Abstract

We demonstrate on-chip Raman amplification of an optical data signal at 40 Gb/s in a silicon-on-insulator p-i-n rib waveguide. Using 230 mW of coupled pump power, on/off gain of up to 2.3 dB is observed, while signal integrity is maintained. In addition, the gain is measured as a function of signal wavelength detuning from the Stokes wavelength. The Lorentzian linewidth of the Raman gain profile is determined to be approximately 80 GHz. This provides applicability for the selective amplification of individual DWDM optical channels.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (7)

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, A. Liu, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, T. Franck, D. Hodge, and M. Paniccia, "High speed metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor-based silicon optical modulators," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6603-6608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, "High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 14,1182-1188 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1182.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, and M. Paniccia, "Optical Amplification and Lasing by Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 24,1440-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9431-9435 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-20-9431.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, "Demonstration of Wavelength Conversion at 40 Gb/s Data Rate in Silicon Waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 11721-11726 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-24-11721.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (7)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometer-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, D. Hak, and O. Cohen, "Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 13,519-525 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-2-519.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,4341-4349 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-11-4341.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,4629-4637 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4629.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, "Micrometer-scale all-optical wavelength converter on silicon," Opt. Lett. 30, 2733-2735 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-20-2733.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (8)

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, "Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196-2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Efficient Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343-3345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Nonlinear Absorption and Raman Scattering in Silicon-on-Insulator Optical Waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1149-1153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, "Wavelength conversion in silicon using Raman induced four-wave mixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 34-36 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bromage, "Raman Amplification for Fiber Communications Systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 22,79-93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, "Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 12,4261-4267 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-18-4261.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12, 5269-5273 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5269.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, Ph. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, Ph. Renaud, and Ph. Robert, "CMOS Compatible Fully Integrated Mach-Zehnder Inteferometer in SOI Technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, "Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides," Electron. Lett. 31, 451-452 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J. M. Ralston and R. K. Chang, "Spontaneous-Raman-Scattering Efficiency and Stimulated Scattering in Silicon," Phys. Rev. B 2, 1858-1862 (1970).

Almeida, V. R.

Boyraz, O.

Bromage, J.

Chabloz, M.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, Ph. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, Ph. Renaud, and Ph. Robert, "CMOS Compatible Fully Integrated Mach-Zehnder Inteferometer in SOI Technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

J. M. Ralston and R. K. Chang, "Spontaneous-Raman-Scattering Efficiency and Stimulated Scattering in Silicon," Phys. Rev. B 2, 1858-1862 (1970).

Claps, R.

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, and M. Paniccia, "Optical Amplification and Lasing by Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 24,1440-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, "High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 14,1182-1188 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1182.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, "Demonstration of Wavelength Conversion at 40 Gb/s Data Rate in Silicon Waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 11721-11726 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-24-11721.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, D. Hak, and O. Cohen, "Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 13,519-525 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-2-519.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, "Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 12,4261-4267 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-18-4261.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, "Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196-2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dadap, J. I.

Dainesi, P.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, Ph. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, Ph. Renaud, and Ph. Robert, "CMOS Compatible Fully Integrated Mach-Zehnder Inteferometer in SOI Technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Declerq, M.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, Ph. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, Ph. Renaud, and Ph. Robert, "CMOS Compatible Fully Integrated Mach-Zehnder Inteferometer in SOI Technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dimitropoulos, D.

Espinola, R. L.

Fang, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, D. Hak, and O. Cohen, "Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 13,519-525 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-2-519.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fazan, P.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, Ph. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, Ph. Renaud, and Ph. Robert, "CMOS Compatible Fully Integrated Mach-Zehnder Inteferometer in SOI Technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fluckiger, Ph.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, Ph. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, Ph. Renaud, and Ph. Robert, "CMOS Compatible Fully Integrated Mach-Zehnder Inteferometer in SOI Technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franck, T.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, A. Liu, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, T. Franck, D. Hodge, and M. Paniccia, "High speed metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor-based silicon optical modulators," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6603-6608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, H.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,4629-4637 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4629.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hak, D.

Hau, Y.

Hodge, D.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, A. Liu, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, T. Franck, D. Hodge, and M. Paniccia, "High speed metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor-based silicon optical modulators," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6603-6608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ionescu, A.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, Ph. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, Ph. Renaud, and Ph. Robert, "CMOS Compatible Fully Integrated Mach-Zehnder Inteferometer in SOI Technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,4629-4637 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4629.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jalali, B.

Jones, R.

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, and M. Paniccia, "Optical Amplification and Lasing by Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 24,1440-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, D. Hak, and O. Cohen, "Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 13,519-525 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-2-519.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keil, U. D.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, A. Liu, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, T. Franck, D. Hodge, and M. Paniccia, "High speed metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor-based silicon optical modulators," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6603-6608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kung, A.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, Ph. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, Ph. Renaud, and Ph. Robert, "CMOS Compatible Fully Integrated Mach-Zehnder Inteferometer in SOI Technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Lagos, A.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, Ph. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, Ph. Renaud, and Ph. Robert, "CMOS Compatible Fully Integrated Mach-Zehnder Inteferometer in SOI Technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liang, T. K.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Nonlinear Absorption and Raman Scattering in Silicon-on-Insulator Optical Waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1149-1153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Efficient Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343-3345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, A. Liu, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, T. Franck, D. Hodge, and M. Paniccia, "High speed metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor-based silicon optical modulators," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6603-6608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, A. Liu, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, T. Franck, D. Hodge, and M. Paniccia, "High speed metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor-based silicon optical modulators," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6603-6608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, "High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 14,1182-1188 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1182.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, and M. Paniccia, "Optical Amplification and Lasing by Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 24,1440-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, D. Hak, and O. Cohen, "Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 13,519-525 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-2-519.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, "Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 12,4261-4267 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-18-4261.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, "Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196-2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Nicolaescu, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, "Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196-2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, and M. Paniccia, "Optical Amplification and Lasing by Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 24,1440-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, "High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 14,1182-1188 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1182.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, "Demonstration of Wavelength Conversion at 40 Gb/s Data Rate in Silicon Waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 11721-11726 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-24-11721.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, A. Liu, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, T. Franck, D. Hodge, and M. Paniccia, "High speed metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor-based silicon optical modulators," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6603-6608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, D. Hak, and O. Cohen, "Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 13,519-525 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-2-519.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, "Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 12,4261-4267 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-18-4261.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, "Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196-2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometer-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raghunathan, V.

Ralston, J. M.

J. M. Ralston and R. K. Chang, "Spontaneous-Raman-Scattering Efficiency and Stimulated Scattering in Silicon," Phys. Rev. B 2, 1858-1862 (1970).

Reed, G. T.

C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, "Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides," Electron. Lett. 31, 451-452 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Renaud, Ph.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, Ph. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, Ph. Renaud, and Ph. Robert, "CMOS Compatible Fully Integrated Mach-Zehnder Inteferometer in SOI Technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Robert, Ph.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, Ph. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, Ph. Renaud, and Ph. Robert, "CMOS Compatible Fully Integrated Mach-Zehnder Inteferometer in SOI Technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H.

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, and M. Paniccia, "Optical Amplification and Lasing by Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 24,1440-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, "High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 14,1182-1188 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1182.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, "Demonstration of Wavelength Conversion at 40 Gb/s Data Rate in Silicon Waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 11721-11726 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-24-11721.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, D. Hak, and O. Cohen, "Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 13,519-525 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-2-519.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, "Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 12,4261-4267 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-18-4261.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, "Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196-2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, A. Liu, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, T. Franck, D. Hodge, and M. Paniccia, "High speed metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor-based silicon optical modulators," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6603-6608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, A. Liu, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, T. Franck, D. Hodge, and M. Paniccia, "High speed metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor-based silicon optical modulators," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6603-6608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Schmidt, B. S.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shakya, J.

Sharping, J. E.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoji, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,4629-4637 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4629.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sih, V.

Takahashi, J.

Takahashi, M.

Tang, C. K.

C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, "Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides," Electron. Lett. 31, 451-452 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Efficient Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343-3345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Nonlinear Absorption and Raman Scattering in Silicon-on-Insulator Optical Waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1149-1153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,4629-4637 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4629.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, A. C.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Watanabe, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,4629-4637 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4629.
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Xu, Q.

Xu, S.

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
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H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,4629-4637 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4629.
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, "Wavelength conversion in silicon using Raman induced four-wave mixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 34-36 (2004).
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H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, "Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2196-2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Efficient Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343-3345 (2004).
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Electron. Lett. (1)

C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, "Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides," Electron. Lett. 31, 451-452 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Nonlinear Absorption and Raman Scattering in Silicon-on-Insulator Optical Waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1149-1153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, Ph. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, Ph. Renaud, and Ph. Robert, "CMOS Compatible Fully Integrated Mach-Zehnder Inteferometer in SOI Technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, A. Liu, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, T. Franck, D. Hodge, and M. Paniccia, "High speed metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor-based silicon optical modulators," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6603-6608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (5)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometer-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
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Opt. Express (9)

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Hau, and B. Jalali, "Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 11,1731-1739 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-15-1731.
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Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9431-9435 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-20-9431.
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Y.-H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, "Demonstration of Wavelength Conversion at 40 Gb/s Data Rate in Silicon Waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 11721-11726 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-24-11721.
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A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, "Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 12,4261-4267 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-18-4261.
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O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12, 5269-5273 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5269.
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R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, D. Hak, and O. Cohen, "Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 13,519-525 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-2-519.
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R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,4341-4349 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-11-4341.
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H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,4629-4637 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4629.
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental set-up for 40 Gb/s Raman amplification using counter-propagating pump and probe beams.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Eye diagrams from the digital communications analyzer (DCA) for (a) transmitted (pump off) and (b) amplified (pump power = 228 mW) signals at 40 Gb/s data rate using co-propagating pump and probe beams.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Eye diagrams from the DCA for (a) transmitted (pump off) and (b) amplified (pump power = 222 mW) signals at 40 Gb/s data rate using counter-propagating pump and probe beams.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

On/off gain as a function of coupled pump power in the waveguide for co-propagating (open symbols) and counter-propagating (filled symbols) pump and probe beams.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured on/off gain as a function of signal wavelength with 123 mW coupled pump power.

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