Abstract

Abstract

Direct computation of the bit-error rate (BER) and laboratory experiments are used to assess the performance of a non-slope matched transoceanic submarine transmission link operating at 20Gb/s channel rate and employing return-to-zero differential-phase shift keying (RZ-DPSK) signal modulation. Using this system as an example, we compare the accuracies of the existing theoretical approaches to the BER estimation for the RZ-DPSK format.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Becouarn, G. Vareille, P. Pecci, and J. F. Marcerou, “3Tbit/s transmission (301 DPSK channels at 10.709Gb/s) over 10270km with a record efficiency of 0.65bit/s/Hz,” in Proceedings of 29th European Conference on Optical Communication, Rimini, Italy, Sept. 2003, postdeadline paper Th4.3.2.
  2. A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.
  3. A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, “Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115–130 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, S. Jiang, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13100km of installed non-slope-matched submarine fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 95–103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. -X. Cai,, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, H. Li, W. Anderson, Y. Cai, L. Liu, A. N. Pilipetskii, D. G. Foursa, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero, and N. S. Bergano, “Transmission of 40Gb/s WDM signals over 6,250km of conventional NZ-DSF with >4dB FEC margin,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP26..
  6. J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, H. Li, C. R. Davidson, W. Anderson, L. Liu, D. G. Foursa, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Experimental comparison of 40Gb/s RZ-, CSRZ-, and NRZ-DPSK modulation formats over non slope-matched fibres,” in Proceedings of 31st European Conference on Optical Communication, Glasgow, Scotland, Sept. 2005, paper Th1.2.2.
  7. J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, Y. Cai, A. J. Lucero, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission with long repeater spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OFD3.
  8. R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar,, J. Schwartz, S. Webb, and S. Barnes, “Mixed bitrate and modulation format upgrades of non-slope matched submarine links,” in Proceedings of 32nd European Conference on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, Sept. 2006, paper Th1.6.5.
  9. A. N. Pilipetskii, “Propagation effects at high bit rates,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWJ7.
  10. N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, “Margin measurements in optical amplifier system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 304–306 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, “Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281–293 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. C. Hiew, F. M. Abbou, H. T. Chuah, S. P. Majumder,, and A. A. R. Hairul, “BER estimation of optical WDM RZ-DPSK systems through the differential phase Q,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2619–2621 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. A. Humblet and M. Azizoglu, “On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 617–619 (2003).
  14. G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, “On the Q factor inaccuracy in the performance analysis of optical direct-detection DPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 665–667 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, “Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281–293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Hiew, F. M. Abbou, H. T. Chuah, S. P. Majumder,, and A. A. R. Hairul, “BER estimation of optical WDM RZ-DPSK systems through the differential phase Q,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2619–2621 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, “On the Q factor inaccuracy in the performance analysis of optical direct-detection DPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 665–667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. A. Humblet and M. Azizoglu, “On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 617–619 (2003).

1993 (1)

N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, “Margin measurements in optical amplifier system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 304–306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Abbou, F. M.

C. C. Hiew, F. M. Abbou, H. T. Chuah, S. P. Majumder,, and A. A. R. Hairul, “BER estimation of optical WDM RZ-DPSK systems through the differential phase Q,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2619–2621 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.

Anderson, W.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, S. Jiang, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13100km of installed non-slope-matched submarine fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 95–103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. -X. Cai,, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, H. Li, W. Anderson, Y. Cai, L. Liu, A. N. Pilipetskii, D. G. Foursa, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero, and N. S. Bergano, “Transmission of 40Gb/s WDM signals over 6,250km of conventional NZ-DSF with >4dB FEC margin,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP26..

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, H. Li, C. R. Davidson, W. Anderson, L. Liu, D. G. Foursa, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Experimental comparison of 40Gb/s RZ-, CSRZ-, and NRZ-DPSK modulation formats over non slope-matched fibres,” in Proceedings of 31st European Conference on Optical Communication, Glasgow, Scotland, Sept. 2005, paper Th1.2.2.

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, Y. Cai, A. J. Lucero, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission with long repeater spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OFD3.

Azizoglu, M.

P. A. Humblet and M. Azizoglu, “On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 617–619 (2003).

Bakhshi, B.

Banerjee, S.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.

Barnes, S.

R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar,, J. Schwartz, S. Webb, and S. Barnes, “Mixed bitrate and modulation format upgrades of non-slope matched submarine links,” in Proceedings of 32nd European Conference on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, Sept. 2006, paper Th1.6.5.

Becouarn, L.

L. Becouarn, G. Vareille, P. Pecci, and J. F. Marcerou, “3Tbit/s transmission (301 DPSK channels at 10.709Gb/s) over 10270km with a record efficiency of 0.65bit/s/Hz,” in Proceedings of 29th European Conference on Optical Communication, Rimini, Italy, Sept. 2003, postdeadline paper Th4.3.2.

Bergano, N. S.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, S. Jiang, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13100km of installed non-slope-matched submarine fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 95–103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, “Margin measurements in optical amplifier system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 304–306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, Y. Cai, A. J. Lucero, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission with long repeater spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OFD3.

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, H. Li, C. R. Davidson, W. Anderson, L. Liu, D. G. Foursa, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Experimental comparison of 40Gb/s RZ-, CSRZ-, and NRZ-DPSK modulation formats over non slope-matched fibres,” in Proceedings of 31st European Conference on Optical Communication, Glasgow, Scotland, Sept. 2005, paper Th1.2.2.

J. -X. Cai,, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, H. Li, W. Anderson, Y. Cai, L. Liu, A. N. Pilipetskii, D. G. Foursa, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero, and N. S. Bergano, “Transmission of 40Gb/s WDM signals over 6,250km of conventional NZ-DSF with >4dB FEC margin,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP26..

Bosco, G.

G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, “On the Q factor inaccuracy in the performance analysis of optical direct-detection DPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 665–667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cai, J. -X.

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, H. Li, C. R. Davidson, W. Anderson, L. Liu, D. G. Foursa, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Experimental comparison of 40Gb/s RZ-, CSRZ-, and NRZ-DPSK modulation formats over non slope-matched fibres,” in Proceedings of 31st European Conference on Optical Communication, Glasgow, Scotland, Sept. 2005, paper Th1.2.2.

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, Y. Cai, A. J. Lucero, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission with long repeater spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OFD3.

Cai, J.-X.

Cai, Y.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, S. Jiang, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13100km of installed non-slope-matched submarine fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 95–103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, Y. Cai, A. J. Lucero, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission with long repeater spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OFD3.

J. -X. Cai,, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, H. Li, W. Anderson, Y. Cai, L. Liu, A. N. Pilipetskii, D. G. Foursa, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero, and N. S. Bergano, “Transmission of 40Gb/s WDM signals over 6,250km of conventional NZ-DSF with >4dB FEC margin,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP26..

Cai,, J. -X.

J. -X. Cai,, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, H. Li, W. Anderson, Y. Cai, L. Liu, A. N. Pilipetskii, D. G. Foursa, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero, and N. S. Bergano, “Transmission of 40Gb/s WDM signals over 6,250km of conventional NZ-DSF with >4dB FEC margin,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP26..

Caspar,, C.

R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar,, J. Schwartz, S. Webb, and S. Barnes, “Mixed bitrate and modulation format upgrades of non-slope matched submarine links,” in Proceedings of 32nd European Conference on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, Sept. 2006, paper Th1.6.5.

Chandrasekhar, S.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.

Chuah, H. T.

C. C. Hiew, F. M. Abbou, H. T. Chuah, S. P. Majumder,, and A. A. R. Hairul, “BER estimation of optical WDM RZ-DPSK systems through the differential phase Q,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2619–2621 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corbett, P. C.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, S. Jiang, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13100km of installed non-slope-matched submarine fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 95–103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. -X. Cai,, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, H. Li, W. Anderson, Y. Cai, L. Liu, A. N. Pilipetskii, D. G. Foursa, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero, and N. S. Bergano, “Transmission of 40Gb/s WDM signals over 6,250km of conventional NZ-DSF with >4dB FEC margin,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP26..

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, Y. Cai, A. J. Lucero, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission with long repeater spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OFD3.

Davidson, C. R.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, S. Jiang, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13100km of installed non-slope-matched submarine fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 95–103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, “Margin measurements in optical amplifier system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 304–306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, H. Li, C. R. Davidson, W. Anderson, L. Liu, D. G. Foursa, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Experimental comparison of 40Gb/s RZ-, CSRZ-, and NRZ-DPSK modulation formats over non slope-matched fibres,” in Proceedings of 31st European Conference on Optical Communication, Glasgow, Scotland, Sept. 2005, paper Th1.2.2.

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, Y. Cai, A. J. Lucero, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission with long repeater spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OFD3.

J. -X. Cai,, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, H. Li, W. Anderson, Y. Cai, L. Liu, A. N. Pilipetskii, D. G. Foursa, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero, and N. S. Bergano, “Transmission of 40Gb/s WDM signals over 6,250km of conventional NZ-DSF with >4dB FEC margin,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP26..

Doerr, C.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.

Domagala, G.

Foursa, D. G.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, S. Jiang, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13100km of installed non-slope-matched submarine fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 95–103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. -X. Cai,, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, H. Li, W. Anderson, Y. Cai, L. Liu, A. N. Pilipetskii, D. G. Foursa, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero, and N. S. Bergano, “Transmission of 40Gb/s WDM signals over 6,250km of conventional NZ-DSF with >4dB FEC margin,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP26..

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, Y. Cai, A. J. Lucero, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission with long repeater spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OFD3.

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, H. Li, C. R. Davidson, W. Anderson, L. Liu, D. G. Foursa, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Experimental comparison of 40Gb/s RZ-, CSRZ-, and NRZ-DPSK modulation formats over non slope-matched fibres,” in Proceedings of 31st European Conference on Optical Communication, Glasgow, Scotland, Sept. 2005, paper Th1.2.2.

Freund, R.

R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar,, J. Schwartz, S. Webb, and S. Barnes, “Mixed bitrate and modulation format upgrades of non-slope matched submarine links,” in Proceedings of 32nd European Conference on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, Sept. 2006, paper Th1.6.5.

Gil, D. M.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.

Gnauck, A. H.

A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, “Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.

Grosz, D.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.

Gupta, V.

Hiew, C. C.

C. C. Hiew, F. M. Abbou, H. T. Chuah, S. P. Majumder,, and A. A. R. Hairul, “BER estimation of optical WDM RZ-DPSK systems through the differential phase Q,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2619–2621 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Humblet, P. A.

P. A. Humblet and M. Azizoglu, “On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 617–619 (2003).

Hunsche, S.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.

Jiang, S.

Kerfoot, F. W.

N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, “Margin measurements in optical amplifier system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 304–306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kung, A.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.

Leuthold, J.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.

Li, H.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, S. Jiang, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13100km of installed non-slope-matched submarine fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 95–103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. -X. Cai,, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, H. Li, W. Anderson, Y. Cai, L. Liu, A. N. Pilipetskii, D. G. Foursa, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero, and N. S. Bergano, “Transmission of 40Gb/s WDM signals over 6,250km of conventional NZ-DSF with >4dB FEC margin,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP26..

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, H. Li, C. R. Davidson, W. Anderson, L. Liu, D. G. Foursa, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Experimental comparison of 40Gb/s RZ-, CSRZ-, and NRZ-DPSK modulation formats over non slope-matched fibres,” in Proceedings of 31st European Conference on Optical Communication, Glasgow, Scotland, Sept. 2005, paper Th1.2.2.

Liu, L.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, S. Jiang, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13100km of installed non-slope-matched submarine fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 95–103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, H. Li, C. R. Davidson, W. Anderson, L. Liu, D. G. Foursa, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Experimental comparison of 40Gb/s RZ-, CSRZ-, and NRZ-DPSK modulation formats over non slope-matched fibres,” in Proceedings of 31st European Conference on Optical Communication, Glasgow, Scotland, Sept. 2005, paper Th1.2.2.

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, Y. Cai, A. J. Lucero, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission with long repeater spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OFD3.

J. -X. Cai,, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, H. Li, W. Anderson, Y. Cai, L. Liu, A. N. Pilipetskii, D. G. Foursa, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero, and N. S. Bergano, “Transmission of 40Gb/s WDM signals over 6,250km of conventional NZ-DSF with >4dB FEC margin,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP26..

Liu, X.

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, “Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281–293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.

Lucero, A. J.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, S. Jiang, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13100km of installed non-slope-matched submarine fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 95–103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. -X. Cai,, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, H. Li, W. Anderson, Y. Cai, L. Liu, A. N. Pilipetskii, D. G. Foursa, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero, and N. S. Bergano, “Transmission of 40Gb/s WDM signals over 6,250km of conventional NZ-DSF with >4dB FEC margin,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP26..

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, Y. Cai, A. J. Lucero, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission with long repeater spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OFD3.

Majumder,, S. P.

C. C. Hiew, F. M. Abbou, H. T. Chuah, S. P. Majumder,, and A. A. R. Hairul, “BER estimation of optical WDM RZ-DPSK systems through the differential phase Q,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2619–2621 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marcerou, J. F.

L. Becouarn, G. Vareille, P. Pecci, and J. F. Marcerou, “3Tbit/s transmission (301 DPSK channels at 10.709Gb/s) over 10270km with a record efficiency of 0.65bit/s/Hz,” in Proceedings of 29th European Conference on Optical Communication, Rimini, Italy, Sept. 2003, postdeadline paper Th4.3.2.

Marhelyuk, A.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.

Maywar, D.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.

Mazurczyk, M.

Mohs, G.

Molle, L.

R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar,, J. Schwartz, S. Webb, and S. Barnes, “Mixed bitrate and modulation format upgrades of non-slope matched submarine links,” in Proceedings of 32nd European Conference on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, Sept. 2006, paper Th1.6.5.

Movassaghi, M.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.

Nissov, M.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, S. Jiang, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13100km of installed non-slope-matched submarine fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 95–103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. -X. Cai,, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, H. Li, W. Anderson, Y. Cai, L. Liu, A. N. Pilipetskii, D. G. Foursa, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero, and N. S. Bergano, “Transmission of 40Gb/s WDM signals over 6,250km of conventional NZ-DSF with >4dB FEC margin,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP26..

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, Y. Cai, A. J. Lucero, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission with long repeater spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OFD3.

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, H. Li, C. R. Davidson, W. Anderson, L. Liu, D. G. Foursa, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Experimental comparison of 40Gb/s RZ-, CSRZ-, and NRZ-DPSK modulation formats over non slope-matched fibres,” in Proceedings of 31st European Conference on Optical Communication, Glasgow, Scotland, Sept. 2005, paper Th1.2.2.

Patterson, W. W.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, S. Jiang, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13100km of installed non-slope-matched submarine fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 95–103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, Y. Cai, A. J. Lucero, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission with long repeater spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OFD3.

J. -X. Cai,, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, H. Li, W. Anderson, Y. Cai, L. Liu, A. N. Pilipetskii, D. G. Foursa, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero, and N. S. Bergano, “Transmission of 40Gb/s WDM signals over 6,250km of conventional NZ-DSF with >4dB FEC margin,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP26..

Pecci, P.

L. Becouarn, G. Vareille, P. Pecci, and J. F. Marcerou, “3Tbit/s transmission (301 DPSK channels at 10.709Gb/s) over 10270km with a record efficiency of 0.65bit/s/Hz,” in Proceedings of 29th European Conference on Optical Communication, Rimini, Italy, Sept. 2003, postdeadline paper Th4.3.2.

Pilipetskii, A. N.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, S. Jiang, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13100km of installed non-slope-matched submarine fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 95–103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. -X. Cai,, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, H. Li, W. Anderson, Y. Cai, L. Liu, A. N. Pilipetskii, D. G. Foursa, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero, and N. S. Bergano, “Transmission of 40Gb/s WDM signals over 6,250km of conventional NZ-DSF with >4dB FEC margin,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP26..

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, H. Li, C. R. Davidson, W. Anderson, L. Liu, D. G. Foursa, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Experimental comparison of 40Gb/s RZ-, CSRZ-, and NRZ-DPSK modulation formats over non slope-matched fibres,” in Proceedings of 31st European Conference on Optical Communication, Glasgow, Scotland, Sept. 2005, paper Th1.2.2.

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, Y. Cai, A. J. Lucero, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission with long repeater spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OFD3.

A. N. Pilipetskii, “Propagation effects at high bit rates,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWJ7.

Poggiolini, P.

G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, “On the Q factor inaccuracy in the performance analysis of optical direct-detection DPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 665–667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Hairul, A. A.

C. C. Hiew, F. M. Abbou, H. T. Chuah, S. P. Majumder,, and A. A. R. Hairul, “BER estimation of optical WDM RZ-DPSK systems through the differential phase Q,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2619–2621 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.

Schwartz, J.

R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar,, J. Schwartz, S. Webb, and S. Barnes, “Mixed bitrate and modulation format upgrades of non-slope matched submarine links,” in Proceedings of 32nd European Conference on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, Sept. 2006, paper Th1.6.5.

Stulz, L.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.

Vaa, M.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, S. Jiang, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13100km of installed non-slope-matched submarine fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 95–103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, Y. Cai, A. J. Lucero, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission with long repeater spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OFD3.

Vareille, G.

L. Becouarn, G. Vareille, P. Pecci, and J. F. Marcerou, “3Tbit/s transmission (301 DPSK channels at 10.709Gb/s) over 10270km with a record efficiency of 0.65bit/s/Hz,” in Proceedings of 29th European Conference on Optical Communication, Rimini, Italy, Sept. 2003, postdeadline paper Th4.3.2.

Webb, S.

R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar,, J. Schwartz, S. Webb, and S. Barnes, “Mixed bitrate and modulation format upgrades of non-slope matched submarine links,” in Proceedings of 32nd European Conference on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, Sept. 2006, paper Th1.6.5.

Wei, X.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.

Wei,, X.

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, “Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281–293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

Xu, C.

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, “Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281–293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, “Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281–293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

C. C. Hiew, F. M. Abbou, H. T. Chuah, S. P. Majumder,, and A. A. R. Hairul, “BER estimation of optical WDM RZ-DPSK systems through the differential phase Q,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2619–2621 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Humblet and M. Azizoglu, “On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 617–619 (2003).

G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, “On the Q factor inaccuracy in the performance analysis of optical direct-detection DPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 665–667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, “Margin measurements in optical amplifier system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 304–306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Other (7)

J. -X. Cai,, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, H. Li, W. Anderson, Y. Cai, L. Liu, A. N. Pilipetskii, D. G. Foursa, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero, and N. S. Bergano, “Transmission of 40Gb/s WDM signals over 6,250km of conventional NZ-DSF with >4dB FEC margin,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP26..

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, H. Li, C. R. Davidson, W. Anderson, L. Liu, D. G. Foursa, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Experimental comparison of 40Gb/s RZ-, CSRZ-, and NRZ-DPSK modulation formats over non slope-matched fibres,” in Proceedings of 31st European Conference on Optical Communication, Glasgow, Scotland, Sept. 2005, paper Th1.2.2.

J. -X. Cai, M. Nissov, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, Y. Cai, A. J. Lucero, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission with long repeater spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OFD3.

R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar,, J. Schwartz, S. Webb, and S. Barnes, “Mixed bitrate and modulation format upgrades of non-slope matched submarine links,” in Proceedings of 32nd European Conference on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, Sept. 2006, paper Th1.6.5.

A. N. Pilipetskii, “Propagation effects at high bit rates,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWJ7.

L. Becouarn, G. Vareille, P. Pecci, and J. F. Marcerou, “3Tbit/s transmission (301 DPSK channels at 10.709Gb/s) over 10270km with a record efficiency of 0.65bit/s/Hz,” in Proceedings of 29th European Conference on Optical Communication, Rimini, Italy, Sept. 2003, postdeadline paper Th4.3.2.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5Tb/s (64×42.7Gb/s) transmission over 40×100km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2002), postdeadline paper FC2.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup of the transmission system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Electrical Q 2-factor versus launch signal average power and pre-compensation dispersion.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Electrical Q 2-factor variation with the fine-tuning post-compensation dispersion.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Theoretical BERs and directly computed BER versus distance for 20Gb/s single-channel RZ-DPSK transmission.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Distributions of received current: actual distributions and approximations.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Distributions of received differential phase: actual distributions and approximations.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Theoretical BERs and directly computed BER versus launch signal average power.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Theoretical BERs and directly computed BER versus distance for 50GHz-spaced 20Gb/s WDM RZ-DPSK transmission.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Measured BER versus distance for 20Gb/sWDMRZ-DPSK transmission with 50% duty cycle.

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