Abstract

An important measuring technique under study for the DARWIN planet finding mission, is nulling interferometry, enabling the detection of the weak infrared emission lines of an orbiting planet. This technique requires a perfect wavefront of the light beams to be combined in the interferometer. By using a single mode waveguide before detection, wavefront errors are filtered and a virtually perfect plane wavefront is obtained. In this paper the results on the development and the optical characterisation of suitable infrared transmitting chalcogenide glasses and mid-IR guiding optical fibers are reported. Two different preform techniques for manufacturing core-cladding chalcogenide fibers are described. Two types of step index fibers, prepared with Te2As3Se5 chalcogenide glasses, offer single mode guidance at 10.6 µm.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Le Coq, C. Boussard-Pledel, G. Fonteneau, T. Pain, B. Bureau and J.-L. Adam, "A new method of preform elaboration for chalcogenide fibers,"Glass Technol. 44, 132 (2003).
  2. R. N. Bracewell, "Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer," Nature 274, 780-781 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. R. P. Angel, A. Y. S. Cheng and N. J. Woolf, "A space telescope for infrared spectroscopy of earth-like planets," Nature 322, 341-434 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. C. Flanagan, D. J. Richardson, M. J. Foster and I. Bakalski, "Microstructured fibers for broadband wavefront filtering in the mid-IR," Opt. Express 14, 11773-11786 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, L. Labadie and P. Kern, "Transmission measurement at 10.6 µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,1-3 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Labeye, J. E. Broquin, P. Kern, P. Noel, P. Saguet, L. Labadie, C. Ruilier and V. Kirshner, "Infrared single-mode hollow conductive waveguides for stellar interferometry," Proc SPIE 6123, 1-9 (2006).
  7. B. Z. Dekel and A. Katzir "Graded index silver chlorobromide fibers for mid-infrared," Appl. Opt. 44,3343-3348 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Shalem, A. Tsun, E. Rave, A. Millo, L. Nagli and A. Katzir, "Silver halide single mode fibers for the middle infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,091103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Flatscher, O. Wallner, V. Artjushenko, and J. Pereira do Carmo, "Manufacturing of Chalcogenide and Silver-Halide Single-Mode Fibres for Modal Wavefront Filtering for Darwin," Proc. ‘6th Internat. Conf. on Space Optics’ ESTEC, 27-30 (2006).
  10. L. N. Butvina, O. V. Sereda, E. M. Dianov, N. V. Lichkova, and V. N. Zagorodnev, "Single-mode microstructured optical fiber for the middle infrared," Opt. Lett. 32, 334-336 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Lucas, "Halide glasses" in Materials Sciences and Technology, R. W. Cahn, P. Haasen, E. J. Kramer, J. Zarsiky, eds., (Wiley-VCH, New York 1991), Vol. 9, pp. 457-488.
  12. B. Bureau and J. L. Adam "Non- oxide optical glasses: properties, structures and applications" in Inorg. Chem. Highlights, G Meyer, D Nauman, and L Weseman, eds., (Wiley-VCH, Weiheim 2005) Vol. 2, pp. 365-392.
  13. S. R. Elliot, "Chalcogenide Glasses" in Materials Science and Technology, R. W. Cahn, P. Haasen, E. J. Kramer, J. Zarsiky, eds., (Wiley-VCH, New York 1991) Vol. 9, pp. 377-448.
  14. X. H. Zhang, H. L. Ma, J. L. Adam, J. Lucas, G. Chen and D. Zhao, "Thermal and optical properties of the Ga-Ge-Sb-Se glasses," Mat. Res. Bull. 40,1816-1821 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. S. Shiryaev, M. F. Churbanov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, J. L. Adam and J. Lucas, "Recent progress in preparation of chalcogenide As-Se-Te glasses with low impurity content," J. Opt. and Adv. Mat. 7, 1773-1779 (2005).
  16. B. B. Harbison, C. I. Merzbacher, and I. D. Aggarwal "Preparation and properties of BaS-Ga2S3-GeS2 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213&214, 16-21 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Danto, P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Pledel, X-H Zhang, F Smektala, and J Lucas "A family of far-infrared-transmitting glasses in the Ga-Ge-Te system for space applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16,1847-1852 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Plédel, P. Lucas, M. Riley, B. Bureau, and J Lucas "New tellurium based glasses for use in bio-sensing applications," Proc SPIE 6433, 1-8 (2007).
  19. P. A. Thielen, L. B. Shaw, P. C. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, "Small-core As-Se fiber for Raman amplification," Opt. Lett. 28,1406-1408 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. Florea, M. Bashkansky, Z. Dutton, J. Sanghera, P. Pureza and I. Aggarwal "Stimulated Brilloiun scattering in single mode As2S3 and As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers," Opt. Express 14,12063-12070 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. P. Houizot, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, J. Troles and L. Grossard, "Selenide glass single mode optical for nonlinear optics," Opt. Mat. 29,651-656 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, S. Takahashi and T. Miyashita "Chalcogenide glass fibers for mid-infrared transmission," J. of Lightwave Technol. 2,607-613 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Hocdé, C. Boussard-Plédel, G. Fonteneau, and J. Lucas "Chalcogens based glasses for IR fiber chemical sensors," Solid State Sci. 3,279-284 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. S. Shiryaev, C. Boussard-Plédel, P. Houizot, T. Jouan, J.-L. Adam and J. Lucas "Single-mode infrared fibers based on TeAsSe glass system," Mat. Sci. and Eng. B 127, 2-3, 138-143 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. K. Cheng, A. J. Faber, W. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Pledel, P. Houizot, J. Lucas, and J. Pereira Do Carmo "Test results of the infrared single-mode fiber for the DARWIN mission," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051F (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. K. Cheng, A. J. Faber, W. Gielesen, J. Lucas, C. Boussard-Plédel, P. Houizot, and J. Pereira do Carmo "Development of broadband infrared single-mode fibers for the DARWIN mission," Proc. SPIE 6268, 62682F (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. J. Faber, L. K. Cheng, W. L. M. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Plédel, P. Houizot, S. Danto, J. Lucas and J. Pereira Do Carmo "Single Mode Chalcogenide Glass Fiber as Wavefront Filter for the Darwin Planet Finding Mission," Proc. ‘6th Internat. Conf. on Space Optics’ ESTEC, 27-30 (2006).
  28. D. Le Coq, C. Boussard-Plédel, G. Fonteneau, T. Pain, B. Bureau and J. L. Adam "Chalcogenide double index fibers: fabrication, design and applications as chemical sensor,"Mat. Res. Bull. 38,1745-1754 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. A. Van Nijnatten, "Accurate measurement of absorption spectra and refractive index of glass by spectrophotometry," Glastech.Ber. Glass Sci. Technol. 77C, 136-148 (2004).
  30. R. C. Weast, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 56th edition, (CRC Press, 1975).
  31. M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev and V. G. Plotnichenko "High purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides," J. Opt. Adv. Mat. 3, 341-349 (2001).
  32. C. T. Moynihan, P. B. Macedo, M. S. Maklad, R. K. Mohr and R. E. Howard "Intrinsic and impurity infrared absorption in diarsenic triselenide glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 17,369-38 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  33. L. G. Aio, A. M. Efimov and V. F. Kokorina, "Refractive index of chalcogenide glasses over a wide range of compositions," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 27,299-307 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (5)

J. C. Flanagan, D. J. Richardson, M. J. Foster and I. Bakalski, "Microstructured fibers for broadband wavefront filtering in the mid-IR," Opt. Express 14, 11773-11786 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, L. Labadie and P. Kern, "Transmission measurement at 10.6 µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Butvina, O. V. Sereda, E. M. Dianov, N. V. Lichkova, and V. N. Zagorodnev, "Single-mode microstructured optical fiber for the middle infrared," Opt. Lett. 32, 334-336 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Plédel, P. Lucas, M. Riley, B. Bureau, and J Lucas "New tellurium based glasses for use in bio-sensing applications," Proc SPIE 6433, 1-8 (2007).

P. Houizot, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, J. Troles and L. Grossard, "Selenide glass single mode optical for nonlinear optics," Opt. Mat. 29,651-656 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

C. Florea, M. Bashkansky, Z. Dutton, J. Sanghera, P. Pureza and I. Aggarwal "Stimulated Brilloiun scattering in single mode As2S3 and As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers," Opt. Express 14,12063-12070 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Danto, P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Pledel, X-H Zhang, F Smektala, and J Lucas "A family of far-infrared-transmitting glasses in the Ga-Ge-Te system for space applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16,1847-1852 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Labeye, J. E. Broquin, P. Kern, P. Noel, P. Saguet, L. Labadie, C. Ruilier and V. Kirshner, "Infrared single-mode hollow conductive waveguides for stellar interferometry," Proc SPIE 6123, 1-9 (2006).

L. K. Cheng, A. J. Faber, W. Gielesen, J. Lucas, C. Boussard-Plédel, P. Houizot, and J. Pereira do Carmo "Development of broadband infrared single-mode fibers for the DARWIN mission," Proc. SPIE 6268, 62682F (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

L. K. Cheng, A. J. Faber, W. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Pledel, P. Houizot, J. Lucas, and J. Pereira Do Carmo "Test results of the infrared single-mode fiber for the DARWIN mission," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051F (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Zhang, H. L. Ma, J. L. Adam, J. Lucas, G. Chen and D. Zhao, "Thermal and optical properties of the Ga-Ge-Sb-Se glasses," Mat. Res. Bull. 40,1816-1821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Shiryaev, M. F. Churbanov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, J. L. Adam and J. Lucas, "Recent progress in preparation of chalcogenide As-Se-Te glasses with low impurity content," J. Opt. and Adv. Mat. 7, 1773-1779 (2005).

S. Shalem, A. Tsun, E. Rave, A. Millo, L. Nagli and A. Katzir, "Silver halide single mode fibers for the middle infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,091103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

B. Z. Dekel and A. Katzir "Graded index silver chlorobromide fibers for mid-infrared," Appl. Opt. 44,3343-3348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Van Nijnatten, "Accurate measurement of absorption spectra and refractive index of glass by spectrophotometry," Glastech.Ber. Glass Sci. Technol. 77C, 136-148 (2004).

2003 (3)

D. Le Coq, C. Boussard-Plédel, G. Fonteneau, T. Pain, B. Bureau and J. L. Adam "Chalcogenide double index fibers: fabrication, design and applications as chemical sensor,"Mat. Res. Bull. 38,1745-1754 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Le Coq, C. Boussard-Pledel, G. Fonteneau, T. Pain, B. Bureau and J.-L. Adam, "A new method of preform elaboration for chalcogenide fibers,"Glass Technol. 44, 132 (2003).

P. A. Thielen, L. B. Shaw, P. C. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, "Small-core As-Se fiber for Raman amplification," Opt. Lett. 28,1406-1408 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

S. Hocdé, C. Boussard-Plédel, G. Fonteneau, and J. Lucas "Chalcogens based glasses for IR fiber chemical sensors," Solid State Sci. 3,279-284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev and V. G. Plotnichenko "High purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides," J. Opt. Adv. Mat. 3, 341-349 (2001).

1984 (1)

T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, S. Takahashi and T. Miyashita "Chalcogenide glass fibers for mid-infrared transmission," J. of Lightwave Technol. 2,607-613 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1978 (3)

R. N. Bracewell, "Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer," Nature 274, 780-781 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. R. P. Angel, A. Y. S. Cheng and N. J. Woolf, "A space telescope for infrared spectroscopy of earth-like planets," Nature 322, 341-434 (1978).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Aio, A. M. Efimov and V. F. Kokorina, "Refractive index of chalcogenide glasses over a wide range of compositions," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 27,299-307 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

C. T. Moynihan, P. B. Macedo, M. S. Maklad, R. K. Mohr and R. E. Howard "Intrinsic and impurity infrared absorption in diarsenic triselenide glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 17,369-38 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

S. Danto, P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Pledel, X-H Zhang, F Smektala, and J Lucas "A family of far-infrared-transmitting glasses in the Ga-Ge-Te system for space applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16,1847-1852 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Shalem, A. Tsun, E. Rave, A. Millo, L. Nagli and A. Katzir, "Silver halide single mode fibers for the middle infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,091103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, L. Labadie and P. Kern, "Transmission measurement at 10.6 µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Glass Technol. (1)

D. Le Coq, C. Boussard-Pledel, G. Fonteneau, T. Pain, B. Bureau and J.-L. Adam, "A new method of preform elaboration for chalcogenide fibers,"Glass Technol. 44, 132 (2003).

Glastech.Ber. Glass Sci. Technol. (1)

P. A. Van Nijnatten, "Accurate measurement of absorption spectra and refractive index of glass by spectrophotometry," Glastech.Ber. Glass Sci. Technol. 77C, 136-148 (2004).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

C. T. Moynihan, P. B. Macedo, M. S. Maklad, R. K. Mohr and R. E. Howard "Intrinsic and impurity infrared absorption in diarsenic triselenide glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 17,369-38 (1975).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Aio, A. M. Efimov and V. F. Kokorina, "Refractive index of chalcogenide glasses over a wide range of compositions," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 27,299-307 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. of Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, S. Takahashi and T. Miyashita "Chalcogenide glass fibers for mid-infrared transmission," J. of Lightwave Technol. 2,607-613 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Adv. Mat. (1)

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev and V. G. Plotnichenko "High purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides," J. Opt. Adv. Mat. 3, 341-349 (2001).

J. Opt. and Adv. Mat. (1)

V. S. Shiryaev, M. F. Churbanov, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, J. L. Adam and J. Lucas, "Recent progress in preparation of chalcogenide As-Se-Te glasses with low impurity content," J. Opt. and Adv. Mat. 7, 1773-1779 (2005).

Mat. Res. Bull. (2)

D. Le Coq, C. Boussard-Plédel, G. Fonteneau, T. Pain, B. Bureau and J. L. Adam "Chalcogenide double index fibers: fabrication, design and applications as chemical sensor,"Mat. Res. Bull. 38,1745-1754 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Zhang, H. L. Ma, J. L. Adam, J. Lucas, G. Chen and D. Zhao, "Thermal and optical properties of the Ga-Ge-Sb-Se glasses," Mat. Res. Bull. 40,1816-1821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

R. N. Bracewell, "Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer," Nature 274, 780-781 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. R. P. Angel, A. Y. S. Cheng and N. J. Woolf, "A space telescope for infrared spectroscopy of earth-like planets," Nature 322, 341-434 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

J. C. Flanagan, D. J. Richardson, M. J. Foster and I. Bakalski, "Microstructured fibers for broadband wavefront filtering in the mid-IR," Opt. Express 14, 11773-11786 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Florea, M. Bashkansky, Z. Dutton, J. Sanghera, P. Pureza and I. Aggarwal "Stimulated Brilloiun scattering in single mode As2S3 and As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers," Opt. Express 14,12063-12070 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mat. (1)

P. Houizot, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, J. Troles and L. Grossard, "Selenide glass single mode optical for nonlinear optics," Opt. Mat. 29,651-656 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc SPIE (2)

A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Plédel, P. Lucas, M. Riley, B. Bureau, and J Lucas "New tellurium based glasses for use in bio-sensing applications," Proc SPIE 6433, 1-8 (2007).

P. Labeye, J. E. Broquin, P. Kern, P. Noel, P. Saguet, L. Labadie, C. Ruilier and V. Kirshner, "Infrared single-mode hollow conductive waveguides for stellar interferometry," Proc SPIE 6123, 1-9 (2006).

Proc. SPIE (2)

L. K. Cheng, A. J. Faber, W. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Pledel, P. Houizot, J. Lucas, and J. Pereira Do Carmo "Test results of the infrared single-mode fiber for the DARWIN mission," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051F (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Cheng, A. J. Faber, W. Gielesen, J. Lucas, C. Boussard-Plédel, P. Houizot, and J. Pereira do Carmo "Development of broadband infrared single-mode fibers for the DARWIN mission," Proc. SPIE 6268, 62682F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Sci. (1)

S. Hocdé, C. Boussard-Plédel, G. Fonteneau, and J. Lucas "Chalcogens based glasses for IR fiber chemical sensors," Solid State Sci. 3,279-284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

V. S. Shiryaev, C. Boussard-Plédel, P. Houizot, T. Jouan, J.-L. Adam and J. Lucas "Single-mode infrared fibers based on TeAsSe glass system," Mat. Sci. and Eng. B 127, 2-3, 138-143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Faber, L. K. Cheng, W. L. M. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Plédel, P. Houizot, S. Danto, J. Lucas and J. Pereira Do Carmo "Single Mode Chalcogenide Glass Fiber as Wavefront Filter for the Darwin Planet Finding Mission," Proc. ‘6th Internat. Conf. on Space Optics’ ESTEC, 27-30 (2006).

R. C. Weast, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 56th edition, (CRC Press, 1975).

R. Flatscher, O. Wallner, V. Artjushenko, and J. Pereira do Carmo, "Manufacturing of Chalcogenide and Silver-Halide Single-Mode Fibres for Modal Wavefront Filtering for Darwin," Proc. ‘6th Internat. Conf. on Space Optics’ ESTEC, 27-30 (2006).

B. B. Harbison, C. I. Merzbacher, and I. D. Aggarwal "Preparation and properties of BaS-Ga2S3-GeS2 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213&214, 16-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lucas, "Halide glasses" in Materials Sciences and Technology, R. W. Cahn, P. Haasen, E. J. Kramer, J. Zarsiky, eds., (Wiley-VCH, New York 1991), Vol. 9, pp. 457-488.

B. Bureau and J. L. Adam "Non- oxide optical glasses: properties, structures and applications" in Inorg. Chem. Highlights, G Meyer, D Nauman, and L Weseman, eds., (Wiley-VCH, Weiheim 2005) Vol. 2, pp. 365-392.

S. R. Elliot, "Chalcogenide Glasses" in Materials Science and Technology, R. W. Cahn, P. Haasen, E. J. Kramer, J. Zarsiky, eds., (Wiley-VCH, New York 1991) Vol. 9, pp. 377-448.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Absorption spectra of Te20As30Se50 glass samples prepared with and without using the ultra purification method of raw materials. Measurements were carried out with samples with a thickness equal to 5 mm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectral refractive index of three different Te-As-Se glass compositions. The lines have been obtained by fitting the raw data with Eq. (4). The triangles mark the literature values of glass of the same composition as our Te20As30Se50 glass [33].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Representation in 2D and 3D of far field intensity distribution of TAS single mode fiber sample of 23 cm long, coated with an absorbing Ga-layer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Far-field intensity distribution at 10.6 µm measured at a distance of about 10mm from a 36 cm Gallium coated TAS fiber prepared by RTVM.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Calculated MFD of the Short wavelength fiber as a function of the wavelength (line crossing square markers). The dashed line presents the desired linear relation between the MFD and the wavelength for optimized coupling around 8 µm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Technical requirements of ESA for the single mode waveguide for the DARWIN wavefront filter.

Tables Icon

Table 2. geometrical and optical characteristics of the manufactured TAS glass single mode fiber.

Equations (3)

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n ( λ ) n air = 1 + R ( λ ) 1 R ( λ )
n 2 ( λ ) = C + i = 1 3 A i λ 2 λ 2 λ i 2
V = 2 π ρ λ n core 2 n clad 2

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