Abstract

We present a design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors for electronic-photonic integrated circuits on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. The GeSi electro-absorption modulator is based on the Franz-Keldysh effect, and the GeSi composition is chosen for optimal performance around 1550 nm. The designed modulator device is butt-coupled to Si(core)/SiO2(cladding) high index contrast waveguides, and has a predicted 3 dB bandwidth of >50 GHz and an extinction ratio of 10 dB. The same device structure can also be used for a waveguide-coupled photodetector with a predicted responsivity of > 1 A/W and a 3 dB bandwidth of > 35 GHz. Use of the same GeSi composition and device structure allows efficient monolithic process integration of the modulators and the photodetectors on an SOI platform.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. F. Liu, H. C. Luan and L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced direct band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si (100)," Phys. Rev B 70, 155309 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimeriling and J. Michel, "Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si (100)," Phys. Rev B 70, 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. F. Liu, H. C. Luan and L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced direct band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. F. Lampin, L. Desplanque, and F. Mollot, "Detection of picosecond electrical pulses using the intrinsic Franz-Keldysh effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4103-4105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proc. IEEE. 81, 1687-1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

H. Shen and F. H. Pollak, "Generalized Franz-Keldysh theory of electromodulation," Phys. Rev. B 42, 7097-7102 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

A. S. Kyuregyan and S. N. Yurkov, "Room-temperature avalanche breakdown voltages of Si, Ge, SiC, GaAs, GaP and InP," Sov. Phys. Semicond 23,1126-1132 (1989).

1971 (1)

P. Lawaetz, "Valence-band parameters in cubic semiconductors," Phy. Rev. B 4, 3460-3467 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

F. H. Pollak and M. Cardona, "Piezo-electroreflectance in Ge, GaAs and Si," Phys. Rev. 172, 816-837 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

A. Frova, P. Handler, F. A. Germano and D. E. Aspnes, "Electro-absorption effect at the band edges of silicon and germanium," Phys. Rev. 145, 575-583 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Apsel, A. B.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

A. Frova, P. Handler, F. A. Germano and D. E. Aspnes, "Electro-absorption effect at the band edges of silicon and germanium," Phys. Rev. 145, 575-583 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, D. D.

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimeriling and J. Michel, "Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si (100)," Phys. Rev B 70, 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. F. Liu, H. C. Luan and L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced direct band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

F. H. Pollak and M. Cardona, "Piezo-electroreflectance in Ge, GaAs and Si," Phys. Rev. 172, 816-837 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Carothers, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y-K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conway, T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, D. T.

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimeriling and J. Michel, "Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si (100)," Phys. Rev B 70, 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Desplanque, L.

J. F. Lampin, L. Desplanque, and F. Mollot, "Detection of picosecond electrical pulses using the intrinsic Franz-Keldysh effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4103-4105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frova, A.

A. Frova, P. Handler, F. A. Germano and D. E. Aspnes, "Electro-absorption effect at the band edges of silicon and germanium," Phys. Rev. 145, 575-583 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Germano, F. A.

A. Frova, P. Handler, F. A. Germano and D. E. Aspnes, "Electro-absorption effect at the band edges of silicon and germanium," Phys. Rev. 145, 575-583 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grove, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Handler, P.

A. Frova, P. Handler, F. A. Germano and D. E. Aspnes, "Electro-absorption effect at the band edges of silicon and germanium," Phys. Rev. 145, 575-583 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, C-Y

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, Y.

J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si (100)," Phys. Rev B 70, 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. F. Liu, H. C. Luan and L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced direct band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jongthammanurak, S.

J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si (100)," Phys. Rev B 70, 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jongthanmmanurak, S.

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimeriling and J. Michel, "Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kamins, T. I.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimeriling, L. C.

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimeriling and J. Michel, "Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si (100)," Phys. Rev B 70, 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. F. Liu, H. C. Luan and L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced direct band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kyuregyan, A. S.

A. S. Kyuregyan and S. N. Yurkov, "Room-temperature avalanche breakdown voltages of Si, Ge, SiC, GaAs, GaP and InP," Sov. Phys. Semicond 23,1126-1132 (1989).

Lampin, J. F.

J. F. Lampin, L. Desplanque, and F. Mollot, "Detection of picosecond electrical pulses using the intrinsic Franz-Keldysh effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4103-4105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lawaetz, P.

P. Lawaetz, "Valence-band parameters in cubic semiconductors," Phy. Rev. B 4, 3460-3467 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. F.

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimeriling and J. Michel, "Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si (100)," Phys. Rev B 70, 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. F. Liu, H. C. Luan and L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced direct band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luan, H. C.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. F. Liu, H. C. Luan and L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced direct band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimeriling and J. Michel, "Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si (100)," Phys. Rev B 70, 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mollot, F.

J. F. Lampin, L. Desplanque, and F. Mollot, "Detection of picosecond electrical pulses using the intrinsic Franz-Keldysh effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4103-4105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimeriling and J. Michel, "Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, S. S.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pollak, F. H.

H. Shen and F. H. Pollak, "Generalized Franz-Keldysh theory of electromodulation," Phys. Rev. B 42, 7097-7102 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Pollak and M. Cardona, "Piezo-electroreflectance in Ge, GaAs and Si," Phys. Rev. 172, 816-837 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A. T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasras, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ren, S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, J. E.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, H.

H. Shen and F. H. Pollak, "Generalized Franz-Keldysh theory of electromodulation," Phys. Rev. B 42, 7097-7102 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proc. IEEE. 81, 1687-1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sparacin, D. K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tu, K-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimeriling and J. Michel, "Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si (100)," Phys. Rev B 70, 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. F. Liu, H. C. Luan and L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced direct band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

White, A. E.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. W.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yurkov, S. N.

A. S. Kyuregyan and S. N. Yurkov, "Room-temperature avalanche breakdown voltages of Si, Ge, SiC, GaAs, GaP and InP," Sov. Phys. Semicond 23,1126-1132 (1989).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimeriling and J. Michel, "Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. F. Liu, H. C. Luan and L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced direct band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Lampin, L. Desplanque, and F. Mollot, "Detection of picosecond electrical pulses using the intrinsic Franz-Keldysh effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4103-4105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phy. Rev. B (1)

P. Lawaetz, "Valence-band parameters in cubic semiconductors," Phy. Rev. B 4, 3460-3467 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev B (1)

J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si (100)," Phys. Rev B 70, 155309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (2)

A. Frova, P. Handler, F. A. Germano and D. E. Aspnes, "Electro-absorption effect at the band edges of silicon and germanium," Phys. Rev. 145, 575-583 (1966).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Pollak and M. Cardona, "Piezo-electroreflectance in Ge, GaAs and Si," Phys. Rev. 172, 816-837 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Shen and F. H. Pollak, "Generalized Franz-Keldysh theory of electromodulation," Phys. Rev. B 42, 7097-7102 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE. (1)

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proc. IEEE. 81, 1687-1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Semicond (1)

A. S. Kyuregyan and S. N. Yurkov, "Room-temperature avalanche breakdown voltages of Si, Ge, SiC, GaAs, GaP and InP," Sov. Phys. Semicond 23,1126-1132 (1989).

Other (6)

D. K. Sparacin, Process and Design Techniques for Low Loss Integrated Silicon Photonics, Ph.D. thesis, (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006), Chap. 7.

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, New York, 1981), Chap. 13.

G. Freeman, M. Meghelli, Y. Kwark, S. Zier, A. Rylyakov, J. S. Sorna, T. Tanji, O. M. Schreiber, K. Walder, J. S. Rieh, B. Jaganathan, A. Joseph and S. Subbannas, "40-Gb/s circuits built from a 120-GHz fT SiGe technology," IEEE. J. Solid State. Circuits. 37, 1106-1114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Madelung, ed., Physics of Group IV Elements and III-V Compounds, Landolt-Börnstein: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology (Springer, Berlin, 1982), Vol. 17(a), pp. 449-454.

M. E. Levinshtein, S. L. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, eds.,Properties of Advanced Semiconductor Materials: GaN, AlN, InN, BN, SiC, SiGe, (Wiley, New York, 2001), Chap. 6.

J. F. Liu, D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, S. Jongthanmmanurak, D. Pan, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, A. T. Pomerene, C. Hill, M. Jaso, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, S. Patel, M. Rasras, A. White and D. M. Gill, "Waveguide-integrated Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si," 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE Cat. No. 06EX1276C), Ottawa, ON, Canada, 13-15 Sept. 2006, pp. 173-175.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) The absorption constrast (Δα/α) at 1550nm as a function of Si composition, and (b) the absorption coefficient of Ge0.9925Si0.0075 vs. electric field at 1550 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic structure of a Ge0.9925Si0.0075 EA modulator and a photodetector monolithically integrated on an SOI platform. The p+ Si layers are formed in the single crystal SOI device layer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Extinction ratio over insertion loss of 50 μm-long Ge0.9925Si0.0075 EA modulators with different cross-sectional dimensions, and (b) modulator performance vs. device length for Ge0.9925Si0.0075 EA modulators with H=400 nm and W=600nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The responsivity and bandwidth of Ge0.9925Si0.0075 photodetectors (W=600 nm, H=400 nm) as a function of device length.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E p = 3 ( m 0 m e + 1 ) ( 1 E g Γ ( lh ) + 1 E g Γ ( hh ) + 1 E g Γ ( so ) ) .
Insertion Loss = 101 g 10 ( t ( 0 ) Ω ( 0 ) 2 ) ,
Extinction Ratio = 101 g 10 ( t ( V ) Ω ( V ) 2 ) + 101 g 10 ( t ( 0 ) Ω ( 0 ) 2 ) 101 g 10 ( t ( V ) t ( 0 ) ) ,
R ( A W ) = ( λ ( nm ) 1240 ) ( 1 r ) Ω ( V ) [ 1 exp ( α eff ( V ) L ) ] ,

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