Abstract

We demonstrate efficient generation of THz pulses by optical rectification of 1.03 um wavelength laser pulses in LiNbO3 using tilted pulse front excitation for velocity matching between the optical and THz fields. Pulse energies of 100 nJ with a spectral bandwidth of up to 2.5 THz were obtained at a pump energy of 400 uJ and 300 fs pulse duration. This conversion efficiency of 2.5×10-4 was an order of magnitude higher than that obtained with collinear optical recitification in GaP, and far higher still than that measured using ZnTe in an optimized geometry. Using a simple model we demonstrate that two- and three-photon absorption strongly limit the THz generation efficiency at high pump fluences in ZnTe and GaP respectively.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz Beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490–492 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Herrmann, M. Tanic, and K. Sakai, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulsed radiation with photoconductive antennas and its application to imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol 13, 1739–1745 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. M. Koehl and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics: automated spatiotemporal control over propagating lattice waves,” Chem. Phys. 267, 151–159 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal Coherent Control of Lattice Vibrational Waves,” Science 299, 374–377 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Feurer, N. S. Stoyanov, D. W. Ward, J. C. Vaughan, E. R. Statz, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 317–350 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10, 1161–1166 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  7. J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593–599 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A.G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of mJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” App. Phys. B 86, 419–423 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 mJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Suzuki and M. Tonouchi, “Fe-implanted InGaAs photoconductive terahertz detectors triggered by 1.56 m femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 163504 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Mangeney, L. Joulaud, P. Crozat, H. Bernas, K. Blary, and J. F. Lampin, “Terahertz radiation from heavy-ion-irradiated In0.53Ga0.47As photoconductive antenna excited at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 193510 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Imeshev, M. E. Fermann, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, “High-power source of THz radiation based on orientation-patterned GaAs pumped by a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 14, 4439–4444 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. J. Ding, “Efficient generation of high-power quasi-single-cycle terahertz pulses from a single infrared beam in a second-order nonlinear medium,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2650–2652 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. Chang, C. J. Divin, C-H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, “Power scalable compact THz system based on an ultrafast Yb-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 14, 7909–7913 (2006).
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  16. D. Redfield and W. J. Burke, “Optical absorption edge of LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4566–4571 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. R. Shen, The principles of nonlinear optics (Wiley2002).
  18. A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Melnikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, “Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification,” JETP Lett 85, 227–230 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Löffler, T. Hahn, M. Thomson, F. Jacob, and H. Roskos, “Large-area electro-optic ZnTe terahertz emitters,” Opt. Express 13, 5353–5362 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9, 405–414 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. Nathan and A. H. Guenther, “Review Of Multiphoton Absorption in Crystalline Solids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 294–316 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. H. Yee and H. H. M. Chau, Opt. Commun., “Two-photon indirect transition in GaP crystal,” Opt. Commun.10, 56–58 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (4)

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A.G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of mJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” App. Phys. B 86, 419–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 mJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Feurer, N. S. Stoyanov, D. W. Ward, J. C. Vaughan, E. R. Statz, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 317–350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Melnikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, “Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification,” JETP Lett 85, 227–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (3)

M. Suzuki and M. Tonouchi, “Fe-implanted InGaAs photoconductive terahertz detectors triggered by 1.56 m femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 163504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mangeney, L. Joulaud, P. Crozat, H. Bernas, K. Blary, and J. F. Lampin, “Terahertz radiation from heavy-ion-irradiated In0.53Ga0.47As photoconductive antenna excited at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 193510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, T. Hahn, M. Thomson, F. Jacob, and H. Roskos, “Large-area electro-optic ZnTe terahertz emitters,” Opt. Express 13, 5353–5362 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

Y. J. Ding, “Efficient generation of high-power quasi-single-cycle terahertz pulses from a single infrared beam in a second-order nonlinear medium,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2650–2652 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593–599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal Coherent Control of Lattice Vibrational Waves,” Science 299, 374–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

M. Herrmann, M. Tanic, and K. Sakai, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulsed radiation with photoconductive antennas and its application to imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol 13, 1739–1745 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10, 1161–1166 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. M. Koehl and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics: automated spatiotemporal control over propagating lattice waves,” Chem. Phys. 267, 151–159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “7 terahertz broadband GaP electro-optic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784–1786 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz Beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490–492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1974 (1)

D. Redfield and W. J. Burke, “Optical absorption edge of LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4566–4571 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Almási, G.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A.G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of mJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” App. Phys. B 86, 419–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593–599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10, 1161–1166 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bartal, B.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A.G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of mJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” App. Phys. B 86, 419–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593–599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bernas, H.

J. Mangeney, L. Joulaud, P. Crozat, H. Bernas, K. Blary, and J. F. Lampin, “Terahertz radiation from heavy-ion-irradiated In0.53Ga0.47As photoconductive antenna excited at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 193510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blary, K.

J. Mangeney, L. Joulaud, P. Crozat, H. Bernas, K. Blary, and J. F. Lampin, “Terahertz radiation from heavy-ion-irradiated In0.53Ga0.47As photoconductive antenna excited at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 193510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bliss, D.

Burke, W. J.

D. Redfield and W. J. Burke, “Optical absorption edge of LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4566–4571 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.

Chau, H. H. M.

J. H. Yee and H. H. M. Chau, Opt. Commun., “Two-photon indirect transition in GaP crystal,” Opt. Commun.10, 56–58 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Chekalin, S. V.

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Melnikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, “Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification,” JETP Lett 85, 227–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

J. Mangeney, L. Joulaud, P. Crozat, H. Bernas, K. Blary, and J. F. Lampin, “Terahertz radiation from heavy-ion-irradiated In0.53Ga0.47As photoconductive antenna excited at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 193510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DeSalvo, S. R.

S. R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. J.

Divin, C. J.

Fattinger, Ch.

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz Beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490–492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Fermann, M. E.

Feurer, T.

T. Feurer, N. S. Stoyanov, D. W. Ward, J. C. Vaughan, E. R. Statz, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 317–350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal Coherent Control of Lattice Vibrational Waves,” Science 299, 374–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galvanauskas, A.

Grischkowsky, D.

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz Beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490–492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, A. H.

Hagan, D. J.

S. R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, T.

Harris, J. S.

Hebling, J.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A.G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of mJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” App. Phys. B 86, 419–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 mJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593–599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10, 1161–1166 (2002).
[PubMed]

Herrmann, M.

M. Herrmann, M. Tanic, and K. Sakai, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulsed radiation with photoconductive antennas and its application to imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol 13, 1739–1745 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M. C.

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 mJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Imeshev, G.

Jacob, F.

Joulaud, L.

J. Mangeney, L. Joulaud, P. Crozat, H. Bernas, K. Blary, and J. F. Lampin, “Terahertz radiation from heavy-ion-irradiated In0.53Ga0.47As photoconductive antenna excited at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 193510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koehl, R. M.

R. M. Koehl and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics: automated spatiotemporal control over propagating lattice waves,” Chem. Phys. 267, 151–159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kompanets, V. O.

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Melnikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, “Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification,” JETP Lett 85, 227–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kozma, I.

Kozma, I. Z.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A.G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of mJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” App. Phys. B 86, 419–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuhl, J.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A.G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of mJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” App. Phys. B 86, 419–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593–599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10, 1161–1166 (2002).
[PubMed]

Lampin, J. F.

J. Mangeney, L. Joulaud, P. Crozat, H. Bernas, K. Blary, and J. F. Lampin, “Terahertz radiation from heavy-ion-irradiated In0.53Ga0.47As photoconductive antenna excited at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 193510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C-H.

Löffler, T.

Lynch, C.

Mangeney, J.

J. Mangeney, L. Joulaud, P. Crozat, H. Bernas, K. Blary, and J. F. Lampin, “Terahertz radiation from heavy-ion-irradiated In0.53Ga0.47As photoconductive antenna excited at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 193510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Melnikov, A. A.

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Melnikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, “Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification,” JETP Lett 85, 227–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nathan, V.

Nelson, K. A.

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 mJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Feurer, N. S. Stoyanov, D. W. Ward, J. C. Vaughan, E. R. Statz, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 317–350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal Coherent Control of Lattice Vibrational Waves,” Science 299, 374–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Koehl and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics: automated spatiotemporal control over propagating lattice waves,” Chem. Phys. 267, 151–159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

Redfield, D.

D. Redfield and W. J. Burke, “Optical absorption edge of LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4566–4571 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Riedle, E.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A.G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of mJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” App. Phys. B 86, 419–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H.

Said, A. A.

S. R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, K.

M. Herrmann, M. Tanic, and K. Sakai, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulsed radiation with photoconductive antennas and its application to imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol 13, 1739–1745 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

S. R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, The principles of nonlinear optics (Wiley2002).

Statz, E. R.

T. Feurer, N. S. Stoyanov, D. W. Ward, J. C. Vaughan, E. R. Statz, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 317–350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. G.

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Melnikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, “Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification,” JETP Lett 85, 227–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593–599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A.G.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A.G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of mJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” App. Phys. B 86, 419–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stoyanov, N. S.

T. Feurer, N. S. Stoyanov, D. W. Ward, J. C. Vaughan, E. R. Statz, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 317–350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

M. Suzuki and M. Tonouchi, “Fe-implanted InGaAs photoconductive terahertz detectors triggered by 1.56 m femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 163504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanic, M.

M. Herrmann, M. Tanic, and K. Sakai, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulsed radiation with photoconductive antennas and its application to imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol 13, 1739–1745 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M.

Tonouchi, M.

M. Suzuki and M. Tonouchi, “Fe-implanted InGaAs photoconductive terahertz detectors triggered by 1.56 m femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 163504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

S. R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, J. C.

T. Feurer, N. S. Stoyanov, D. W. Ward, J. C. Vaughan, E. R. Statz, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 317–350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal Coherent Control of Lattice Vibrational Waves,” Science 299, 374–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Wang, J.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ward, D. W.

T. Feurer, N. S. Stoyanov, D. W. Ward, J. C. Vaughan, E. R. Statz, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 317–350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, S. L.

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “7 terahertz broadband GaP electro-optic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784–1786 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yee, J. H.

J. H. Yee and H. H. M. Chau, Opt. Commun., “Two-photon indirect transition in GaP crystal,” Opt. Commun.10, 56–58 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, K.-L.

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 mJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

Zhang, X.-C.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “7 terahertz broadband GaP electro-optic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784–1786 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

T. Feurer, N. S. Stoyanov, D. W. Ward, J. C. Vaughan, E. R. Statz, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 317–350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. B (1)

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A.G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle, and J. Hebling, “Toward generation of mJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification,” App. Phys. B 86, 419–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, “Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 593–599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “7 terahertz broadband GaP electro-optic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784–1786 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 mJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Suzuki and M. Tonouchi, “Fe-implanted InGaAs photoconductive terahertz detectors triggered by 1.56 m femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 163504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mangeney, L. Joulaud, P. Crozat, H. Bernas, K. Blary, and J. F. Lampin, “Terahertz radiation from heavy-ion-irradiated In0.53Ga0.47As photoconductive antenna excited at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 193510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz Beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490–492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

R. M. Koehl and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz polaritonics: automated spatiotemporal control over propagating lattice waves,” Chem. Phys. 267, 151–159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Redfield and W. J. Burke, “Optical absorption edge of LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4566–4571 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

JETP Lett (1)

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Melnikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, “Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification,” JETP Lett 85, 227–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol (1)

M. Herrmann, M. Tanic, and K. Sakai, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulsed radiation with photoconductive antennas and its application to imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol 13, 1739–1745 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal Coherent Control of Lattice Vibrational Waves,” Science 299, 374–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

Y. R. Shen, The principles of nonlinear optics (Wiley2002).

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Yee and H. H. M. Chau, Opt. Commun., “Two-photon indirect transition in GaP crystal,” Opt. Commun.10, 56–58 (1974).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Tilted pulse front excitation scheme using a grating to tilt the pulse front and a lens to image it onto the generation crystal. (b) Geometry of the 0.6% MgO doped sLN crystal and polarization of the laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) THz pulse energy as function of the pump pulse energy for different materials at 1 kHz repetition rate. The lines indicate quadratic and linear depencences. (b) THz pulse energy from LiNbO3 as function of the pump pulse energy for high repetition rates. The average pump power was kept at 400 mW and the laser repetition rate was varied from 10 to 100 kHz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectrum and pulse form (inset) of the THz pulse from LiNbO3 generated with tilted pulse front excitation in LiNbO3 at 400 µJ pump pulse energy and 1 kHz repetition rate. The signal was measured by electro-optical sampling using a 2 mm GaP crystal.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spectra of the pump pulses scattered from the LN crystal with optimized (solid curve) and reduced (dashed curve) THz generation. The pump pulse energy was 400 µJ.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Left: Saturation behavior in GaP and fit using up to 3-photon-absorption coefficients. Right: data for LiNbO3 using tilted pulse front excitation and fits using a 4-photon absorption model.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ ¯ = λ S ( λ ) d λ S ( λ ) d λ .
Δ λ exp = c v 2 Δ v = 300 μ m ps ( 290 THz ) 2 · 0.92 THz = 3.28 nm .
E pulse THz = E photon THz N photon THz = h v THz · E pulse vis h v vis · η = 1.14 μ J
d I d z = α I ( z ) β I 2 ( z ) γ I 3 ( z ) δ I 4 ( z ) +
d E T Hz d z d eff I ( z ) a T Hz I ( z ) τ h ν [ α + 1 2 β I ( z ) + 1 3 γ I 2 ( z ) + 1 4 δ I 3 ( z ) ] · E ( z )

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