Abstract

We have investigated the absorption spectra of seventeen explosives and related compounds (ERCs) by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the 0.1–2.8 THz region. Most of these substances show characteristic absorption features in this frequency range. The measured absorption coefficients of these ERCs form a database, which is of great importance for biochemical, defense and security related applications.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5070, 44–52 (2003).
  2. Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security ApplicationsII, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).
  3. K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami“Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Duvillaret, F. Garet , and J-L Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quan. Electron. 2, 739–746 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Y. Han, X. G. Huang, and X. -C. Zhang, “Direct characterization of terahertz radiation from the dynamics of the semiconductor surface field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2864–2866 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X. -C. Zhang, “Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924–2926 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. M. Rice and C. F. Chabalowski, “Ab Initio and Nonlocal Density Functional Study of 1,3,5-Trinitro-striazine (RDX) Conformers,” J. Phys. Chem. 101, 8720–8726 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-State Modeling of the Terahertz Spectrum of the High explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A  110, 1951–1959 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. G. Allis and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical Analysis of the Terahertz Spectrum of the High Explosive PETN,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 7, 2398–2408 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-State Modeling of the Terahertz Spectrum of the High explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A  110, 1951–1959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Allis and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical Analysis of the Terahertz Spectrum of the High Explosive PETN,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 7, 2398–2408 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami“Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Y. Han, X. G. Huang, and X. -C. Zhang, “Direct characterization of terahertz radiation from the dynamics of the semiconductor surface field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2864–2866 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X. -C. Zhang, “Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924–2926 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet , and J-L Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quan. Electron. 2, 739–746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Allis, D. G.

D. G. Allis and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical Analysis of the Terahertz Spectrum of the High Explosive PETN,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 7, 2398–2408 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-State Modeling of the Terahertz Spectrum of the High explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A  110, 1951–1959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altan, H.

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barat, R.

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chabalowski, C. F.

B. M. Rice and C. F. Chabalowski, “Ab Initio and Nonlocal Density Functional Study of 1,3,5-Trinitro-striazine (RDX) Conformers,” J. Phys. Chem. 101, 8720–8726 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security ApplicationsII, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).

Cluff, J. A.

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5070, 44–52 (2003).

Cole, B. E.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5070, 44–52 (2003).

Coutaz, J-L

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet , and J-L Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quan. Electron. 2, 739–746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security ApplicationsII, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).

Dodson, C.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duvillaret, L.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet , and J-L Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quan. Electron. 2, 739–746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J. F.

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fitch, M. J.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security ApplicationsII, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).

Fitzgerald, A. J.

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5070, 44–52 (2003).

Garet, F.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet , and J-L Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quan. Electron. 2, 739–746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gary, D.

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, P. Y.

P. Y. Han, X. G. Huang, and X. -C. Zhang, “Direct characterization of terahertz radiation from the dynamics of the semiconductor surface field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2864–2866 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hangyo, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami“Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. G.

P. Y. Han, X. G. Huang, and X. -C. Zhang, “Direct characterization of terahertz radiation from the dynamics of the semiconductor surface field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2864–2866 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami“Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, M. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5070, 44–52 (2003).

Koide, K.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami“Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Korter, T. M.

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-State Modeling of the Terahertz Spectrum of the High explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A  110, 1951–1959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Allis and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical Analysis of the Terahertz Spectrum of the High Explosive PETN,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 7, 2398–2408 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litz, M.

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X. -C. Zhang, “Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924–2926 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security ApplicationsII, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).

Lo, T.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, A.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami“Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Minami, Y.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami“Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyamaru, F.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami“Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Osiander, R.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security ApplicationsII, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).

Prokhorova, D. A.

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-State Modeling of the Terahertz Spectrum of the High explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A  110, 1951–1959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rice, B. M.

B. M. Rice and C. F. Chabalowski, “Ab Initio and Nonlocal Density Functional Study of 1,3,5-Trinitro-striazine (RDX) Conformers,” J. Phys. Chem. 101, 8720–8726 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schauki, D.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security ApplicationsII, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).

Schulkin, B.

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security ApplicationsII, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).

Spicer, J. B.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taday, P. F.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5070, 44–52 (2003).

Tani, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami“Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, D. B.

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tatsuno, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami“Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tribe, W. R.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5070, 44–52 (2003).

Veksler, D.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security ApplicationsII, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X. -C. Zhang, “Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924–2926 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami“Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami“Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. -C.

P. Y. Han, X. G. Huang, and X. -C. Zhang, “Direct characterization of terahertz radiation from the dynamics of the semiconductor surface field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2864–2866 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X. -C. Zhang, “Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924–2926 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security ApplicationsII, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).

Zhang, X.-C.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zimdars, D.

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Han, X. G. Huang, and X. -C. Zhang, “Direct characterization of terahertz radiation from the dynamics of the semiconductor surface field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2864–2866 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Chem. (1)

D. G. Allis and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical Analysis of the Terahertz Spectrum of the High Explosive PETN,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 7, 2398–2408 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quan. Electron. (1)

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J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-State Modeling of the Terahertz Spectrum of the High explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A  110, 1951–1959 (2006).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami“Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
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Other (3)

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Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security ApplicationsII, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Normalized THz spectrum of THz-TDS in dry nitrogen. (Frequency range: 0.1–3 THz)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The absorption spectra of RDX and HMX covered with different materials (plastic, cotton and leather). Black solid circle: the transmission spectra of pure samples; red hollow circle: the transmission spectra of covered samples; blue hollow triangle: the transmission spectra of covers; green hollow rectangle: the sum of pure samples and covers. The THz spectrum of ambient air is used as reference.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. The structure information and absorption spectra of ERCs

Equations (4)

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T = E trans ( ν ) E 0 ( ν ) = A exp ( i φ ) 4 n ( 1 + n ) 2 exp [ i 2 π ν ( n ˜ 1 ) d c ]
κ = c 2 π d ν ln ( 4 n A ( 1 + n ) 2 )
n = c φ 2 π d ν + 1
α = 4 π ν κ c = 2 d ln [ 4 n A ( 1 + n ) 2 ]

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