Abstract

We analyze the time dependent response of strongly scattering media (SSM) to ultra-short pulses of light. A random walk technique is used to model the optical scattering of ultra-short pulses of light propagating through media with random shapes and various packing densities. The pulse spreading was found to be strongly dependent on the average particle size, particle size distribution, and the packing fraction. We also show that the intensity as a function of time-delay can be used to analyze the particle size distribution and packing fraction of an optically thick sample independently of the presence of absorption features. Finally, we propose an all new way to measure the shape of ultra-short pulses that have propagated through a SSM.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (3)

L. Taylor, H.Wikstr¨om, A. Gift, and J. Rantanen, "Monitoring and manipulating crystal hydrate formation during high shear wet granulation," European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 28, S7 (2006).

C. C. Sun, "A material-sparing method for simultaneous determination of true density and powder compaction properties—Aspartame as an example," International Journal Pharmaceutics,  326, 94-99, (2006)

C. B. Rawle, C. J. Lee, C. J. Strachan, K. Payne, P. J. Manson, and T. Rades, "Towards characterization and identification of solid state pharmaceutical mixtures through second harmonic generation," Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 95, 761-768 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

I. M. Vellekoop, P. Lodahl, and A. Lagendijk, "Determination of the diffusion constant using phase-sensitive measurements," Phys. Rev. E 71, 056604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Rantanen, H. Wikstr¨om, R. Turner, and L. Taylor, "Use of in-line near-infrared spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for improved understanding of pharmaceutical processes," Anal. Chem. 77, 556-563 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. C. Jørgensen, J. Rantanen, P. Luukkonen, S. Laine, and J. Yliruusi, "Visualization of a pharmaceutical unit operation: Wet granulation," Anal. Chem. 76, 5331-5338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Strachan, C. J. Lee, and T. Rades, "Partial Characterization of different mixtures of solids by measuring the optical nonlinear response," Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 93, 733-742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, and O. Mu˜noz, "Scattering matrix of quartz aerosols: comparison and synthesis of laboratory and Lorenz-Mie results," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79, 911- 920 (2003).Q2Q3
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko and A. A. Lacis, "morphology-dependent resonances of nearly spherical particles in random orientation," Appl. Opt. 42, 5551-5556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

L. Mees, G. Gr’ehan, and G. Gouesbet, "Time-resolved scattering diagrams for a sphere illuminated by plane wave and focused short pulses," Opt. Commun. 194, 59-65 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pasikatan, J. L. Steele, C. K. Spillman, and E. Haque, "Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for online particle size analysis of powders and ground materials," Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy 9, 153-164 (2001).Q1

2000 (3)

M. Blanco and A. Villar, "Polymorphic analysis of a pharmaceutical preparation by NIR spectroscopy," Analyst 125, 2311-2314 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Patel, P. E. Luner, and M. S. Kemper, "Quantitative analysis of polymorphs in binary and multi-component powder mixtures by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy," International Journal of Pharmaceutics 206, 63-74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy "A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256-261 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

D. J. LeCaptain and K. A. Burglund, "The applicability of second harmonic generation for in situ measurement of induction time of selected crystallization systems," J. Cryst. Growth 203, 564-569 (1999)
[CrossRef]

W. E. Vargas, "Diffuse radiation intensity propagating through a particulate slab," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1362- 1372 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

M. Blanco, J. Coello, H. Iturriaga, S. Maspoch, and C. de la Pezuela, "Near-infrared spectroscopy in the pharmaceutical industry. Critical review," Analyst 123, 135R-150R (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Baigar, C. Hauger, and W. Zinth, "Imaging within highly scattering media using time-resolved backscattering of femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. B 67, 257-261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Taylor and G. Zografi, "The quantitative analysis of crystallinity using FT-Raman spectroscopy," Pharmaceutical Research 15, 755-761 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. Hauger, E. Baigar, andW. Zinth, "Induced backscattering due to reflecting surfaces in highly scattering media," Opt. Commun. 133, 72-76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Hauger, E. Baigar, T. Wilhelm, and W. Zinth, "Time-resolved backscattering of femtosecond pulses from scattering media—an experimental and numerical investigation," Opt. Commun. 131, 351-358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

Anal. Chem. (2)

A. C. Jørgensen, J. Rantanen, P. Luukkonen, S. Laine, and J. Yliruusi, "Visualization of a pharmaceutical unit operation: Wet granulation," Anal. Chem. 76, 5331-5338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Rantanen, H. Wikstr¨om, R. Turner, and L. Taylor, "Use of in-line near-infrared spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for improved understanding of pharmaceutical processes," Anal. Chem. 77, 556-563 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (2)

M. Blanco and A. Villar, "Polymorphic analysis of a pharmaceutical preparation by NIR spectroscopy," Analyst 125, 2311-2314 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Blanco, J. Coello, H. Iturriaga, S. Maspoch, and C. de la Pezuela, "Near-infrared spectroscopy in the pharmaceutical industry. Critical review," Analyst 123, 135R-150R (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

E. Baigar, C. Hauger, and W. Zinth, "Imaging within highly scattering media using time-resolved backscattering of femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. B 67, 257-261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (1)

L. Taylor, H.Wikstr¨om, A. Gift, and J. Rantanen, "Monitoring and manipulating crystal hydrate formation during high shear wet granulation," European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 28, S7 (2006).

International Journal of Pharmaceutics (1)

A. D. Patel, P. E. Luner, and M. S. Kemper, "Quantitative analysis of polymorphs in binary and multi-component powder mixtures by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy," International Journal of Pharmaceutics 206, 63-74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

International Journal Pharmaceutics (1)

C. C. Sun, "A material-sparing method for simultaneous determination of true density and powder compaction properties—Aspartame as an example," International Journal Pharmaceutics,  326, 94-99, (2006)

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

D. J. LeCaptain and K. A. Burglund, "The applicability of second harmonic generation for in situ measurement of induction time of selected crystallization systems," J. Cryst. Growth 203, 564-569 (1999)
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, and O. Mu˜noz, "Scattering matrix of quartz aerosols: comparison and synthesis of laboratory and Lorenz-Mie results," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79, 911- 920 (2003).Q2Q3
[CrossRef]

Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (1)

M. C. Pasikatan, J. L. Steele, C. K. Spillman, and E. Haque, "Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for online particle size analysis of powders and ground materials," Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy 9, 153-164 (2001).Q1

Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2)

C. B. Rawle, C. J. Lee, C. J. Strachan, K. Payne, P. J. Manson, and T. Rades, "Towards characterization and identification of solid state pharmaceutical mixtures through second harmonic generation," Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 95, 761-768 (2006)
[CrossRef]

C. J. Strachan, C. J. Lee, and T. Rades, "Partial Characterization of different mixtures of solids by measuring the optical nonlinear response," Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 93, 733-742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

C. Hauger, E. Baigar, andW. Zinth, "Induced backscattering due to reflecting surfaces in highly scattering media," Opt. Commun. 133, 72-76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Hauger, E. Baigar, T. Wilhelm, and W. Zinth, "Time-resolved backscattering of femtosecond pulses from scattering media—an experimental and numerical investigation," Opt. Commun. 131, 351-358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Mees, G. Gr’ehan, and G. Gouesbet, "Time-resolved scattering diagrams for a sphere illuminated by plane wave and focused short pulses," Opt. Commun. 194, 59-65 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pharmaceutical Research (1)

L. S. Taylor and G. Zografi, "The quantitative analysis of crystallinity using FT-Raman spectroscopy," Pharmaceutical Research 15, 755-761 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

I. M. Vellekoop, P. Lodahl, and A. Lagendijk, "Determination of the diffusion constant using phase-sensitive measurements," Phys. Rev. E 71, 056604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy "A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256-261 (2000).
[CrossRef]

STP Pharma Sciences (1)

S. Pederson,and H. G. Kristensen, "Change in crystal density of acetylsalicylic acid during compaction," STP Pharma Sciences,  4, 201-206 (1994).Q4

Other (2)

Schott GlassAG , "Optical glass catalog," URL http://www.schott.com/opticsdevices/english/download/index.htm, pp 11 (2006)

USFDA, "Process and Analytical Technology (PAT) Initiative," (2006). URL http://www.fda.gov/Cder/OPS/PAT.htm.

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