Abstract

Magnetic metamaterials with magnetic-dipole resonances around 1.2-μm wavelength are fabricated using an extremely compact and robust version of two- or three-beam interference lithography for 1D and 2D structures, respectively. Our approach employs a single laser beam at 532- nm wavelength impinging onto a suitably shaped dielectric object (roof-top prism or pyramid) – bringing the complexity of fabricating magnetic metamaterials down to that of evaporating usual dielectric/metallic coatings.The measured optical spectra agree well with theory; the retrieval reveals a negative magnetic permeability. Importantly, the large-scale sample homogeneity is explicitly demonstrated by optical experiments.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. R. Smith, J.B. Pendry, and M.C.K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Zhang, W. Fan, B.K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K.J. Malloy, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C.M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, "Focused-ion-beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials," Adv. Mater. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Zhang, W. Fan, N.C. Panoiu, K.J. Malloy, R.M. Osgood, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A.N. Grigorenko, A.K. Geim, H.F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A.A. Firsov, I.Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, "Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies," Nature 438, 335-338 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V.M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U.K. Chettiar, H. Yuan, A.K. Sarychev, V.P. Drachev, and A.V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M.W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling," Opt. Lett. 31, 1259-1261 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H.C. Guo, D. Nau, A. Radke, X.P. Zhang, J. Stodolka, X.L. Yang, S.G. Tikhodeev, N.A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, "Large-area metallic photonic crystal fabrication with interference lithography and dry etching," Appl. Phys. B 81, 271-275 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Fan, S. Zhang, K.J. Malloy, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Large-area, infrared nanophotonic materials fabricated using interferometric lithography," Jour. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 23, 2700-2704 (2005).
  15. A.N. Lagarkov and A.K. Sarychev, "Electromagnetic properties of composites containing elongated conducting inclusions," Phys. Rev B 53, 6318-6336 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Wu, Y. Zhong, C.T. Chan, K.S. Wong, and G.P. Wang, "Fabrication of large area two- and three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals using single refracting prism holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Linden, M. Decker, and M. Wegener, "Model system for a one-dimensional magnetic photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  97, 083902 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S.G. Tikhodeev, A.L. Yablonskii, E.A. Muljarov, N.A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D.M. Whittaker and I.S. Culshaw, "Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures," Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610-2618 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D.R. Smith, D.C. Vier, T. Koschny, C.M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Koschny, P. Markos, E.N. Economou, D.R. Smith, D.C. Vier, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Dolling, M. Wegener, A. Schädle, S. Burger, and S. Linden, "Observation of magnetization waves in negative-index photonic metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,231118 (2006)
    [CrossRef]

2006

S. Linden, M. Decker, and M. Wegener, "Model system for a one-dimensional magnetic photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  97, 083902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, A. Schädle, S. Burger, and S. Linden, "Observation of magnetization waves in negative-index photonic metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,231118 (2006)
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling," Opt. Lett. 31, 1259-1261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

D.R. Smith, D.C. Vier, T. Koschny, C.M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E.N. Economou, D.R. Smith, D.C. Vier, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Wu, Y. Zhong, C.T. Chan, K.S. Wong, and G.P. Wang, "Fabrication of large area two- and three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals using single refracting prism holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V.M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U.K. Chettiar, H. Yuan, A.K. Sarychev, V.P. Drachev, and A.V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B.K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K.J. Malloy, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C.M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, "Focused-ion-beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials," Adv. Mater. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N.C. Panoiu, K.J. Malloy, R.M. Osgood, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A.N. Grigorenko, A.K. Geim, H.F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A.A. Firsov, I.Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, "Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies," Nature 438, 335-338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.C. Guo, D. Nau, A. Radke, X.P. Zhang, J. Stodolka, X.L. Yang, S.G. Tikhodeev, N.A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, "Large-area metallic photonic crystal fabrication with interference lithography and dry etching," Appl. Phys. B 81, 271-275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Fan, S. Zhang, K.J. Malloy, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Large-area, infrared nanophotonic materials fabricated using interferometric lithography," Jour. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 23, 2700-2704 (2005).

2004

D. R. Smith, J.B. Pendry, and M.C.K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

S.G. Tikhodeev, A.L. Yablonskii, E.A. Muljarov, N.A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

D.M. Whittaker and I.S. Culshaw, "Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures," Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610-2618 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

A.N. Lagarkov and A.K. Sarychev, "Electromagnetic properties of composites containing elongated conducting inclusions," Phys. Rev B 53, 6318-6336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S.R.J.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, K.J. Malloy, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Large-area, infrared nanophotonic materials fabricated using interferometric lithography," Jour. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 23, 2700-2704 (2005).

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B.K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K.J. Malloy, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N.C. Panoiu, K.J. Malloy, R.M. Osgood, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burger, S.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, A. Schädle, S. Burger, and S. Linden, "Observation of magnetization waves in negative-index photonic metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,231118 (2006)
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

Chan, C.T.

L. Wu, Y. Zhong, C.T. Chan, K.S. Wong, and G.P. Wang, "Fabrication of large area two- and three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals using single refracting prism holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U.K.

Culshaw, I.S.

D.M. Whittaker and I.S. Culshaw, "Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures," Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610-2618 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Decker, M.

S. Linden, M. Decker, and M. Wegener, "Model system for a one-dimensional magnetic photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  97, 083902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dolling, G.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, A. Schädle, S. Burger, and S. Linden, "Observation of magnetization waves in negative-index photonic metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,231118 (2006)
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V.P.

Economou, E.N.

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E.N. Economou, D.R. Smith, D.C. Vier, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling," Opt. Lett. 31, 1259-1261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C.M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, "Focused-ion-beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials," Adv. Mater. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N.C. Panoiu, K.J. Malloy, R.M. Osgood, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Fan, S. Zhang, K.J. Malloy, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Large-area, infrared nanophotonic materials fabricated using interferometric lithography," Jour. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 23, 2700-2704 (2005).

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B.K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K.J. Malloy, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Firsov, A.A.

A.N. Grigorenko, A.K. Geim, H.F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A.A. Firsov, I.Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, "Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies," Nature 438, 335-338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frauenglass, A.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B.K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K.J. Malloy, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geim, A.K.

A.N. Grigorenko, A.K. Geim, H.F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A.A. Firsov, I.Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, "Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies," Nature 438, 335-338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gerthsen, D.

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C.M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, "Focused-ion-beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials," Adv. Mater. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

H.C. Guo, D. Nau, A. Radke, X.P. Zhang, J. Stodolka, X.L. Yang, S.G. Tikhodeev, N.A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, "Large-area metallic photonic crystal fabrication with interference lithography and dry etching," Appl. Phys. B 81, 271-275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gippius, N.A.

H.C. Guo, D. Nau, A. Radke, X.P. Zhang, J. Stodolka, X.L. Yang, S.G. Tikhodeev, N.A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, "Large-area metallic photonic crystal fabrication with interference lithography and dry etching," Appl. Phys. B 81, 271-275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.G. Tikhodeev, A.L. Yablonskii, E.A. Muljarov, N.A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gleeson, H.F.

A.N. Grigorenko, A.K. Geim, H.F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A.A. Firsov, I.Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, "Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies," Nature 438, 335-338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grigorenko, A.N.

A.N. Grigorenko, A.K. Geim, H.F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A.A. Firsov, I.Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, "Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies," Nature 438, 335-338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.C.

H.C. Guo, D. Nau, A. Radke, X.P. Zhang, J. Stodolka, X.L. Yang, S.G. Tikhodeev, N.A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, "Large-area metallic photonic crystal fabrication with interference lithography and dry etching," Appl. Phys. B 81, 271-275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, T.

S.G. Tikhodeev, A.L. Yablonskii, E.A. Muljarov, N.A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Khrushchev, I.Y.

A.N. Grigorenko, A.K. Geim, H.F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A.A. Firsov, I.Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, "Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies," Nature 438, 335-338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A.V.

Klein, M.W.

Koschny, T.

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C.M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, "Focused-ion-beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials," Adv. Mater. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.R. Smith, D.C. Vier, T. Koschny, C.M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E.N. Economou, D.R. Smith, D.C. Vier, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lagarkov, A.N.

A.N. Lagarkov and A.K. Sarychev, "Electromagnetic properties of composites containing elongated conducting inclusions," Phys. Rev B 53, 6318-6336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, A. Schädle, S. Burger, and S. Linden, "Observation of magnetization waves in negative-index photonic metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,231118 (2006)
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, M. Decker, and M. Wegener, "Model system for a one-dimensional magnetic photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  97, 083902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling," Opt. Lett. 31, 1259-1261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C.M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, "Focused-ion-beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials," Adv. Mater. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K.J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N.C. Panoiu, K.J. Malloy, R.M. Osgood, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B.K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K.J. Malloy, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Fan, S. Zhang, K.J. Malloy, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Large-area, infrared nanophotonic materials fabricated using interferometric lithography," Jour. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 23, 2700-2704 (2005).

Markos, P.

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E.N. Economou, D.R. Smith, D.C. Vier, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Minhas, B.K.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B.K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K.J. Malloy, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muljarov, E.A.

S.G. Tikhodeev, A.L. Yablonskii, E.A. Muljarov, N.A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nau, D.

H.C. Guo, D. Nau, A. Radke, X.P. Zhang, J. Stodolka, X.L. Yang, S.G. Tikhodeev, N.A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, "Large-area metallic photonic crystal fabrication with interference lithography and dry etching," Appl. Phys. B 81, 271-275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R.M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N.C. Panoiu, K.J. Malloy, R.M. Osgood, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N.C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N.C. Panoiu, K.J. Malloy, R.M. Osgood, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J.B.

D. R. Smith, J.B. Pendry, and M.C.K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Willard, F.

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C.M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, "Focused-ion-beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials," Adv. Mater. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petrovic, J.

A.N. Grigorenko, A.K. Geim, H.F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A.A. Firsov, I.Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, "Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies," Nature 438, 335-338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Radke, A.

H.C. Guo, D. Nau, A. Radke, X.P. Zhang, J. Stodolka, X.L. Yang, S.G. Tikhodeev, N.A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, "Large-area metallic photonic crystal fabrication with interference lithography and dry etching," Appl. Phys. B 81, 271-275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A.K.

V.M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U.K. Chettiar, H. Yuan, A.K. Sarychev, V.P. Drachev, and A.V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A.N. Lagarkov and A.K. Sarychev, "Electromagnetic properties of composites containing elongated conducting inclusions," Phys. Rev B 53, 6318-6336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schädle, A.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, A. Schädle, S. Burger, and S. Linden, "Observation of magnetization waves in negative-index photonic metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,231118 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V.M.

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, J.B. Pendry, and M.C.K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D.R.

D.R. Smith, D.C. Vier, T. Koschny, C.M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E.N. Economou, D.R. Smith, D.C. Vier, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C.M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling," Opt. Lett. 31, 1259-1261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C.M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, "Focused-ion-beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials," Adv. Mater. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.R. Smith, D.C. Vier, T. Koschny, C.M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E.N. Economou, D.R. Smith, D.C. Vier, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stodolka, J.

H.C. Guo, D. Nau, A. Radke, X.P. Zhang, J. Stodolka, X.L. Yang, S.G. Tikhodeev, N.A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, "Large-area metallic photonic crystal fabrication with interference lithography and dry etching," Appl. Phys. B 81, 271-275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tikhodeev, S.G.

H.C. Guo, D. Nau, A. Radke, X.P. Zhang, J. Stodolka, X.L. Yang, S.G. Tikhodeev, N.A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, "Large-area metallic photonic crystal fabrication with interference lithography and dry etching," Appl. Phys. B 81, 271-275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.G. Tikhodeev, A.L. Yablonskii, E.A. Muljarov, N.A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D.C.

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E.N. Economou, D.R. Smith, D.C. Vier, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.R. Smith, D.C. Vier, T. Koschny, C.M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.P.

L. Wu, Y. Zhong, C.T. Chan, K.S. Wong, and G.P. Wang, "Fabrication of large area two- and three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals using single refracting prism holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling," Opt. Lett. 31, 1259-1261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, M. Decker, and M. Wegener, "Model system for a one-dimensional magnetic photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  97, 083902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, A. Schädle, S. Burger, and S. Linden, "Observation of magnetization waves in negative-index photonic metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,231118 (2006)
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C.M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, "Focused-ion-beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials," Adv. Mater. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, D.M.

D.M. Whittaker and I.S. Culshaw, "Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures," Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610-2618 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wiltshire, M.C.K.

D. R. Smith, J.B. Pendry, and M.C.K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K.S.

L. Wu, Y. Zhong, C.T. Chan, K.S. Wong, and G.P. Wang, "Fabrication of large area two- and three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals using single refracting prism holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.

L. Wu, Y. Zhong, C.T. Chan, K.S. Wong, and G.P. Wang, "Fabrication of large area two- and three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals using single refracting prism holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yablonskii, A.L.

S.G. Tikhodeev, A.L. Yablonskii, E.A. Muljarov, N.A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.L.

H.C. Guo, D. Nau, A. Radke, X.P. Zhang, J. Stodolka, X.L. Yang, S.G. Tikhodeev, N.A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, "Large-area metallic photonic crystal fabrication with interference lithography and dry etching," Appl. Phys. B 81, 271-275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, H.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B.K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K.J. Malloy, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Fan, S. Zhang, K.J. Malloy, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Large-area, infrared nanophotonic materials fabricated using interferometric lithography," Jour. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 23, 2700-2704 (2005).

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N.C. Panoiu, K.J. Malloy, R.M. Osgood, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.P.

H.C. Guo, D. Nau, A. Radke, X.P. Zhang, J. Stodolka, X.L. Yang, S.G. Tikhodeev, N.A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, "Large-area metallic photonic crystal fabrication with interference lithography and dry etching," Appl. Phys. B 81, 271-275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

A.N. Grigorenko, A.K. Geim, H.F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A.A. Firsov, I.Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, "Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies," Nature 438, 335-338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Y.

L. Wu, Y. Zhong, C.T. Chan, K.S. Wong, and G.P. Wang, "Fabrication of large area two- and three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals using single refracting prism holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C.M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, "Focused-ion-beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials," Adv. Mater. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zschiedrich, L.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C.M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, "Focused-ion-beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials," Adv. Mater. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

H.C. Guo, D. Nau, A. Radke, X.P. Zhang, J. Stodolka, X.L. Yang, S.G. Tikhodeev, N.A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, "Large-area metallic photonic crystal fabrication with interference lithography and dry etching," Appl. Phys. B 81, 271-275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Wu, Y. Zhong, C.T. Chan, K.S. Wong, and G.P. Wang, "Fabrication of large area two- and three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals using single refracting prism holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, A. Schädle, S. Burger, and S. Linden, "Observation of magnetization waves in negative-index photonic metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,231118 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Jour. Vac. Sci. Tech. B

W. Fan, S. Zhang, K.J. Malloy, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Large-area, infrared nanophotonic materials fabricated using interferometric lithography," Jour. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 23, 2700-2704 (2005).

Nature

A.N. Grigorenko, A.K. Geim, H.F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A.A. Firsov, I.Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, "Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies," Nature 438, 335-338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev B

A.N. Lagarkov and A.K. Sarychev, "Electromagnetic properties of composites containing elongated conducting inclusions," Phys. Rev B 53, 6318-6336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

S.G. Tikhodeev, A.L. Yablonskii, E.A. Muljarov, N.A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, "Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D.M. Whittaker and I.S. Culshaw, "Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures," Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610-2618 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E.N. Economou, D.R. Smith, D.C. Vier, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

D.R. Smith, D.C. Vier, T. Koschny, C.M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Linden, M. Decker, and M. Wegener, "Model system for a one-dimensional magnetic photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  97, 083902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B.K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K.J. Malloy, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N.C. Panoiu, K.J. Malloy, R.M. Osgood, and S.R.J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. R. Smith, J.B. Pendry, and M.C.K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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