Abstract

The total process cycle time for large ULE® and Zerodur® optics can be improved using a precise and rapid grinding process, with low levels of surface waviness and subsurface damage. In this paper, the amounts of defects beneath ULE® and Zerodur® surfaces ground using a selected grinding mode were compared. The grinding response was characterised by measuring: surface roughness, surface profile and subsurface damage. The observed subsurface damage can be separated into two distinct depth zones, which are: ‘process’ and ‘machine dynamics’ related.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Gilmozzi, “Science and technology drivers for future giant telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 1–10 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Shore and R. May-Miller, “Production challenge of the optical segments for extra large telescopes,” Proc. Int. Progress on Adv. Optics & Sensors, 25–30 (2003).
  3. P. Shore, P. Morantz, X. Luo, X. Tonnellier, R. Read, and R. May-Miller, “Design philosophy of the ultra precision big optix “BoX” machine,” Proc. Landamap, 200–209 (2005).
  4. X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, A. Baldwin, P. Morantz, T. Jin, and D. Stephenson, “Wheel wear investigations when precision grinding of optical materials using the BoX® grinding mode,” Proc. 5th High Speed Machining, 177–186 (2006).
  5. X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, and A. Baldwin, “High performance grinding studies on optical materials suitable for large optics,” Proc. 2nd CIRP High Performance Cutting (2006).
  6. I. Inasaki, “Grinding of Hard and Brittle Materials,” CIRP Annals 36/2, 463–471 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. G. Bifano, T. A. Dow, and R. O. Scattergood, “Ductile regime grinding - A new technology for machining brittle materials,” J. Eng. Ind. 113/2, 184–189 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Shore, P. McKeown, S. Impey, and D. Stephenson, “Surface and near surface conditions of “ductile” mode ground Zerodur,” Proc. 8th Int. Prec. Eng. Seminar, 365–368 (1995).
  9. B. Lawn, Fracture of Brittle Solids (Cambridge University Press1975).
  10. T. M. A. Maksoud, A. A. Mokbel, and J. E. Morgan, “Evaluation of surface and sub-surface cracks of ground ceramic,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 88, 222–243 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. C. Lambropoulos, “From abrasive size to subsurface damage in grinding,” Optical Fab. & Testing, OSA Technical Digest, 17–18 (2000).
  12. P. P. Hed and D. F. Edwards, “Optical glass fabrication technology 2: Relationship between surface roughness and subsurface damage,” Appl. Opt. 26/21, 4677–4680 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Franse, “Aspects of Precision Grinding,” PhD thesis, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (1991).
  14. P. Shore, “Machining of optical surfaces in brittle materials using an ultra-precision machine tool,” PhD thesis, Cranfield University (1995).
  15. X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Subsurface damage caused during rapid grinding of Zerodur,” Proc. ISAAT07, (to be published).
  16. H. K. Tonshoff, E. Brinksmeier, and F. Hetz, “Detection of microcracks,” CIRP Annals 36/2, 545–552 (1987).
  17. K. E. Puttick, C. Jeynes, L. Whitmore, M. R. Rudman, M. Yamasaka, P. Shore, and A. E. Gee, “Surface damage in nanoground silicon,” Proc. IMECH, 49–51 (1992).
  18. M. J. Ball, N. A. Murphy, and P. Shore, “Electrolytically assisted “ductile” mode diamond grinding of BK7 and SF10 optical glasses,” Proc. SPIE 1573, 30–38 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. Sun, D. J. Stephenson, O. Ohnishi, and A. Baldwin, “An investigation into parallel and cross grinding of BK7 glass,” Prec. Eng. 30/2, 145–153 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface/subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 627308 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Matson, “CTE Tailored Materials for Hybrid Mirror Systems,” presented at the SOMTC Technology days, US, 17 Sept. 2003.
  22. M. Viens, “Fracture Toughness and Crack Growth of Zerodur,” (Technical Memo, 1990) http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA309969
  23. R. E. Parks, “Two approaches to generating Free-Form optics,” Proc. ASPE 04 Winter Top., 88–93 (2004).
  24. T. Kuriyagawa, M. S. S. Zahmaty, and K. Syoji, “A new grinding method for aspheric ceramic mirrors,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 62/4, 387–392 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. F. Cheung and W. B. Lee, “Modelling and Simulation of Surface Topography in Ultra-Precision Diamond Turning,” Proc. IMECH 214/6, 463–480 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (3)

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, A. Baldwin, P. Morantz, T. Jin, and D. Stephenson, “Wheel wear investigations when precision grinding of optical materials using the BoX® grinding mode,” Proc. 5th High Speed Machining, 177–186 (2006).

X. Sun, D. J. Stephenson, O. Ohnishi, and A. Baldwin, “An investigation into parallel and cross grinding of BK7 glass,” Prec. Eng. 30/2, 145–153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface/subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 627308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. Shore, P. Morantz, X. Luo, X. Tonnellier, R. Read, and R. May-Miller, “Design philosophy of the ultra precision big optix “BoX” machine,” Proc. Landamap, 200–209 (2005).

2004 (2)

R. Gilmozzi, “Science and technology drivers for future giant telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 1–10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Parks, “Two approaches to generating Free-Form optics,” Proc. ASPE 04 Winter Top., 88–93 (2004).

2003 (1)

P. Shore and R. May-Miller, “Production challenge of the optical segments for extra large telescopes,” Proc. Int. Progress on Adv. Optics & Sensors, 25–30 (2003).

2000 (2)

J. C. Lambropoulos, “From abrasive size to subsurface damage in grinding,” Optical Fab. & Testing, OSA Technical Digest, 17–18 (2000).

C. F. Cheung and W. B. Lee, “Modelling and Simulation of Surface Topography in Ultra-Precision Diamond Turning,” Proc. IMECH 214/6, 463–480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. M. A. Maksoud, A. A. Mokbel, and J. E. Morgan, “Evaluation of surface and sub-surface cracks of ground ceramic,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 88, 222–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. Kuriyagawa, M. S. S. Zahmaty, and K. Syoji, “A new grinding method for aspheric ceramic mirrors,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 62/4, 387–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. Shore, P. McKeown, S. Impey, and D. Stephenson, “Surface and near surface conditions of “ductile” mode ground Zerodur,” Proc. 8th Int. Prec. Eng. Seminar, 365–368 (1995).

1992 (1)

K. E. Puttick, C. Jeynes, L. Whitmore, M. R. Rudman, M. Yamasaka, P. Shore, and A. E. Gee, “Surface damage in nanoground silicon,” Proc. IMECH, 49–51 (1992).

1991 (2)

M. J. Ball, N. A. Murphy, and P. Shore, “Electrolytically assisted “ductile” mode diamond grinding of BK7 and SF10 optical glasses,” Proc. SPIE 1573, 30–38 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Bifano, T. A. Dow, and R. O. Scattergood, “Ductile regime grinding - A new technology for machining brittle materials,” J. Eng. Ind. 113/2, 184–189 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

I. Inasaki, “Grinding of Hard and Brittle Materials,” CIRP Annals 36/2, 463–471 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Hed and D. F. Edwards, “Optical glass fabrication technology 2: Relationship between surface roughness and subsurface damage,” Appl. Opt. 26/21, 4677–4680 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tonshoff, E. Brinksmeier, and F. Hetz, “Detection of microcracks,” CIRP Annals 36/2, 545–552 (1987).

Baldwin, A.

X. Sun, D. J. Stephenson, O. Ohnishi, and A. Baldwin, “An investigation into parallel and cross grinding of BK7 glass,” Prec. Eng. 30/2, 145–153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface/subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 627308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, A. Baldwin, P. Morantz, T. Jin, and D. Stephenson, “Wheel wear investigations when precision grinding of optical materials using the BoX® grinding mode,” Proc. 5th High Speed Machining, 177–186 (2006).

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, and A. Baldwin, “High performance grinding studies on optical materials suitable for large optics,” Proc. 2nd CIRP High Performance Cutting (2006).

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Subsurface damage caused during rapid grinding of Zerodur,” Proc. ISAAT07, (to be published).

Ball, M. J.

M. J. Ball, N. A. Murphy, and P. Shore, “Electrolytically assisted “ductile” mode diamond grinding of BK7 and SF10 optical glasses,” Proc. SPIE 1573, 30–38 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bifano, T. G.

T. G. Bifano, T. A. Dow, and R. O. Scattergood, “Ductile regime grinding - A new technology for machining brittle materials,” J. Eng. Ind. 113/2, 184–189 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brinksmeier, E.

H. K. Tonshoff, E. Brinksmeier, and F. Hetz, “Detection of microcracks,” CIRP Annals 36/2, 545–552 (1987).

Cheung, C. F.

C. F. Cheung and W. B. Lee, “Modelling and Simulation of Surface Topography in Ultra-Precision Diamond Turning,” Proc. IMECH 214/6, 463–480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dow, T. A.

T. G. Bifano, T. A. Dow, and R. O. Scattergood, “Ductile regime grinding - A new technology for machining brittle materials,” J. Eng. Ind. 113/2, 184–189 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. F.

P. P. Hed and D. F. Edwards, “Optical glass fabrication technology 2: Relationship between surface roughness and subsurface damage,” Appl. Opt. 26/21, 4677–4680 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R.

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface/subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 627308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Subsurface damage caused during rapid grinding of Zerodur,” Proc. ISAAT07, (to be published).

Franse, J.

J. Franse, “Aspects of Precision Grinding,” PhD thesis, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (1991).

Gee, A. E.

K. E. Puttick, C. Jeynes, L. Whitmore, M. R. Rudman, M. Yamasaka, P. Shore, and A. E. Gee, “Surface damage in nanoground silicon,” Proc. IMECH, 49–51 (1992).

Gilmozzi, R.

R. Gilmozzi, “Science and technology drivers for future giant telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 1–10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hed, P. P.

P. P. Hed and D. F. Edwards, “Optical glass fabrication technology 2: Relationship between surface roughness and subsurface damage,” Appl. Opt. 26/21, 4677–4680 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hetz, F.

H. K. Tonshoff, E. Brinksmeier, and F. Hetz, “Detection of microcracks,” CIRP Annals 36/2, 545–552 (1987).

Impey, S.

P. Shore, P. McKeown, S. Impey, and D. Stephenson, “Surface and near surface conditions of “ductile” mode ground Zerodur,” Proc. 8th Int. Prec. Eng. Seminar, 365–368 (1995).

Inasaki, I.

I. Inasaki, “Grinding of Hard and Brittle Materials,” CIRP Annals 36/2, 463–471 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jeynes, C.

K. E. Puttick, C. Jeynes, L. Whitmore, M. R. Rudman, M. Yamasaka, P. Shore, and A. E. Gee, “Surface damage in nanoground silicon,” Proc. IMECH, 49–51 (1992).

Jin, T.

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, A. Baldwin, P. Morantz, T. Jin, and D. Stephenson, “Wheel wear investigations when precision grinding of optical materials using the BoX® grinding mode,” Proc. 5th High Speed Machining, 177–186 (2006).

Kuriyagawa, T.

T. Kuriyagawa, M. S. S. Zahmaty, and K. Syoji, “A new grinding method for aspheric ceramic mirrors,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 62/4, 387–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lambropoulos, J. C.

J. C. Lambropoulos, “From abrasive size to subsurface damage in grinding,” Optical Fab. & Testing, OSA Technical Digest, 17–18 (2000).

Lawn, B.

B. Lawn, Fracture of Brittle Solids (Cambridge University Press1975).

Lee, W. B.

C. F. Cheung and W. B. Lee, “Modelling and Simulation of Surface Topography in Ultra-Precision Diamond Turning,” Proc. IMECH 214/6, 463–480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, A. Baldwin, P. Morantz, T. Jin, and D. Stephenson, “Wheel wear investigations when precision grinding of optical materials using the BoX® grinding mode,” Proc. 5th High Speed Machining, 177–186 (2006).

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface/subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 627308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Shore, P. Morantz, X. Luo, X. Tonnellier, R. Read, and R. May-Miller, “Design philosophy of the ultra precision big optix “BoX” machine,” Proc. Landamap, 200–209 (2005).

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, and A. Baldwin, “High performance grinding studies on optical materials suitable for large optics,” Proc. 2nd CIRP High Performance Cutting (2006).

Maksoud, T. M. A.

T. M. A. Maksoud, A. A. Mokbel, and J. E. Morgan, “Evaluation of surface and sub-surface cracks of ground ceramic,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 88, 222–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matson, L.

L. Matson, “CTE Tailored Materials for Hybrid Mirror Systems,” presented at the SOMTC Technology days, US, 17 Sept. 2003.

May-Miller, R.

P. Shore, P. Morantz, X. Luo, X. Tonnellier, R. Read, and R. May-Miller, “Design philosophy of the ultra precision big optix “BoX” machine,” Proc. Landamap, 200–209 (2005).

P. Shore and R. May-Miller, “Production challenge of the optical segments for extra large telescopes,” Proc. Int. Progress on Adv. Optics & Sensors, 25–30 (2003).

McKeown, P.

P. Shore, P. McKeown, S. Impey, and D. Stephenson, “Surface and near surface conditions of “ductile” mode ground Zerodur,” Proc. 8th Int. Prec. Eng. Seminar, 365–368 (1995).

Mokbel, A. A.

T. M. A. Maksoud, A. A. Mokbel, and J. E. Morgan, “Evaluation of surface and sub-surface cracks of ground ceramic,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 88, 222–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morantz, P.

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, A. Baldwin, P. Morantz, T. Jin, and D. Stephenson, “Wheel wear investigations when precision grinding of optical materials using the BoX® grinding mode,” Proc. 5th High Speed Machining, 177–186 (2006).

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface/subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 627308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Shore, P. Morantz, X. Luo, X. Tonnellier, R. Read, and R. May-Miller, “Design philosophy of the ultra precision big optix “BoX” machine,” Proc. Landamap, 200–209 (2005).

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, and A. Baldwin, “High performance grinding studies on optical materials suitable for large optics,” Proc. 2nd CIRP High Performance Cutting (2006).

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Subsurface damage caused during rapid grinding of Zerodur,” Proc. ISAAT07, (to be published).

Morgan, J. E.

T. M. A. Maksoud, A. A. Mokbel, and J. E. Morgan, “Evaluation of surface and sub-surface cracks of ground ceramic,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 88, 222–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, N. A.

M. J. Ball, N. A. Murphy, and P. Shore, “Electrolytically assisted “ductile” mode diamond grinding of BK7 and SF10 optical glasses,” Proc. SPIE 1573, 30–38 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ohnishi, O.

X. Sun, D. J. Stephenson, O. Ohnishi, and A. Baldwin, “An investigation into parallel and cross grinding of BK7 glass,” Prec. Eng. 30/2, 145–153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Parks, R. E.

R. E. Parks, “Two approaches to generating Free-Form optics,” Proc. ASPE 04 Winter Top., 88–93 (2004).

Puttick, K. E.

K. E. Puttick, C. Jeynes, L. Whitmore, M. R. Rudman, M. Yamasaka, P. Shore, and A. E. Gee, “Surface damage in nanoground silicon,” Proc. IMECH, 49–51 (1992).

Read, R.

P. Shore, P. Morantz, X. Luo, X. Tonnellier, R. Read, and R. May-Miller, “Design philosophy of the ultra precision big optix “BoX” machine,” Proc. Landamap, 200–209 (2005).

Rudman, M. R.

K. E. Puttick, C. Jeynes, L. Whitmore, M. R. Rudman, M. Yamasaka, P. Shore, and A. E. Gee, “Surface damage in nanoground silicon,” Proc. IMECH, 49–51 (1992).

Scattergood, R. O.

T. G. Bifano, T. A. Dow, and R. O. Scattergood, “Ductile regime grinding - A new technology for machining brittle materials,” J. Eng. Ind. 113/2, 184–189 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shore, P.

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, A. Baldwin, P. Morantz, T. Jin, and D. Stephenson, “Wheel wear investigations when precision grinding of optical materials using the BoX® grinding mode,” Proc. 5th High Speed Machining, 177–186 (2006).

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface/subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 627308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Shore, P. Morantz, X. Luo, X. Tonnellier, R. Read, and R. May-Miller, “Design philosophy of the ultra precision big optix “BoX” machine,” Proc. Landamap, 200–209 (2005).

P. Shore and R. May-Miller, “Production challenge of the optical segments for extra large telescopes,” Proc. Int. Progress on Adv. Optics & Sensors, 25–30 (2003).

P. Shore, P. McKeown, S. Impey, and D. Stephenson, “Surface and near surface conditions of “ductile” mode ground Zerodur,” Proc. 8th Int. Prec. Eng. Seminar, 365–368 (1995).

K. E. Puttick, C. Jeynes, L. Whitmore, M. R. Rudman, M. Yamasaka, P. Shore, and A. E. Gee, “Surface damage in nanoground silicon,” Proc. IMECH, 49–51 (1992).

M. J. Ball, N. A. Murphy, and P. Shore, “Electrolytically assisted “ductile” mode diamond grinding of BK7 and SF10 optical glasses,” Proc. SPIE 1573, 30–38 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Shore, “Machining of optical surfaces in brittle materials using an ultra-precision machine tool,” PhD thesis, Cranfield University (1995).

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Subsurface damage caused during rapid grinding of Zerodur,” Proc. ISAAT07, (to be published).

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, and A. Baldwin, “High performance grinding studies on optical materials suitable for large optics,” Proc. 2nd CIRP High Performance Cutting (2006).

Stephenson, D.

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, A. Baldwin, P. Morantz, T. Jin, and D. Stephenson, “Wheel wear investigations when precision grinding of optical materials using the BoX® grinding mode,” Proc. 5th High Speed Machining, 177–186 (2006).

P. Shore, P. McKeown, S. Impey, and D. Stephenson, “Surface and near surface conditions of “ductile” mode ground Zerodur,” Proc. 8th Int. Prec. Eng. Seminar, 365–368 (1995).

Stephenson, D. J.

X. Sun, D. J. Stephenson, O. Ohnishi, and A. Baldwin, “An investigation into parallel and cross grinding of BK7 glass,” Prec. Eng. 30/2, 145–153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

X. Sun, D. J. Stephenson, O. Ohnishi, and A. Baldwin, “An investigation into parallel and cross grinding of BK7 glass,” Prec. Eng. 30/2, 145–153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Syoji, K.

T. Kuriyagawa, M. S. S. Zahmaty, and K. Syoji, “A new grinding method for aspheric ceramic mirrors,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 62/4, 387–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tonnellier, X.

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface/subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 627308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, A. Baldwin, P. Morantz, T. Jin, and D. Stephenson, “Wheel wear investigations when precision grinding of optical materials using the BoX® grinding mode,” Proc. 5th High Speed Machining, 177–186 (2006).

P. Shore, P. Morantz, X. Luo, X. Tonnellier, R. Read, and R. May-Miller, “Design philosophy of the ultra precision big optix “BoX” machine,” Proc. Landamap, 200–209 (2005).

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, and A. Baldwin, “High performance grinding studies on optical materials suitable for large optics,” Proc. 2nd CIRP High Performance Cutting (2006).

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Subsurface damage caused during rapid grinding of Zerodur,” Proc. ISAAT07, (to be published).

Tonshoff, H. K.

H. K. Tonshoff, E. Brinksmeier, and F. Hetz, “Detection of microcracks,” CIRP Annals 36/2, 545–552 (1987).

Viens, M.

M. Viens, “Fracture Toughness and Crack Growth of Zerodur,” (Technical Memo, 1990) http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA309969

Walker, D. D.

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface/subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 627308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Subsurface damage caused during rapid grinding of Zerodur,” Proc. ISAAT07, (to be published).

Whitmore, L.

K. E. Puttick, C. Jeynes, L. Whitmore, M. R. Rudman, M. Yamasaka, P. Shore, and A. E. Gee, “Surface damage in nanoground silicon,” Proc. IMECH, 49–51 (1992).

Yamasaka, M.

K. E. Puttick, C. Jeynes, L. Whitmore, M. R. Rudman, M. Yamasaka, P. Shore, and A. E. Gee, “Surface damage in nanoground silicon,” Proc. IMECH, 49–51 (1992).

Zahmaty, M. S. S.

T. Kuriyagawa, M. S. S. Zahmaty, and K. Syoji, “A new grinding method for aspheric ceramic mirrors,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 62/4, 387–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

P. P. Hed and D. F. Edwards, “Optical glass fabrication technology 2: Relationship between surface roughness and subsurface damage,” Appl. Opt. 26/21, 4677–4680 (1987).
[CrossRef]

CIRP Annals (2)

H. K. Tonshoff, E. Brinksmeier, and F. Hetz, “Detection of microcracks,” CIRP Annals 36/2, 545–552 (1987).

I. Inasaki, “Grinding of Hard and Brittle Materials,” CIRP Annals 36/2, 463–471 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Eng. Ind. (1)

T. G. Bifano, T. A. Dow, and R. O. Scattergood, “Ductile regime grinding - A new technology for machining brittle materials,” J. Eng. Ind. 113/2, 184–189 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Process. Technol. (2)

T. M. A. Maksoud, A. A. Mokbel, and J. E. Morgan, “Evaluation of surface and sub-surface cracks of ground ceramic,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 88, 222–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Kuriyagawa, M. S. S. Zahmaty, and K. Syoji, “A new grinding method for aspheric ceramic mirrors,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 62/4, 387–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Optical Fab. & Testing, OSA Technical Digest (1)

J. C. Lambropoulos, “From abrasive size to subsurface damage in grinding,” Optical Fab. & Testing, OSA Technical Digest, 17–18 (2000).

Prec. Eng. (1)

X. Sun, D. J. Stephenson, O. Ohnishi, and A. Baldwin, “An investigation into parallel and cross grinding of BK7 glass,” Prec. Eng. 30/2, 145–153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. 5th High Speed Machining (1)

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, A. Baldwin, P. Morantz, T. Jin, and D. Stephenson, “Wheel wear investigations when precision grinding of optical materials using the BoX® grinding mode,” Proc. 5th High Speed Machining, 177–186 (2006).

Proc. 8th Int. Prec. Eng. Seminar (1)

P. Shore, P. McKeown, S. Impey, and D. Stephenson, “Surface and near surface conditions of “ductile” mode ground Zerodur,” Proc. 8th Int. Prec. Eng. Seminar, 365–368 (1995).

Proc. ASPE 04 Winter Top. (1)

R. E. Parks, “Two approaches to generating Free-Form optics,” Proc. ASPE 04 Winter Top., 88–93 (2004).

Proc. IMECH (2)

C. F. Cheung and W. B. Lee, “Modelling and Simulation of Surface Topography in Ultra-Precision Diamond Turning,” Proc. IMECH 214/6, 463–480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Puttick, C. Jeynes, L. Whitmore, M. R. Rudman, M. Yamasaka, P. Shore, and A. E. Gee, “Surface damage in nanoground silicon,” Proc. IMECH, 49–51 (1992).

Proc. Int. Progress on Adv. Optics & Sensors (1)

P. Shore and R. May-Miller, “Production challenge of the optical segments for extra large telescopes,” Proc. Int. Progress on Adv. Optics & Sensors, 25–30 (2003).

Proc. Landamap (1)

P. Shore, P. Morantz, X. Luo, X. Tonnellier, R. Read, and R. May-Miller, “Design philosophy of the ultra precision big optix “BoX” machine,” Proc. Landamap, 200–209 (2005).

Proc. SPIE (3)

M. J. Ball, N. A. Murphy, and P. Shore, “Electrolytically assisted “ductile” mode diamond grinding of BK7 and SF10 optical glasses,” Proc. SPIE 1573, 30–38 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Gilmozzi, “Science and technology drivers for future giant telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 1–10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface/subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 627308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

L. Matson, “CTE Tailored Materials for Hybrid Mirror Systems,” presented at the SOMTC Technology days, US, 17 Sept. 2003.

M. Viens, “Fracture Toughness and Crack Growth of Zerodur,” (Technical Memo, 1990) http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA309969

J. Franse, “Aspects of Precision Grinding,” PhD thesis, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (1991).

P. Shore, “Machining of optical surfaces in brittle materials using an ultra-precision machine tool,” PhD thesis, Cranfield University (1995).

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Subsurface damage caused during rapid grinding of Zerodur,” Proc. ISAAT07, (to be published).

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, and A. Baldwin, “High performance grinding studies on optical materials suitable for large optics,” Proc. 2nd CIRP High Performance Cutting (2006).

B. Lawn, Fracture of Brittle Solids (Cambridge University Press1975).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Holroyd Edgetek 5 axis machine and b) grinding set-up used

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Grinding mode, b) Semi finish surface (Zerodur®)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Finish cut using D46 a) Zerodur® b) ULE®

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Subsurface damage after etching – a) ULE® b) Zerodur®

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Number of cracks per mm2 for different depths beneath ground surfaces - D25 wheel - a) ULE® b) Zerodur®

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Number of cracks per mm2 for different depths beneath ground surfaces - D46 wheel - a) ULE® b) Zerodur®

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

‘Process’ related and ‘Machine dynamics’ related zones (finish cut - D25) - a) ULE® b) Zerodur®

Tables (5)

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Table 1. Material properties [21, 22]

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Table 2. Grinding wheels specifications

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Table 3. Grinding parameters

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Table 4. Surface Responses

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Table 5. Subsurface damage data results

Metrics