Chu, "Pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguides for robust coupling to microsphere resonators and for microphotonic circuits," Opt. Lett. 25, 73-75 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Long, M. B.

Maleki, L.

McDonnell, M.

M. Zourob, S. Mohr, B. J. Treves Brown, P. R. Fielden, M. McDonnell, and N. J. Goddard, "The development of a metal clad leaky waveguide sensor for the detection of particles," Sens. Actuators B 90, 296-307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mohr, S.

M. Zourob, S. Mohr, B. J. Treves Brown, P. R. Fielden, M. McDonnell, and N. J. Goddard, "The development of a metal clad leaky waveguide sensor for the detection of particles," Sens. Actuators B 90, 296-307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noto, M.

Oveys, H.

I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, "Liquid-core optical ring-resonator sensors," Opt. Lett. 31, 1319-1321 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, "Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

Patel, B. C.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White, and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, H. C.

Popat, K. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of Biomolecules using Microring Resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sakaki, T.

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sakaki, and K. Iga, "Loss reduction of an ARROW waveguide in shorter wavelength and its stack configuration," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440 - 1445 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sercel, P. C.

Skivesen, N.

Smith, T. L.

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, "Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stica, C. J.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White, and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

M. Noto, F. Vollmer, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Nanolayer characterization through wavelength multiplexing of a microsphere resonator," Opt. Lett. 30, 510-512 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Treves Brown, B. J.

M. Zourob, S. Mohr, B. J. Treves Brown, P. R. Fielden, M. McDonnell, and N. J. Goddard, "The development of a metal clad leaky waveguide sensor for the detection of particles," Sens. Actuators B 90, 296-307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tzeng, H. -M.

Unlu, M. S.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of Biomolecules using Microring Resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

Van, V.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of Biomolecules using Microring Resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

M. Noto, F. Vollmer, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Nanolayer characterization through wavelength multiplexing of a microsphere resonator," Opt. Lett. 30, 510-512 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wall, K. F.

White, I. M.

N. M. Hanumegowda, I. M. White, and X. Fan, "Aqueous mercuric ion detection with microsphere optical ring resonator sensors," Sens. Actuators B 120, 207-212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, "Liquid-core optical ring-resonator sensors," Opt. Lett. 31, 1319-1321 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, "Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White, and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, N. M. Hanumegowda, and X. Fan, "Subfemtomole detection of small molecules with microsphere sensors," Opt. Lett. 30, 3189-3191 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yalcin, A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of Biomolecules using Microring Resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X. S.

Zhang, J.

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, "Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zourob, M.

M. Zourob, S. Mohr, B. J. Treves Brown, P. R. Fielden, M. McDonnell, and N. J. Goddard, "The development of a metal clad leaky waveguide sensor for the detection of particles," Sens. Actuators B 90, 296-307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(A). Cross-section of waveguide chip structure. (B) Ring resonator in contact with waveguide for WGM excitation. (C) Propagation of light along the waveguide, as it reflects off of the gold layer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(A). Wavelength dependent transmission loss for a gold-clad waveguide of heights 2.0 and 2.5 μm. Gold layer thickness: 300 nm. (B). Wavelength dependent transmission loss for an ARROW of heights 2.0 and 2.5 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(A). Mode profiles of the light propagating along the waveguide and the 2nd order radial WGM in a cylindrical ring resonator. Ring resonator diameter: 100 μm. (B.) Single-trip coupling coefficient normalized to the 1550 nm excitation from a 2 μm waveguide.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup to excite WGMs in a cylindrical ring resonator using both 690 nm and 1550 nm light.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(A). WGMs in a cylindrical resonator of 140 μm in diameter for 690 nm and 1550 nm that are excited by a gold-clad waveguide of 2.5 μm in height. (B) WGMs in a microsphere of 180 μm in diameter for 690 nm, 980 nm, and 1550

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Lorentzian fits of recorded WGMs in cylindrical resonators excited by 1550 nm light coupled from gold-clad waveguides of heights of 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 m.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r = r 12 + r 23 exp ( 2 i k z 2 d 2 ) 1 + r 12 r 23 exp ( 2 i k z 2 d 2 ) ,
r mn = Z m Z n Z m + Z n ( m , n = 1,2,3 ) .
Loss ( dB ) = 101 og ( r 2 N ) = 20 N log r ,
κ 2 = { 2 πR γ exp [ ( Δ β ) 2 R γ ] } k 4 4 β RR β WG ( n RR 2 n 0 2 ) ( n WG 2 n 0 2 ) RR e RR e WG dx WG e RR e WG dx .

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