Abstract

Azodye-doped TiO2/ormosil hybrid materials for photonic applications were prepared by a low temperature sol-gel process from an organic-inorganic hybrid system. Acid-catalyzed solutions of γ- glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and methyltrimethoxysilane mixed with tetrapropyl orthotitanate were used as hybrid matrix precursors. The trans-cis-trans photoisomerization of azobenzene small molecules in sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic matrices was induced by a photoirradiation with UV light and subsequent visible light. It was found that the hybrid film doped with azodyes and heated at a lower temperature was much better for applications in optical storage or optical switch. The planar waveguide properties of the hybrid films were also investigated by using a prism coupling technique. These results indicates that it is possible for the as prepared hybrid films to allow directly integrating on the same chip the optical storage or optical switch devices with the pump source.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Y. Guo, J. H. Si, G. D. Qian, J. R. Qiu, M. Q. Wang, and K. Hirao, "Second-order nonlinearity in bulk azodye-doped hybrid inorganic-organic materials by nonresonant all-optical poling," Chem. Phys. Lett. 381, 677-682 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Z. Wu, F. Zeng, S. L. Yao, Z. Tong, W. L. She, and D. B. Luo "All-optical switching effect in novel chiral biazobenzene polymer films," Macromolecules 36, 9292-9294 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. X. Huang, Y. Q. Wu. D. H. Guo, and F. X. Gan, "Optical parameters and absorption of copper (II)-azo complexes thin films as optical recording media," Thin Solid Films 483, 251-256 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. A. Blevins and G. J. Blanchard, "Effect of positional substitution on the optical response of symmetrically disubstituted azobenzene derivatives," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 4962-1322 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. W. Magennis, F. S. Mackay, A. C. Jones, K. M. Tait and P. J. Sadler, "Two-photon-induced photoisomerization of an azo dye," Chem. Mater. 17, 2059-2062 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Sharma, M. Dokhanian, A. Kassu, and A. N. Parekh, "Photoinduced grating formation in azo-dye-labeled phospholipids thin film by 244-nm light," Opt. Lett. 30, 501-503 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Nakano, T. Takahashi, T. Kadota, and Y. Shirota, "Formation of a surface relief grating using a novel azobenzene-based photochromic amorphous molecular materials," Adv. Mater. 14, 1157-1160 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. F. Zu, J. Y. Guo, J. H. Si, G. D. Qian, M. Q. Wang, and K. Hirao, "Effects of writing conditions on the photoinduced birefringence in azodye-doped polymers by a femtosecond laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 421, 101-105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Innocenzi, G. Battaglin, M. Guglielmi, R. Signorini, R. Bozio, and M. Maggini, "3-(Glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane-TiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic materials for optical limiting," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 68-74 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, R. R. Goncalves, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and M. A. Aegerter, "Low optical loss planar waveguides prepared in organic-inorganic hybrid system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3502-3504 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Levy, S. Einhorn, and D. Avnir, "Applications of the sol-gel process for the preparation of photochromic information-recording materials: synthesis, properties, mechanisms," J. Non-cryst. Solids 113, 137 (1989)
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol-Gel Sci. & Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. A. Gurney, I. Vargas-Baca, A. P. Brown, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najafi, "Azo-dye hybrid sol-sel glass composites for optoelectronics," in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials for Photonics, L. G. Hubert-Pfalzgraf, S. Iraj Najafi, eds., Proc. SPIE 3469, 145-152 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).
  15. W. X. Que and X. Hu, "Influence of titanium content and temperature on optical and mechanical properties of sol-gel derived TiO2/γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and methyltrimethoxy- silane hybrid organic-inorganic films," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 908-914 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, "Modes of propagation light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291-294 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. Cimrová, D. Neher, R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, A. V. D. Lieth, G. Marowsky, R. Hagen, S. Kostromine, and T. Bieringer, "Comparison of the birefringence in an azobenzene-side-chain copolymer induced by pulsed and continuous-wave irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1228-1230 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, "Surface relief grating in host-gust supramolecular materials," Adv. Mater. 12, 1675-1678 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. F. Zu, J. Y. Guo, J. H. Si, G. D. Qian, M. Q. Wang, and K. Hirao, "Effects of writing conditions on the photoinduced birefringence in azodye-doped polymers by a femtosecond laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 421, 101-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

F. X. Huang, Y. Q. Wu. D. H. Guo, and F. X. Gan, "Optical parameters and absorption of copper (II)-azo complexes thin films as optical recording media," Thin Solid Films 483, 251-256 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Magennis, F. S. Mackay, A. C. Jones, K. M. Tait and P. J. Sadler, "Two-photon-induced photoisomerization of an azo dye," Chem. Mater. 17, 2059-2062 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Sharma, M. Dokhanian, A. Kassu, and A. N. Parekh, "Photoinduced grating formation in azo-dye-labeled phospholipids thin film by 244-nm light," Opt. Lett. 30, 501-503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. A. Blevins and G. J. Blanchard, "Effect of positional substitution on the optical response of symmetrically disubstituted azobenzene derivatives," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 4962-1322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

J. Y. Guo, J. H. Si, G. D. Qian, J. R. Qiu, M. Q. Wang, and K. Hirao, "Second-order nonlinearity in bulk azodye-doped hybrid inorganic-organic materials by nonresonant all-optical poling," Chem. Phys. Lett. 381, 677-682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Z. Wu, F. Zeng, S. L. Yao, Z. Tong, W. L. She, and D. B. Luo "All-optical switching effect in novel chiral biazobenzene polymer films," Macromolecules 36, 9292-9294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Que and X. Hu, "Influence of titanium content and temperature on optical and mechanical properties of sol-gel derived TiO2/γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and methyltrimethoxy- silane hybrid organic-inorganic films," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 908-914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

V. Cimrová, D. Neher, R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, A. V. D. Lieth, G. Marowsky, R. Hagen, S. Kostromine, and T. Bieringer, "Comparison of the birefringence in an azobenzene-side-chain copolymer induced by pulsed and continuous-wave irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1228-1230 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakano, T. Takahashi, T. Kadota, and Y. Shirota, "Formation of a surface relief grating using a novel azobenzene-based photochromic amorphous molecular materials," Adv. Mater. 14, 1157-1160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, "Surface relief grating in host-gust supramolecular materials," Adv. Mater. 12, 1675-1678 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocenzi, G. Battaglin, M. Guglielmi, R. Signorini, R. Bozio, and M. Maggini, "3-(Glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane-TiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic materials for optical limiting," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 68-74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, R. R. Goncalves, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and M. A. Aegerter, "Low optical loss planar waveguides prepared in organic-inorganic hybrid system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3502-3504 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

1994 (1)

F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol-Gel Sci. & Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. Levy, S. Einhorn, and D. Avnir, "Applications of the sol-gel process for the preparation of photochromic information-recording materials: synthesis, properties, mechanisms," J. Non-cryst. Solids 113, 137 (1989)
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, "Modes of propagation light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291-294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Aegerter, M. A.

S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, R. R. Goncalves, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and M. A. Aegerter, "Low optical loss planar waveguides prepared in organic-inorganic hybrid system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3502-3504 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Avnir, D.

D. Levy, S. Einhorn, and D. Avnir, "Applications of the sol-gel process for the preparation of photochromic information-recording materials: synthesis, properties, mechanisms," J. Non-cryst. Solids 113, 137 (1989)
[CrossRef]

Battaglin, G.

P. Innocenzi, G. Battaglin, M. Guglielmi, R. Signorini, R. Bozio, and M. Maggini, "3-(Glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane-TiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic materials for optical limiting," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 68-74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bieringer, T.

V. Cimrová, D. Neher, R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, A. V. D. Lieth, G. Marowsky, R. Hagen, S. Kostromine, and T. Bieringer, "Comparison of the birefringence in an azobenzene-side-chain copolymer induced by pulsed and continuous-wave irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1228-1230 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, G. J.

A. A. Blevins and G. J. Blanchard, "Effect of positional substitution on the optical response of symmetrically disubstituted azobenzene derivatives," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 4962-1322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blevins, A. A.

A. A. Blevins and G. J. Blanchard, "Effect of positional substitution on the optical response of symmetrically disubstituted azobenzene derivatives," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 4962-1322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boilot, J. P.

F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol-Gel Sci. & Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bozio, R.

P. Innocenzi, G. Battaglin, M. Guglielmi, R. Signorini, R. Bozio, and M. Maggini, "3-(Glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane-TiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic materials for optical limiting," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 68-74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brasselet, S.

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

Chaput, F.

F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol-Gel Sci. & Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cimrová, V.

V. Cimrová, D. Neher, R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, A. V. D. Lieth, G. Marowsky, R. Hagen, S. Kostromine, and T. Bieringer, "Comparison of the birefringence in an azobenzene-side-chain copolymer induced by pulsed and continuous-wave irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1228-1230 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dokhanian, M.

Dumont, M.

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

Einhorn, S.

D. Levy, S. Einhorn, and D. Avnir, "Applications of the sol-gel process for the preparation of photochromic information-recording materials: synthesis, properties, mechanisms," J. Non-cryst. Solids 113, 137 (1989)
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, R. R. Goncalves, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and M. A. Aegerter, "Low optical loss planar waveguides prepared in organic-inorganic hybrid system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3502-3504 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Froc, G.

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

Goncalves, R. R.

S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, R. R. Goncalves, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and M. A. Aegerter, "Low optical loss planar waveguides prepared in organic-inorganic hybrid system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3502-3504 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Guglielmi, M.

P. Innocenzi, G. Battaglin, M. Guglielmi, R. Signorini, R. Bozio, and M. Maggini, "3-(Glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane-TiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic materials for optical limiting," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 68-74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J. Y.

J. F. Zu, J. Y. Guo, J. H. Si, G. D. Qian, M. Q. Wang, and K. Hirao, "Effects of writing conditions on the photoinduced birefringence in azodye-doped polymers by a femtosecond laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 421, 101-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Guo, J. H. Si, G. D. Qian, J. R. Qiu, M. Q. Wang, and K. Hirao, "Second-order nonlinearity in bulk azodye-doped hybrid inorganic-organic materials by nonresonant all-optical poling," Chem. Phys. Lett. 381, 677-682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, R.

V. Cimrová, D. Neher, R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, A. V. D. Lieth, G. Marowsky, R. Hagen, S. Kostromine, and T. Bieringer, "Comparison of the birefringence in an azobenzene-side-chain copolymer induced by pulsed and continuous-wave irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1228-1230 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hegelich, M.

V. Cimrová, D. Neher, R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, A. V. D. Lieth, G. Marowsky, R. Hagen, S. Kostromine, and T. Bieringer, "Comparison of the birefringence in an azobenzene-side-chain copolymer induced by pulsed and continuous-wave irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1228-1230 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hildebrandt, R.

V. Cimrová, D. Neher, R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, A. V. D. Lieth, G. Marowsky, R. Hagen, S. Kostromine, and T. Bieringer, "Comparison of the birefringence in an azobenzene-side-chain copolymer induced by pulsed and continuous-wave irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1228-1230 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

J. F. Zu, J. Y. Guo, J. H. Si, G. D. Qian, M. Q. Wang, and K. Hirao, "Effects of writing conditions on the photoinduced birefringence in azodye-doped polymers by a femtosecond laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 421, 101-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Guo, J. H. Si, G. D. Qian, J. R. Qiu, M. Q. Wang, and K. Hirao, "Second-order nonlinearity in bulk azodye-doped hybrid inorganic-organic materials by nonresonant all-optical poling," Chem. Phys. Lett. 381, 677-682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

W. X. Que and X. Hu, "Influence of titanium content and temperature on optical and mechanical properties of sol-gel derived TiO2/γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and methyltrimethoxy- silane hybrid organic-inorganic films," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 908-914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F. X.

F. X. Huang, Y. Q. Wu. D. H. Guo, and F. X. Gan, "Optical parameters and absorption of copper (II)-azo complexes thin films as optical recording media," Thin Solid Films 483, 251-256 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ichimura, K.

T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, "Surface relief grating in host-gust supramolecular materials," Adv. Mater. 12, 1675-1678 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Innocenzi, P.

P. Innocenzi, G. Battaglin, M. Guglielmi, R. Signorini, R. Bozio, and M. Maggini, "3-(Glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane-TiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic materials for optical limiting," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 68-74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jones, A. C.

S. W. Magennis, F. S. Mackay, A. C. Jones, K. M. Tait and P. J. Sadler, "Two-photon-induced photoisomerization of an azo dye," Chem. Mater. 17, 2059-2062 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kadota, T.

H. Nakano, T. Takahashi, T. Kadota, and Y. Shirota, "Formation of a surface relief grating using a novel azobenzene-based photochromic amorphous molecular materials," Adv. Mater. 14, 1157-1160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kassu, A.

Kostromine, S.

V. Cimrová, D. Neher, R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, A. V. D. Lieth, G. Marowsky, R. Hagen, S. Kostromine, and T. Bieringer, "Comparison of the birefringence in an azobenzene-side-chain copolymer induced by pulsed and continuous-wave irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1228-1230 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lebeau, B.

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

Levy, D.

D. Levy, S. Einhorn, and D. Avnir, "Applications of the sol-gel process for the preparation of photochromic information-recording materials: synthesis, properties, mechanisms," J. Non-cryst. Solids 113, 137 (1989)
[CrossRef]

Lévy, Y.

F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol-Gel Sci. & Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lieth, A. V. D.

V. Cimrová, D. Neher, R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, A. V. D. Lieth, G. Marowsky, R. Hagen, S. Kostromine, and T. Bieringer, "Comparison of the birefringence in an azobenzene-side-chain copolymer induced by pulsed and continuous-wave irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1228-1230 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, D. B.

S. Z. Wu, F. Zeng, S. L. Yao, Z. Tong, W. L. She, and D. B. Luo "All-optical switching effect in novel chiral biazobenzene polymer films," Macromolecules 36, 9292-9294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, F. S.

S. W. Magennis, F. S. Mackay, A. C. Jones, K. M. Tait and P. J. Sadler, "Two-photon-induced photoisomerization of an azo dye," Chem. Mater. 17, 2059-2062 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Magennis, S. W.

S. W. Magennis, F. S. Mackay, A. C. Jones, K. M. Tait and P. J. Sadler, "Two-photon-induced photoisomerization of an azo dye," Chem. Mater. 17, 2059-2062 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maggini, M.

P. Innocenzi, G. Battaglin, M. Guglielmi, R. Signorini, R. Bozio, and M. Maggini, "3-(Glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane-TiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic materials for optical limiting," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 68-74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marowsky, G.

V. Cimrová, D. Neher, R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, A. V. D. Lieth, G. Marowsky, R. Hagen, S. Kostromine, and T. Bieringer, "Comparison of the birefringence in an azobenzene-side-chain copolymer induced by pulsed and continuous-wave irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1228-1230 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. J.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, "Modes of propagation light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291-294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, R. R. Goncalves, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and M. A. Aegerter, "Low optical loss planar waveguides prepared in organic-inorganic hybrid system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3502-3504 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Montagna, M.

S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, R. R. Goncalves, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and M. A. Aegerter, "Low optical loss planar waveguides prepared in organic-inorganic hybrid system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3502-3504 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Nakano, H.

H. Nakano, T. Takahashi, T. Kadota, and Y. Shirota, "Formation of a surface relief grating using a novel azobenzene-based photochromic amorphous molecular materials," Adv. Mater. 14, 1157-1160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neher, D.

V. Cimrová, D. Neher, R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, A. V. D. Lieth, G. Marowsky, R. Hagen, S. Kostromine, and T. Bieringer, "Comparison of the birefringence in an azobenzene-side-chain copolymer induced by pulsed and continuous-wave irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1228-1230 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Parekh, A. N.

Qian, G. D.

J. F. Zu, J. Y. Guo, J. H. Si, G. D. Qian, M. Q. Wang, and K. Hirao, "Effects of writing conditions on the photoinduced birefringence in azodye-doped polymers by a femtosecond laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 421, 101-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Guo, J. H. Si, G. D. Qian, J. R. Qiu, M. Q. Wang, and K. Hirao, "Second-order nonlinearity in bulk azodye-doped hybrid inorganic-organic materials by nonresonant all-optical poling," Chem. Phys. Lett. 381, 677-682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J. R.

J. Y. Guo, J. H. Si, G. D. Qian, J. R. Qiu, M. Q. Wang, and K. Hirao, "Second-order nonlinearity in bulk azodye-doped hybrid inorganic-organic materials by nonresonant all-optical poling," Chem. Phys. Lett. 381, 677-682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Que, W. X.

W. X. Que and X. Hu, "Influence of titanium content and temperature on optical and mechanical properties of sol-gel derived TiO2/γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and methyltrimethoxy- silane hybrid organic-inorganic films," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 908-914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, R. R. Goncalves, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and M. A. Aegerter, "Low optical loss planar waveguides prepared in organic-inorganic hybrid system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3502-3504 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Riehl, D.

F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol-Gel Sci. & Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sadler, P. J.

S. W. Magennis, F. S. Mackay, A. C. Jones, K. M. Tait and P. J. Sadler, "Two-photon-induced photoisomerization of an azo dye," Chem. Mater. 17, 2059-2062 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, C.

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

Seki, T.

T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, "Surface relief grating in host-gust supramolecular materials," Adv. Mater. 12, 1675-1678 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, A.

She, W. L.

S. Z. Wu, F. Zeng, S. L. Yao, Z. Tong, W. L. She, and D. B. Luo "All-optical switching effect in novel chiral biazobenzene polymer films," Macromolecules 36, 9292-9294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shirota, Y.

H. Nakano, T. Takahashi, T. Kadota, and Y. Shirota, "Formation of a surface relief grating using a novel azobenzene-based photochromic amorphous molecular materials," Adv. Mater. 14, 1157-1160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Si, J. H.

J. F. Zu, J. Y. Guo, J. H. Si, G. D. Qian, M. Q. Wang, and K. Hirao, "Effects of writing conditions on the photoinduced birefringence in azodye-doped polymers by a femtosecond laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 421, 101-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Guo, J. H. Si, G. D. Qian, J. R. Qiu, M. Q. Wang, and K. Hirao, "Second-order nonlinearity in bulk azodye-doped hybrid inorganic-organic materials by nonresonant all-optical poling," Chem. Phys. Lett. 381, 677-682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Signorini, R.

P. Innocenzi, G. Battaglin, M. Guglielmi, R. Signorini, R. Bozio, and M. Maggini, "3-(Glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane-TiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic materials for optical limiting," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 68-74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tait, K. M.

S. W. Magennis, F. S. Mackay, A. C. Jones, K. M. Tait and P. J. Sadler, "Two-photon-induced photoisomerization of an azo dye," Chem. Mater. 17, 2059-2062 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, T.

H. Nakano, T. Takahashi, T. Kadota, and Y. Shirota, "Formation of a surface relief grating using a novel azobenzene-based photochromic amorphous molecular materials," Adv. Mater. 14, 1157-1160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, "Modes of propagation light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291-294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Tong, Z.

S. Z. Wu, F. Zeng, S. L. Yao, Z. Tong, W. L. She, and D. B. Luo "All-optical switching effect in novel chiral biazobenzene polymer films," Macromolecules 36, 9292-9294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ubukata, T.

T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, "Surface relief grating in host-gust supramolecular materials," Adv. Mater. 12, 1675-1678 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, "Modes of propagation light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291-294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M. Q.

J. F. Zu, J. Y. Guo, J. H. Si, G. D. Qian, M. Q. Wang, and K. Hirao, "Effects of writing conditions on the photoinduced birefringence in azodye-doped polymers by a femtosecond laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 421, 101-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Guo, J. H. Si, G. D. Qian, J. R. Qiu, M. Q. Wang, and K. Hirao, "Second-order nonlinearity in bulk azodye-doped hybrid inorganic-organic materials by nonresonant all-optical poling," Chem. Phys. Lett. 381, 677-682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. Z.

S. Z. Wu, F. Zeng, S. L. Yao, Z. Tong, W. L. She, and D. B. Luo "All-optical switching effect in novel chiral biazobenzene polymer films," Macromolecules 36, 9292-9294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. Q.

F. X. Huang, Y. Q. Wu. D. H. Guo, and F. X. Gan, "Optical parameters and absorption of copper (II)-azo complexes thin films as optical recording media," Thin Solid Films 483, 251-256 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yao, S. L.

S. Z. Wu, F. Zeng, S. L. Yao, Z. Tong, W. L. She, and D. B. Luo "All-optical switching effect in novel chiral biazobenzene polymer films," Macromolecules 36, 9292-9294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, F.

S. Z. Wu, F. Zeng, S. L. Yao, Z. Tong, W. L. She, and D. B. Luo "All-optical switching effect in novel chiral biazobenzene polymer films," Macromolecules 36, 9292-9294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zu, J. F.

J. F. Zu, J. Y. Guo, J. H. Si, G. D. Qian, M. Q. Wang, and K. Hirao, "Effects of writing conditions on the photoinduced birefringence in azodye-doped polymers by a femtosecond laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 421, 101-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

Adv. Mater. (2)

H. Nakano, T. Takahashi, T. Kadota, and Y. Shirota, "Formation of a surface relief grating using a novel azobenzene-based photochromic amorphous molecular materials," Adv. Mater. 14, 1157-1160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, "Surface relief grating in host-gust supramolecular materials," Adv. Mater. 12, 1675-1678 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, "Modes of propagation light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291-294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

V. Cimrová, D. Neher, R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, A. V. D. Lieth, G. Marowsky, R. Hagen, S. Kostromine, and T. Bieringer, "Comparison of the birefringence in an azobenzene-side-chain copolymer induced by pulsed and continuous-wave irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1228-1230 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, R. R. Goncalves, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and M. A. Aegerter, "Low optical loss planar waveguides prepared in organic-inorganic hybrid system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3502-3504 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

S. W. Magennis, F. S. Mackay, A. C. Jones, K. M. Tait and P. J. Sadler, "Two-photon-induced photoisomerization of an azo dye," Chem. Mater. 17, 2059-2062 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Y. Guo, J. H. Si, G. D. Qian, J. R. Qiu, M. Q. Wang, and K. Hirao, "Second-order nonlinearity in bulk azodye-doped hybrid inorganic-organic materials by nonresonant all-optical poling," Chem. Phys. Lett. 381, 677-682 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zu, J. Y. Guo, J. H. Si, G. D. Qian, M. Q. Wang, and K. Hirao, "Effects of writing conditions on the photoinduced birefringence in azodye-doped polymers by a femtosecond laser," Chem. Phys. Lett. 421, 101-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

P. Innocenzi, G. Battaglin, M. Guglielmi, R. Signorini, R. Bozio, and M. Maggini, "3-(Glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane-TiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic materials for optical limiting," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 68-74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Levy, S. Einhorn, and D. Avnir, "Applications of the sol-gel process for the preparation of photochromic information-recording materials: synthesis, properties, mechanisms," J. Non-cryst. Solids 113, 137 (1989)
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

A. A. Blevins and G. J. Blanchard, "Effect of positional substitution on the optical response of symmetrically disubstituted azobenzene derivatives," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 4962-1322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

W. X. Que and X. Hu, "Influence of titanium content and temperature on optical and mechanical properties of sol-gel derived TiO2/γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and methyltrimethoxy- silane hybrid organic-inorganic films," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 908-914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Sol-Gel Sci. & Technol. (1)

F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol-Gel Sci. & Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

S. Z. Wu, F. Zeng, S. L. Yao, Z. Tong, W. L. She, and D. B. Luo "All-optical switching effect in novel chiral biazobenzene polymer films," Macromolecules 36, 9292-9294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

New J. Chem. (1)

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Thin Solid Films (1)

F. X. Huang, Y. Q. Wu. D. H. Guo, and F. X. Gan, "Optical parameters and absorption of copper (II)-azo complexes thin films as optical recording media," Thin Solid Films 483, 251-256 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. A. Gurney, I. Vargas-Baca, A. P. Brown, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najafi, "Azo-dye hybrid sol-sel glass composites for optoelectronics," in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials for Photonics, L. G. Hubert-Pfalzgraf, S. Iraj Najafi, eds., Proc. SPIE 3469, 145-152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Modes of the hybrid planar waveguide film at the wavelength of 1539 nm

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

UV absorbance changes of the hybrid film heated at the temperature of 60°C and upon irradiation (a) at UV light (370 nm) with 5s time interval from 0s to 45s and 15s time interval from 45s to 105s; (b) at Vis light (410 nm) with 5s time interval from 0s to 45s and 15s time interval from 45s to 90s

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical switching characteristics of the hybrid film heated at 60°C, photoinduced by the UV light of 370 nm and visible light of 410 nm alternately (light intensity, UV: 2 mW/cm2, Vis: 3 mW/cm2)

Equations (1)

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trans k 1 hv Δ k 1 ( hv ) cis

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