Abstract

We have investigated the absorption spectra of seventeen explosives and related compounds (ERCs) by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the 0.1–2.8 THz region. Most of these substances show characteristic absorption features in this frequency range. The measured absorption coefficients of these ERCs form a database, which is of great importance for biochemical, defense and security related applications.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald and W. R. Tribe, "Security applications of terahertz technology," in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5070, 44-52 (2003).
  2. Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch and R. Osiander, "Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region," in Terahertz for Military and Security ApplicationsII, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1-8 (2004).
  3. K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414-417 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen and D. B. Tanner, "Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535-5537 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Duvillaret, F. Garet and J-L Coutaz, "A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quan. Electron. 2, 739-746 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Y. Han, X. G. Huang and X. -C. Zhang, "Direct characterization of terahertz radiation from the dynamics of the semiconductor surface field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2864-2866 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Wu, M. Litz and X. -C. Zhang, "Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924-2926 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. M. Rice and C. F. Chabalowski, "Ab Initio and Nonlocal Density Functional Study of 1,3,5-Trinitro-s-triazine (RDX) Conformers," J. Phys. Chem. 101,8720-8726 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova and T. M. Korter, "Solid-State Modeling of the Terahertz Spectrum of the High explosive HMX," J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 1951-1959 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. G. Allis and T. M. Korter, "Theoretical Analysis of the Terahertz Spectrum of the High Explosive PETN, " Chem. Phys. Chem. 7, 2398-2408 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova and T. M. Korter, "Solid-State Modeling of the Terahertz Spectrum of the High explosive HMX," J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 1951-1959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Allis and T. M. Korter, "Theoretical Analysis of the Terahertz Spectrum of the High Explosive PETN, " Chem. Phys. Chem. 7, 2398-2408 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen and D. B. Tanner, "Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535-5537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Y. Han, X. G. Huang and X. -C. Zhang, "Direct characterization of terahertz radiation from the dynamics of the semiconductor surface field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2864-2866 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. M. Rice and C. F. Chabalowski, "Ab Initio and Nonlocal Density Functional Study of 1,3,5-Trinitro-s-triazine (RDX) Conformers," J. Phys. Chem. 101,8720-8726 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

Q. Wu, M. Litz and X. -C. Zhang, "Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924-2926 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet and J-L Coutaz, "A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quan. Electron. 2, 739-746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen and D. B. Tanner, "Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535-5537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Han, X. G. Huang and X. -C. Zhang, "Direct characterization of terahertz radiation from the dynamics of the semiconductor surface field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2864-2866 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, M. Litz and X. -C. Zhang, "Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924-2926 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Chem. (1)

D. G. Allis and T. M. Korter, "Theoretical Analysis of the Terahertz Spectrum of the High Explosive PETN, " Chem. Phys. Chem. 7, 2398-2408 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quan. Electron. (1)

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet and J-L Coutaz, "A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quan. Electron. 2, 739-746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

B. M. Rice and C. F. Chabalowski, "Ab Initio and Nonlocal Density Functional Study of 1,3,5-Trinitro-s-triazine (RDX) Conformers," J. Phys. Chem. 101,8720-8726 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova and T. M. Korter, "Solid-State Modeling of the Terahertz Spectrum of the High explosive HMX," J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 1951-1959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald and W. R. Tribe, "Security applications of terahertz technology," in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5070, 44-52 (2003).

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch and R. Osiander, "Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region," in Terahertz for Military and Security ApplicationsII, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1-8 (2004).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Normalized THz spectrum of THz-TDS in dry nitrogen. (Frequency range: 0.1–3 THz)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The absorption spectra of RDX and HMX covered with different materials (plastic, cotton and leather). Black solid circle: the transmission spectra of pure samples; red hollow circle: the transmission spectra of covered samples; blue hollow triangle: the transmission spectra of covers; green hollow rectangle: the sum of pure samples and covers. The THz spectrum of ambient air is used as reference.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The structure information and absorption spectra of ERCs

Equations (4)

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T = E trans ( ν ) E 0 ( ν ) = A exp ( i φ ) 4 n ( 1 + n ) 2 exp [ i 2 π ν ( n ˜ 1 ) d c ]
κ = c 2 π d ν ln ( 4 n A ( 1 + n ) 2 )
n = c φ 2 π d ν + 1
α = 4 π ν κ c = 2 d ln [ 4 n A ( 1 + n ) 2 ]

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