Abstract

Abstract

We present a broadband nondispersive optical phase shifter array based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The device consists of an array of micro-grating elements. Each grating element utilizes an in-plane translational motion to produce a phase shift to the diffracted light beam. The phase shift is dependent only on the ratio of the grating displacement to its period, and thus independent of incident wavelength. The proposed operation principle was demonstrated with a prototype device developed using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) micromachining process. This MEMS nondispersive phase-shifter array may be useful in many multispectral applications including broadband optical phased arrays.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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2006 (1)

G. Zhou and F. S. Chau, “Helical wave-front laser beam generated with a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based device,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 292–294 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. A. Serati and J. E. Stockley, “Advances in liquid crystal based devices for wavefront control and beamstreering,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 180–192 (2005).

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

K. Wang and C. T. C. Ngyugen, “High-order medium frequency micromechanical electronic filters,” IEEE/ASME J. Microelectromech. Syst. 8, 534–557 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

J. E. Stockley, S. A. Serati, G. D. Sharp, P. Wang, K. F. Walsh, and K. M. Johnson, “Broadband beam steering,” Proc. SPIE  3131, 111–123 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and W. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

1981 (1)

Bloom,, D. M.

Bright, V. M.

Chau, F. S.

G. Zhou and F. S. Chau, “Helical wave-front laser beam generated with a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based device,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 292–294 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Zhou, V. J. Logeeswaran, F. S. Chau, and F. E. H. Tay, “Line-addressable digital-deflection programmable micromirror array,” Opt. Lett.  29, 2581–2583 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, D. L.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and W. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cowan, W. D.

Cowen, A.

K. Miller, A. Cowen, G. Hames, and B. Hardy, SOIMUMPs design handbook, http://www.memscap.com/mumps/documents/SOIMUMPs.dr.v4.pdf

Dorschner, T. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and W. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Drain, L. E.

L. E. Drain, The laser Doppler technique (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980).

Friedman, L. J.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and W. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hames, G.

K. Miller, A. Cowen, G. Hames, and B. Hardy, SOIMUMPs design handbook, http://www.memscap.com/mumps/documents/SOIMUMPs.dr.v4.pdf

Hardy, B.

K. Miller, A. Cowen, G. Hames, and B. Hardy, SOIMUMPs design handbook, http://www.memscap.com/mumps/documents/SOIMUMPs.dr.v4.pdf

Heritage, O.

Hobbs, D. S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and W. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Holz, M.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and W. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Johnson, K. M.

J. E. Stockley, S. A. Serati, G. D. Sharp, P. Wang, K. F. Walsh, and K. M. Johnson, “Broadband beam steering,” Proc. SPIE  3131, 111–123 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. E. Stockley, G. D. Sharp, S. A. Serati, and K. M. Johnson, “Analog optical phase modulator based on chiral smectic and polymer cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2441–2443 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krishnamoorthy, J. P.

Lee, M. K.

Li, K. B.

Liberman, S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and W. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Logeeswaran, V. J.

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and W. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Miller, K.

K. Miller, A. Cowen, G. Hames, and B. Hardy, SOIMUMPs design handbook, http://www.memscap.com/mumps/documents/SOIMUMPs.dr.v4.pdf

Morris, G. M.

Nguyen, H. Q.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and W. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ngyugen, C. T. C.

K. Wang and C. T. C. Ngyugen, “High-order medium frequency micromechanical electronic filters,” IEEE/ASME J. Microelectromech. Syst. 8, 534–557 (1999).
[Crossref]

Resler, D. P.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and W. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Roggemann, M. C.

Sandejas, F. S. A.

Serati, S. A.

S. A. Serati and J. E. Stockley, “Advances in liquid crystal based devices for wavefront control and beamstreering,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 180–192 (2005).

J. E. Stockley, S. A. Serati, G. D. Sharp, P. Wang, K. F. Walsh, and K. M. Johnson, “Broadband beam steering,” Proc. SPIE  3131, 111–123 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. E. Stockley, G. D. Sharp, S. A. Serati, and K. M. Johnson, “Analog optical phase modulator based on chiral smectic and polymer cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2441–2443 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharp, G. D.

J. E. Stockley, S. A. Serati, G. D. Sharp, P. Wang, K. F. Walsh, and K. M. Johnson, “Broadband beam steering,” Proc. SPIE  3131, 111–123 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. E. Stockley, G. D. Sharp, S. A. Serati, and K. M. Johnson, “Analog optical phase modulator based on chiral smectic and polymer cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2441–2443 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharp, R. C.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and W. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Solgaard,

Solgaard, O.

Stockley, J. E.

S. A. Serati and J. E. Stockley, “Advances in liquid crystal based devices for wavefront control and beamstreering,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 180–192 (2005).

J. E. Stockley, S. A. Serati, G. D. Sharp, P. Wang, K. F. Walsh, and K. M. Johnson, “Broadband beam steering,” Proc. SPIE  3131, 111–123 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. E. Stockley, G. D. Sharp, S. A. Serati, and K. M. Johnson, “Analog optical phase modulator based on chiral smectic and polymer cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2441–2443 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tay, F. E. H.

Walsh, K. F.

J. E. Stockley, S. A. Serati, G. D. Sharp, P. Wang, K. F. Walsh, and K. M. Johnson, “Broadband beam steering,” Proc. SPIE  3131, 111–123 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

K. Wang and C. T. C. Ngyugen, “High-order medium frequency micromechanical electronic filters,” IEEE/ASME J. Microelectromech. Syst. 8, 534–557 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

J. E. Stockley, S. A. Serati, G. D. Sharp, P. Wang, K. F. Walsh, and K. M. Johnson, “Broadband beam steering,” Proc. SPIE  3131, 111–123 (1997).
[Crossref]

Watson, W. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and W. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Welsh, B. M.

Zhou, G.

G. Zhou and F. S. Chau, “Helical wave-front laser beam generated with a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based device,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 292–294 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Zhou, V. J. Logeeswaran, F. S. Chau, and F. E. H. Tay, “Line-addressable digital-deflection programmable micromirror array,” Opt. Lett.  29, 2581–2583 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

G. Zhou and F. S. Chau, “Helical wave-front laser beam generated with a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based device,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 292–294 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE/ASME J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

K. Wang and C. T. C. Ngyugen, “High-order medium frequency micromechanical electronic filters,” IEEE/ASME J. Microelectromech. Syst. 8, 534–557 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and W. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84, 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. E. Stockley, S. A. Serati, G. D. Sharp, P. Wang, K. F. Walsh, and K. M. Johnson, “Broadband beam steering,” Proc. SPIE  3131, 111–123 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. A. Serati and J. E. Stockley, “Advances in liquid crystal based devices for wavefront control and beamstreering,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 180–192 (2005).

Other (2)

L. E. Drain, The laser Doppler technique (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980).

K. Miller, A. Cowen, G. Hames, and B. Hardy, SOIMUMPs design handbook, http://www.memscap.com/mumps/documents/SOIMUMPs.dr.v4.pdf

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of optical phase shifting array using (a) micromirrors (b) MEMS gratings

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). MEMS grating array developed using SOI micromachining for nondispersive optical phase shifting (b) schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Far-field diffraction pattern as a function of grating displacement for 532 nm wavelength laser beam

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Far-field diffraction pattern as a function of grating displacement for 632.8 nm wavelength laser beam

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Proposed 1D broadband optical phased array using MEMS gratings

Equations (4)

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f + 1 = f 0 + v Λ ,
E + 1 = A cos ( 2 π f + 1 t + ϕ 1 ) ,
E + 1 = A cos ( 2 π f 0 t + 2 π 0 t v ( τ ) Λ d τ + ϕ 1 ) = A cos ( 2 π f 0 t + 2 π d Λ + ϕ 1 ) ,
x = 0.065 × V x .

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