Abstract

We demonstrated a novel-structure white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) composed of a greenish blue fluorescent emitting layer and a red fluorescent dye-doped hole injection layer. The spectra of WOLEDs show no change at a wide range current density operation and long-term continuous operation. We concluded that carriers recombined inside the emitting layer in the WOLEDs to produce a greenish blue electroluminescence (EL), and a part of the EL was absorbed by the red fluorescent guest doped hole injection layer and converted into red photoluminescence (PL); the whole white emission from the device was a mixture of the greenish blue EL and red PL.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Solid-State Lighting,” Adv. Mater. 9,1585–1595 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426,246–249, (2003).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. Shao and Y. Yang, “White organic light-emitting diodes prepared by a fused organic solid solution method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,073510–073512 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer White Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Device,” Science 267,1332–1334 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulovic′, and S. R. Forrest, “White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75,888–890 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. T. Lei, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Multilayer organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes without exciton-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,103508–103510 (2006)
    [Crossref]
  7. C.W. Ko and Y. T. Tao, “Bright white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,4234–4236 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  8. B. W. D’Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Controlling Exciton Diffusion in Multilayer White Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Devices,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Germany) 14,147–151 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).
  10. F. F. Guo and D. G. Ma “White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,173510–173512 (2005)
    [Crossref]
  11. A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,3470–3472 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,113506–113508 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  13. T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and White EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID 33,598–601 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. Hosokawa, S. Toshio, K. Fukuoka, H. Tokailin, Y. Hironaka, H. Ikada, Masakazu Funahashi, and T. Kusumoto, “Organic EL Materials Based on Styryl and Amine Derivatives,” SID 32,522–525 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. L. Yang, Z. K. Tang, W. K. Ge, J. N. Wang, Z. L. Zhang, and X. Y. Jian, “Exciton diffusion in light-emitting organic thin films studied by photocurrent spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,1737–1739 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  16. H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, C. D. Merritt, Y. Iizumi, J. Kido, and Z. H. Kafafi, “Photoluminescence quantum yield of pure and molecularly doped organic solid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86,2642–2650 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. Bassler, G. Schonherr, M. Abkowitz, and D. M. Pai, “Hopping transport in prototypical organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 26,3105–3113 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. Mikami, Y. Nishita, and Y. lida, “High efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices coupled with lateral color-conversion layer,” SID 35-3,1376–1379 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  19. C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76,1650–1652 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. K. So, W. K. Choi, L. M. Leung, and K. Neyts, “Interference effects in bilayer organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74,1939–1941 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2006 (3)

G. T. Lei, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Multilayer organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes without exciton-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,103508–103510 (2006)
[Crossref]

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Mikami, Y. Nishita, and Y. lida, “High efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices coupled with lateral color-conversion layer,” SID 35-3,1376–1379 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

F. F. Guo and D. G. Ma “White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,173510–173512 (2005)
[Crossref]

Y. Shao and Y. Yang, “White organic light-emitting diodes prepared by a fused organic solid solution method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,073510–073512 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Solid-State Lighting,” Adv. Mater. 9,1585–1595 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426,246–249, (2003).
[Crossref]

C. L. Yang, Z. K. Tang, W. K. Ge, J. N. Wang, Z. L. Zhang, and X. Y. Jian, “Exciton diffusion in light-emitting organic thin films studied by photocurrent spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,1737–1739 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).

2002 (3)

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,3470–3472 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and White EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID 33,598–601 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. W. D’Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Controlling Exciton Diffusion in Multilayer White Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Devices,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Germany) 14,147–151 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

C.W. Ko and Y. T. Tao, “Bright white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,4234–4236 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Hosokawa, S. Toshio, K. Fukuoka, H. Tokailin, Y. Hironaka, H. Ikada, Masakazu Funahashi, and T. Kusumoto, “Organic EL Materials Based on Styryl and Amine Derivatives,” SID 32,522–525 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76,1650–1652 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

S. K. So, W. K. Choi, L. M. Leung, and K. Neyts, “Interference effects in bilayer organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74,1939–1941 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, C. D. Merritt, Y. Iizumi, J. Kido, and Z. H. Kafafi, “Photoluminescence quantum yield of pure and molecularly doped organic solid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86,2642–2650 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulovic′, and S. R. Forrest, “White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75,888–890 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer White Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Device,” Science 267,1332–1334 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

H. Bassler, G. Schonherr, M. Abkowitz, and D. M. Pai, “Hopping transport in prototypical organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 26,3105–3113 (1982).
[Crossref]

Abkowitz, M.

H. Bassler, G. Schonherr, M. Abkowitz, and D. M. Pai, “Hopping transport in prototypical organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 26,3105–3113 (1982).
[Crossref]

Ahn, Y. J.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426,246–249, (2003).
[Crossref]

Aragane, T.

T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and White EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID 33,598–601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bassler, H.

H. Bassler, G. Schonherr, M. Abkowitz, and D. M. Pai, “Hopping transport in prototypical organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 26,3105–3113 (1982).
[Crossref]

Bulovic', V.

R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulovic′, and S. R. Forrest, “White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75,888–890 (1999).
[Crossref]

Choi, W. K.

S. K. So, W. K. Choi, L. M. Leung, and K. Neyts, “Interference effects in bilayer organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74,1939–1941 (1999).
[Crossref]

Choong, V. E.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choulis, S. A.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chung, C. H.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426,246–249, (2003).
[Crossref]

D’Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Solid-State Lighting,” Adv. Mater. 9,1585–1595 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. W. D’Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Controlling Exciton Diffusion in Multilayer White Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Devices,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Germany) 14,147–151 (2002).
[Crossref]

Deshpande, R. S.

R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulovic′, and S. R. Forrest, “White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75,888–890 (1999).
[Crossref]

Duggal, A. R.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,3470–3472 (2002).
[Crossref]

Endo, J.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).

Fiedler, T.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Solid-State Lighting,” Adv. Mater. 9,1585–1595 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. W. D’Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Controlling Exciton Diffusion in Multilayer White Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Devices,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Germany) 14,147–151 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulovic′, and S. R. Forrest, “White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75,888–890 (1999).
[Crossref]

Foust, D. F.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,3470–3472 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fukuoka, K.

T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and White EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID 33,598–601 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Hosokawa, S. Toshio, K. Fukuoka, H. Tokailin, Y. Hironaka, H. Ikada, Masakazu Funahashi, and T. Kusumoto, “Organic EL Materials Based on Styryl and Amine Derivatives,” SID 32,522–525 (2001).
[Crossref]

Funahashi, Masakazu

C. Hosokawa, S. Toshio, K. Fukuoka, H. Tokailin, Y. Hironaka, H. Ikada, Masakazu Funahashi, and T. Kusumoto, “Organic EL Materials Based on Styryl and Amine Derivatives,” SID 32,522–525 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ge, W. K.

C. L. Yang, Z. K. Tang, W. K. Ge, J. N. Wang, Z. L. Zhang, and X. Y. Jian, “Exciton diffusion in light-emitting organic thin films studied by photocurrent spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,1737–1739 (2003).
[Crossref]

Guo, F. F.

F. F. Guo and D. G. Ma “White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,173510–173512 (2005)
[Crossref]

Heller, C. M.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,3470–3472 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hironaka, Y.

T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and White EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID 33,598–601 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Hosokawa, S. Toshio, K. Fukuoka, H. Tokailin, Y. Hironaka, H. Ikada, Masakazu Funahashi, and T. Kusumoto, “Organic EL Materials Based on Styryl and Amine Derivatives,” SID 32,522–525 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hosokawa, C.

T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and White EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID 33,598–601 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Hosokawa, S. Toshio, K. Fukuoka, H. Tokailin, Y. Hironaka, H. Ikada, Masakazu Funahashi, and T. Kusumoto, “Organic EL Materials Based on Styryl and Amine Derivatives,” SID 32,522–525 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hwang, C. S.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426,246–249, (2003).
[Crossref]

Iizumi, Y.

H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, C. D. Merritt, Y. Iizumi, J. Kido, and Z. H. Kafafi, “Photoluminescence quantum yield of pure and molecularly doped organic solid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86,2642–2650 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ikada, H.

T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and White EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID 33,598–601 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Hosokawa, S. Toshio, K. Fukuoka, H. Tokailin, Y. Hironaka, H. Ikada, Masakazu Funahashi, and T. Kusumoto, “Organic EL Materials Based on Styryl and Amine Derivatives,” SID 32,522–525 (2001).
[Crossref]

Iwakuma, T.

T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and White EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID 33,598–601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jermann, F.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jian, X. Y.

C. L. Yang, Z. K. Tang, W. K. Ge, J. N. Wang, Z. L. Zhang, and X. Y. Jian, “Exciton diffusion in light-emitting organic thin films studied by photocurrent spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,1737–1739 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kafafi, Z. H.

H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, C. D. Merritt, Y. Iizumi, J. Kido, and Z. H. Kafafi, “Photoluminescence quantum yield of pure and molecularly doped organic solid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86,2642–2650 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kang, G. W.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426,246–249, (2003).
[Crossref]

Kawamura, N.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).

Kido, J.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).

H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, C. D. Merritt, Y. Iizumi, J. Kido, and Z. H. Kafafi, “Photoluminescence quantum yield of pure and molecularly doped organic solid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86,2642–2650 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer White Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Device,” Science 267,1332–1334 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, B. C.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426,246–249, (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. H.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426,246–249, (2003).
[Crossref]

Kimura, M.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer White Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Device,” Science 267,1332–1334 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, C.W.

C.W. Ko and Y. T. Tao, “Bright white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,4234–4236 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ko, Y. W.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426,246–249, (2003).
[Crossref]

Krummacher, B. C.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kusomoto, T.

T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and White EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID 33,598–601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kusumoto, T.

C. Hosokawa, S. Toshio, K. Fukuoka, H. Tokailin, Y. Hironaka, H. Ikada, Masakazu Funahashi, and T. Kusumoto, “Organic EL Materials Based on Styryl and Amine Derivatives,” SID 32,522–525 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426,246–249, (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426,246–249, (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, N.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426,246–249, (2003).
[Crossref]

Lei, G. T.

G. T. Lei, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Multilayer organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes without exciton-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,103508–103510 (2006)
[Crossref]

Leung, L. M.

S. K. So, W. K. Choi, L. M. Leung, and K. Neyts, “Interference effects in bilayer organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74,1939–1941 (1999).
[Crossref]

lida, Y.

A. Mikami, Y. Nishita, and Y. lida, “High efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices coupled with lateral color-conversion layer,” SID 35-3,1376–1379 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lim, J.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426,246–249, (2003).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.-H.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76,1650–1652 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ma, D. G.

F. F. Guo and D. G. Ma “White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,173510–173512 (2005)
[Crossref]

Madigan, C. F.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76,1650–1652 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mathai, M. K.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, T.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).

Mattoussi, H.

H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, C. D. Merritt, Y. Iizumi, J. Kido, and Z. H. Kafafi, “Photoluminescence quantum yield of pure and molecularly doped organic solid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86,2642–2650 (1999).
[Crossref]

Merritt, C. D.

H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, C. D. Merritt, Y. Iizumi, J. Kido, and Z. H. Kafafi, “Photoluminescence quantum yield of pure and molecularly doped organic solid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86,2642–2650 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mikami, A.

A. Mikami, Y. Nishita, and Y. lida, “High efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices coupled with lateral color-conversion layer,” SID 35-3,1376–1379 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mori, K.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).

Murata, H.

H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, C. D. Merritt, Y. Iizumi, J. Kido, and Z. H. Kafafi, “Photoluminescence quantum yield of pure and molecularly doped organic solid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86,2642–2650 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nagai, K.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer White Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Device,” Science 267,1332–1334 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakada, T.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).

Neyts, K.

S. K. So, W. K. Choi, L. M. Leung, and K. Neyts, “Interference effects in bilayer organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74,1939–1941 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nishita, Y.

A. Mikami, Y. Nishita, and Y. lida, “High efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices coupled with lateral color-conversion layer,” SID 35-3,1376–1379 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pai, D. M.

H. Bassler, G. Schonherr, M. Abkowitz, and D. M. Pai, “Hopping transport in prototypical organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 26,3105–3113 (1982).
[Crossref]

Qiu, Y.

G. T. Lei, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Multilayer organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes without exciton-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,103508–103510 (2006)
[Crossref]

Schonherr, G.

H. Bassler, G. Schonherr, M. Abkowitz, and D. M. Pai, “Hopping transport in prototypical organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 26,3105–3113 (1982).
[Crossref]

Shao, Y.

Y. Shao and Y. Yang, “White organic light-emitting diodes prepared by a fused organic solid solution method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,073510–073512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shiang, J. J.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,3470–3472 (2002).
[Crossref]

So, F.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

So, S. K.

S. K. So, W. K. Choi, L. M. Leung, and K. Neyts, “Interference effects in bilayer organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74,1939–1941 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sohn, C. Y.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426,246–249, (2003).
[Crossref]

Song, Y. H.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426,246–249, (2003).
[Crossref]

Sturm, J. C.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76,1650–1652 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tang, Z. K.

C. L. Yang, Z. K. Tang, W. K. Ge, J. N. Wang, Z. L. Zhang, and X. Y. Jian, “Exciton diffusion in light-emitting organic thin films studied by photocurrent spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,1737–1739 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tao, Y. T.

C.W. Ko and Y. T. Tao, “Bright white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,4234–4236 (2001).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. E.

B. W. D’Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Controlling Exciton Diffusion in Multilayer White Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Devices,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Germany) 14,147–151 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tokailin, H.

C. Hosokawa, S. Toshio, K. Fukuoka, H. Tokailin, Y. Hironaka, H. Ikada, Masakazu Funahashi, and T. Kusumoto, “Organic EL Materials Based on Styryl and Amine Derivatives,” SID 32,522–525 (2001).
[Crossref]

Toshio, S.

C. Hosokawa, S. Toshio, K. Fukuoka, H. Tokailin, Y. Hironaka, H. Ikada, Masakazu Funahashi, and T. Kusumoto, “Organic EL Materials Based on Styryl and Amine Derivatives,” SID 32,522–525 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. N.

C. L. Yang, Z. K. Tang, W. K. Ge, J. N. Wang, Z. L. Zhang, and X. Y. Jian, “Exciton diffusion in light-emitting organic thin films studied by photocurrent spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,1737–1739 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. D.

G. T. Lei, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Multilayer organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes without exciton-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,103508–103510 (2006)
[Crossref]

Yang, C. L.

C. L. Yang, Z. K. Tang, W. K. Ge, J. N. Wang, Z. L. Zhang, and X. Y. Jian, “Exciton diffusion in light-emitting organic thin films studied by photocurrent spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,1737–1739 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Y. Shao and Y. Yang, “White organic light-emitting diodes prepared by a fused organic solid solution method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,073510–073512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yokoi, A.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).

Zachau, M.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. L.

C. L. Yang, Z. K. Tang, W. K. Ge, J. N. Wang, Z. L. Zhang, and X. Y. Jian, “Exciton diffusion in light-emitting organic thin films studied by photocurrent spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,1737–1739 (2003).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Solid-State Lighting,” Adv. Mater. 9,1585–1595 (2004).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Germany) (1)

B. W. D’Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Controlling Exciton Diffusion in Multilayer White Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Devices,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Germany) 14,147–151 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulovic′, and S. R. Forrest, “White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75,888–890 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. T. Lei, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Multilayer organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes without exciton-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,103508–103510 (2006)
[Crossref]

C.W. Ko and Y. T. Tao, “Bright white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,4234–4236 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Shao and Y. Yang, “White organic light-emitting diodes prepared by a fused organic solid solution method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,073510–073512 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. F. Guo and D. G. Ma “White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,173510–173512 (2005)
[Crossref]

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,3470–3472 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. L. Yang, Z. K. Tang, W. K. Ge, J. N. Wang, Z. L. Zhang, and X. Y. Jian, “Exciton diffusion in light-emitting organic thin films studied by photocurrent spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,1737–1739 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76,1650–1652 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. K. So, W. K. Choi, L. M. Leung, and K. Neyts, “Interference effects in bilayer organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74,1939–1941 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Mattoussi, H. Murata, C. D. Merritt, Y. Iizumi, J. Kido, and Z. H. Kafafi, “Photoluminescence quantum yield of pure and molecularly doped organic solid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86,2642–2650 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Bassler, G. Schonherr, M. Abkowitz, and D. M. Pai, “Hopping transport in prototypical organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 26,3105–3113 (1982).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer White Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Device,” Science 267,1332–1334 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

SID (3)

A. Mikami, Y. Nishita, and Y. lida, “High efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices coupled with lateral color-conversion layer,” SID 35-3,1376–1379 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and White EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID 33,598–601 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Hosokawa, S. Toshio, K. Fukuoka, H. Tokailin, Y. Hironaka, H. Ikada, Masakazu Funahashi, and T. Kusumoto, “Organic EL Materials Based on Styryl and Amine Derivatives,” SID 32,522–525 (2001).
[Crossref]

SID 03 Digest (1)

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).

Thin Solid Films (1)

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426,246–249, (2003).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Molecular structures of chemicals used in this study without P1 and HI-406 (from Idemitsu Kosan) and energy diagram of the device.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Normalized EL spectra of the WOLEDs (structure I) with different P1 dope concentrations together with the greenish blue OLED (structure II). (b) Absorption and PL spectra of the P1 doped HI-406 thin-films with different P1 concentrations, which were utilized as a color conversion HIL in the WOLEDs. (c) Operation current dependence of CIE color coordinates of the WOLEDs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Long-term durability of PL intensity of the P1 doped HI-406 thin-films under an exposure of an intense filtered Xe lamp (>420 nm). Inset: P1 concentration dependence of PL quantum efficiency of P1 doped HI-406 thin-films.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Current density vs. voltage characteristics of the WOLEDs (structure I) and the reference greenish blue OLED (structure II). The inset shows the external quantum efficiency vs. current density characteristics of the devices.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram showing light out from the devices (a) with non-doped HIL and (b) with P1 doped HIL

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