Abstract

The effect of front-facet reflectivity on the amplification performance of Broad Area Laser (BAL) diodes in a double-pass configuration is studied experimentally. A method to measure the front facet reflectivities of laser diodes is generalized to BALs. The method is based on fitting a model, with front facet reflectivity as a parameter, to the threshold current vs. external feedback of the diode. Reflectivities of three BAL diodes are measured, and their amplification abilities have been assessed. The tested diodes had amplification factors of 0, 1, and 10 and front facet reflectivities of 12.7±1%, 4.6±0.4%, and 1.2±0.2% respectively. It is concluded that a front facet modal reflectivity of less than 4.6% is necessary for a BAL to function as an amplifier.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. E. Wieman and L. Holberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61 (1991).
  2. B. L. Sands and B. Bayram, “Characteristics of a high-power broad-area laser operating in a passively stabilized external cavity,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3829–3835 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Praeger, V. Vuletic, T. Fischer, T. W. Hansch, and C. Zimmermann, “A broad emitter diode laser system for lithium spectroscopy,” Applied Physics B 67, 163–166 (1998).
  4. I. Shvarchuck, “Bose-Einstein Condensation into non-Equilibrium States,” Ph.D. thesis, Universiteit van Amsterdam (2003).
  5. N. Helbig, “Multi-Pass Amplification with a Broad-Area Diode Laser,” Master’s thesis, University of Texas at Austin (1999).
  6. P. Zorabedian, “Axial-Mode Instability in Tunable External-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1542–1552 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  7. L. Hildebrandt, R. Knispel, S. Stry, J. R. Sacher, and F. Schael, “Antireflection-coated blue GaN laser diodes in an external cavity and Doppler-free indium absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2110–2118 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. “Antireflection Coated Diode Lasers,” Tech. rep., Sacher Lasertechnik. http://data.sacher-laser.com.
  9. “Benefit of AR-Coating for Littrow Laser Systems,” Tech. rep., Sacher Lasertechnik. http://data.sacher.de/arc/arbeneft.pdf.
  10. K. S. Repasky, G. W. Switzer, C. W. Smith, and J. L. Carlsten, “Laser diode facet modal reflectivity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4338–4344 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  11. P. Eugster and A. Keshet, “Unbelievable: The Story of a Laser,” Project report, Quantum Degenerate Gas Lab, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia (2005). http://www.physics.ubc.ca/~qdg/publications/.
  12. I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, and L. W. Stulz, “Measurement of the Modal Reflectivity of an Antireflection Coating on a Superluminescent Diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19 (1983).
  13. S. Lorch, “Theory and Measuring of Antireflection Coatings,” Annual report, Optoelectronics Department, University of Ulm (2003). http://www-opto.e-technik.uni-ulm.de/forschung/jahresbericht/2003/ar2003 sl.pdf.
  14. J. J. ColemanG. P. Agrawal, ed., AIP Series in Theoretical and Applied Optics, chap. 1 (American Institute of Physics, 1995).
  15. J. Morris, “Private communication,” (2006). LDX Optronics Inc.

2007 (1)

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Praeger, V. Vuletic, T. Fischer, T. W. Hansch, and C. Zimmermann, “A broad emitter diode laser system for lithium spectroscopy,” Applied Physics B 67, 163–166 (1998).

1994 (1)

P. Zorabedian, “Axial-Mode Instability in Tunable External-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1542–1552 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

C. E. Wieman and L. Holberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61 (1991).

1983 (1)

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, and L. W. Stulz, “Measurement of the Modal Reflectivity of an Antireflection Coating on a Superluminescent Diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19 (1983).

Bayram, B.

Carlsten, J. L.

Coleman, J. J.

J. J. ColemanG. P. Agrawal, ed., AIP Series in Theoretical and Applied Optics, chap. 1 (American Institute of Physics, 1995).

Eisenstein, G.

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, and L. W. Stulz, “Measurement of the Modal Reflectivity of an Antireflection Coating on a Superluminescent Diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19 (1983).

Eugster, P.

P. Eugster and A. Keshet, “Unbelievable: The Story of a Laser,” Project report, Quantum Degenerate Gas Lab, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia (2005). http://www.physics.ubc.ca/~qdg/publications/.

Fischer, T.

M. Praeger, V. Vuletic, T. Fischer, T. W. Hansch, and C. Zimmermann, “A broad emitter diode laser system for lithium spectroscopy,” Applied Physics B 67, 163–166 (1998).

Hansch, T. W.

M. Praeger, V. Vuletic, T. Fischer, T. W. Hansch, and C. Zimmermann, “A broad emitter diode laser system for lithium spectroscopy,” Applied Physics B 67, 163–166 (1998).

Helbig, N.

N. Helbig, “Multi-Pass Amplification with a Broad-Area Diode Laser,” Master’s thesis, University of Texas at Austin (1999).

Hildebrandt, L.

Holberg, L.

C. E. Wieman and L. Holberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61 (1991).

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, and L. W. Stulz, “Measurement of the Modal Reflectivity of an Antireflection Coating on a Superluminescent Diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19 (1983).

Keshet, A.

P. Eugster and A. Keshet, “Unbelievable: The Story of a Laser,” Project report, Quantum Degenerate Gas Lab, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia (2005). http://www.physics.ubc.ca/~qdg/publications/.

Knispel, R.

Lorch, S.

S. Lorch, “Theory and Measuring of Antireflection Coatings,” Annual report, Optoelectronics Department, University of Ulm (2003). http://www-opto.e-technik.uni-ulm.de/forschung/jahresbericht/2003/ar2003 sl.pdf.

Morris, J.

J. Morris, “Private communication,” (2006). LDX Optronics Inc.

Praeger, M.

M. Praeger, V. Vuletic, T. Fischer, T. W. Hansch, and C. Zimmermann, “A broad emitter diode laser system for lithium spectroscopy,” Applied Physics B 67, 163–166 (1998).

Repasky, K. S.

Sacher, J. R.

Sands, B. L.

Schael, F.

Shvarchuck, I.

I. Shvarchuck, “Bose-Einstein Condensation into non-Equilibrium States,” Ph.D. thesis, Universiteit van Amsterdam (2003).

Smith, C. W.

Stry, S.

Stulz, L. W.

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, and L. W. Stulz, “Measurement of the Modal Reflectivity of an Antireflection Coating on a Superluminescent Diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19 (1983).

Switzer, G. W.

Vuletic, V.

M. Praeger, V. Vuletic, T. Fischer, T. W. Hansch, and C. Zimmermann, “A broad emitter diode laser system for lithium spectroscopy,” Applied Physics B 67, 163–166 (1998).

Wieman, C. E.

C. E. Wieman and L. Holberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61 (1991).

Zimmermann, C.

M. Praeger, V. Vuletic, T. Fischer, T. W. Hansch, and C. Zimmermann, “A broad emitter diode laser system for lithium spectroscopy,” Applied Physics B 67, 163–166 (1998).

Zorabedian, P.

P. Zorabedian, “Axial-Mode Instability in Tunable External-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1542–1552 (1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Applied Physics (1)

M. Praeger, V. Vuletic, T. Fischer, T. W. Hansch, and C. Zimmermann, “A broad emitter diode laser system for lithium spectroscopy,” Applied Physics B 67, 163–166 (1998).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

P. Zorabedian, “Axial-Mode Instability in Tunable External-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1542–1552 (1994).
[Crossref]

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, and L. W. Stulz, “Measurement of the Modal Reflectivity of an Antireflection Coating on a Superluminescent Diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19 (1983).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. E. Wieman and L. Holberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61 (1991).

Other (8)

“Antireflection Coated Diode Lasers,” Tech. rep., Sacher Lasertechnik. http://data.sacher-laser.com.

“Benefit of AR-Coating for Littrow Laser Systems,” Tech. rep., Sacher Lasertechnik. http://data.sacher.de/arc/arbeneft.pdf.

P. Eugster and A. Keshet, “Unbelievable: The Story of a Laser,” Project report, Quantum Degenerate Gas Lab, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia (2005). http://www.physics.ubc.ca/~qdg/publications/.

S. Lorch, “Theory and Measuring of Antireflection Coatings,” Annual report, Optoelectronics Department, University of Ulm (2003). http://www-opto.e-technik.uni-ulm.de/forschung/jahresbericht/2003/ar2003 sl.pdf.

J. J. ColemanG. P. Agrawal, ed., AIP Series in Theoretical and Applied Optics, chap. 1 (American Institute of Physics, 1995).

J. Morris, “Private communication,” (2006). LDX Optronics Inc.

I. Shvarchuck, “Bose-Einstein Condensation into non-Equilibrium States,” Ph.D. thesis, Universiteit van Amsterdam (2003).

N. Helbig, “Multi-Pass Amplification with a Broad-Area Diode Laser,” Master’s thesis, University of Texas at Austin (1999).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of double-pass amplification

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diagrammatic Derivation of R eff.I represents the optical power (or field intensity) incident on the front facet

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reflectivity measurement set-up

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Power vs. current curves, at varying external reflectivity

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Reflectivity determination for diode A. R ext varying from .06 to 19%. The fit resulted in g=0.096±0.007, and R 2=12.7±1% The vertical error bars are determined from the uncertainty in the fitted threshold current whereas the horizontal error bar in these plots originate from our uncertainty in the measured transmissivities.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Reflectivity determination for diode B. R ext varying from .07 to 25%. The fit resulted in g=0.092±0.004, and R 2=4.6±0.4%. The points in the center region (denoted by red crosses) deviate significantly from the model. At these values of the feedback (R ext was near the front facet reflectivity) the characteristic curves did not exhibit a clean threshold and were therefore were excluded from the fit.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Reflectivity determination for diode C. R ext varying from .06 to 6%. The fit resulted in g=0.106±0.008, and R 2=1.2±0.2%.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Amplification Optics Layout

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Amplified BAL output power versus injected seed power at 665 nm

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R eff = R 2 + ( 1 R 2 ) 2 R ext
R 1 R 2 e 2 L ( G α ) = 1
G = γ ln ( I I 0 )
I th = I 0 e α γ ( 1 R 2 ) 1 2 L γ
ln ( I th I th ref ) = g ln ( R 2 + ( 1 R 2 ) 2 R ext ref R 2 + ( 1 R 2 ) 2 R ext )

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