Abstract

Abstract

This paper reports on the dynamic modulation of coaxial interferometers based on two cascaded long period gratings written in double cladding fibers. The interferometer is modulated by a piezoelectric ceramic which stretches one the gratings at tens of kHz, the output light is intensity modulated with an efficiency of 97 %. The device operates at 1530nm, has more than 50nm bandwidth, insertion loss of 0.4 dB and a temperature drift of 0.11 nm/°C.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P.L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J.E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters, " J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58- 65 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C.D. Su, L.A. Wang, "Linewidth broadening of Er-doped superfluorescent fiber source using long-period grating," Electron. Lett. 35, 331-332 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Bhatia, D. Campbell, R.O. Claus, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement with long-period gratings," Opt. Lett. 22, 648-650 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, G. Guerra, "Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity optochemical sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1776-1786 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E.M. Dianov, S.A. Vasiliev, A.S. Kurkov, O.I. Medvedkov, V.N. Protopopov, "In-fiber Mach Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long period gratings," Proceedings 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’96) Vol. 1, 65-68 (1996).
  6. Y.G Han, S.M. Choi, S.H. Kim, S.B. Lee, "Voltage-controllable wavelength-selective optical switching based on multiple cascaded long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 28, 2034-2036 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. X. Dong, X. Yang, P. Shum, C.C. Chan, "Tunable WDM filter with 0.8-nm channel spacing using a pair of long period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 795-797 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S.K.A. Kaed-Bey, T. Song, K.T.V. Grattan, "Optimization of a long-period grating-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer for temperature measurement," Opt. Commun. 272, 15-21 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B.A.L Gwandu, X. Shu, T.D.P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, D.J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fiber," Electron. Lett. 38,695-696 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Allsop, D.J. Web, I. Bennion, "Bend and index insensitive long period grating in progressive three layered optical fiber," Electron. Lett. 39, 508-509 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C.S. Shin, C.C. Chiang, S.K. Liaw, "Comparison of single and double cladding long period fiber grating sensor using an intensity modulation interrogation system," Opt. Commun. 258, 23-29 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B.O. Guan, H.Y. Tam, S.L. Ho, S.Y. Liu, X.Y. Dong, "Growth of long period gratings in H2 loaded fibers after 193nm UV inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 642-644 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol,  20, 255-266 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S.K.A. Kaed-Bey, T. Song, K.T.V. Grattan, "Optimization of a long-period grating-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer for temperature measurement," Opt. Commun. 272, 15-21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

C.S. Shin, C.C. Chiang, S.K. Liaw, "Comparison of single and double cladding long period fiber grating sensor using an intensity modulation interrogation system," Opt. Commun. 258, 23-29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, G. Guerra, "Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity optochemical sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1776-1786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

X. Dong, X. Yang, P. Shum, C.C. Chan, "Tunable WDM filter with 0.8-nm channel spacing using a pair of long period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 795-797 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

T. Allsop, D.J. Web, I. Bennion, "Bend and index insensitive long period grating in progressive three layered optical fiber," Electron. Lett. 39, 508-509 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.G Han, S.M. Choi, S.H. Kim, S.B. Lee, "Voltage-controllable wavelength-selective optical switching based on multiple cascaded long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 28, 2034-2036 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol,  20, 255-266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B.A.L Gwandu, X. Shu, T.D.P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, D.J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fiber," Electron. Lett. 38,695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B.O. Guan, H.Y. Tam, S.L. Ho, S.Y. Liu, X.Y. Dong, "Growth of long period gratings in H2 loaded fibers after 193nm UV inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 642-644 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C.D. Su, L.A. Wang, "Linewidth broadening of Er-doped superfluorescent fiber source using long-period grating," Electron. Lett. 35, 331-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P.L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J.E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters, " J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58- 65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, D.J. Web, I. Bennion, "Bend and index insensitive long period grating in progressive three layered optical fiber," Electron. Lett. 39, 508-509 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T.D.P.

B.A.L Gwandu, X. Shu, T.D.P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, D.J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fiber," Electron. Lett. 38,695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

T. Allsop, D.J. Web, I. Bennion, "Bend and index insensitive long period grating in progressive three layered optical fiber," Electron. Lett. 39, 508-509 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B.A.L Gwandu, X. Shu, T.D.P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, D.J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fiber," Electron. Lett. 38,695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol,  20, 255-266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

V. Bhatia, D. Campbell, R.O. Claus, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement with long-period gratings," Opt. Lett. 22, 648-650 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P.L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J.E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters, " J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58- 65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, D.

Campopiano, S.

Chan, C.C.

X. Dong, X. Yang, P. Shum, C.C. Chan, "Tunable WDM filter with 0.8-nm channel spacing using a pair of long period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 795-797 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, C.C.

C.S. Shin, C.C. Chiang, S.K. Liaw, "Comparison of single and double cladding long period fiber grating sensor using an intensity modulation interrogation system," Opt. Commun. 258, 23-29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.M.

Claus, R.O.

Contessa, L.

Cusano, A.

Cutolo, A.

Dong, X.

X. Dong, X. Yang, P. Shum, C.C. Chan, "Tunable WDM filter with 0.8-nm channel spacing using a pair of long period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 795-797 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.Y.

B.O. Guan, H.Y. Tam, S.L. Ho, S.Y. Liu, X.Y. Dong, "Growth of long period gratings in H2 loaded fibers after 193nm UV inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 642-644 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P.L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J.E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters, " J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58- 65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

Grattan, K.T.V.

S.K.A. Kaed-Bey, T. Song, K.T.V. Grattan, "Optimization of a long-period grating-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer for temperature measurement," Opt. Commun. 272, 15-21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guan, B.O.

B.O. Guan, H.Y. Tam, S.L. Ho, S.Y. Liu, X.Y. Dong, "Growth of long period gratings in H2 loaded fibers after 193nm UV inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 642-644 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guerra, G.

Gwandu, B.A.L

B.A.L Gwandu, X. Shu, T.D.P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, D.J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fiber," Electron. Lett. 38,695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.G

Ho, S.L.

B.O. Guan, H.Y. Tam, S.L. Ho, S.Y. Liu, X.Y. Dong, "Growth of long period gratings in H2 loaded fibers after 193nm UV inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 642-644 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iadicicco, A.

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P.L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J.E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters, " J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58- 65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaed-Bey, S.K.A.

S.K.A. Kaed-Bey, T. Song, K.T.V. Grattan, "Optimization of a long-period grating-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer for temperature measurement," Opt. Commun. 272, 15-21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.H.

Lee, S.B.

Lemaire, P.L.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P.L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J.E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters, " J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58- 65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liaw, S.K.

C.S. Shin, C.C. Chiang, S.K. Liaw, "Comparison of single and double cladding long period fiber grating sensor using an intensity modulation interrogation system," Opt. Commun. 258, 23-29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.Y.

B.O. Guan, H.Y. Tam, S.L. Ho, S.Y. Liu, X.Y. Dong, "Growth of long period gratings in H2 loaded fibers after 193nm UV inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 642-644 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pilla, P.

Shin, C.S.

C.S. Shin, C.C. Chiang, S.K. Liaw, "Comparison of single and double cladding long period fiber grating sensor using an intensity modulation interrogation system," Opt. Commun. 258, 23-29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X.

X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol,  20, 255-266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B.A.L Gwandu, X. Shu, T.D.P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, D.J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fiber," Electron. Lett. 38,695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

X. Dong, X. Yang, P. Shum, C.C. Chan, "Tunable WDM filter with 0.8-nm channel spacing using a pair of long period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 795-797 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J.E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P.L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J.E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters, " J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58- 65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Song, T.

S.K.A. Kaed-Bey, T. Song, K.T.V. Grattan, "Optimization of a long-period grating-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer for temperature measurement," Opt. Commun. 272, 15-21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Su, C.D.

C.D. Su, L.A. Wang, "Linewidth broadening of Er-doped superfluorescent fiber source using long-period grating," Electron. Lett. 35, 331-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H.Y.

B.O. Guan, H.Y. Tam, S.L. Ho, S.Y. Liu, X.Y. Dong, "Growth of long period gratings in H2 loaded fibers after 193nm UV inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 642-644 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

V. Bhatia, D. Campbell, R.O. Claus, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement with long-period gratings," Opt. Lett. 22, 648-650 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P.L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J.E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters, " J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58- 65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.A.

C.D. Su, L.A. Wang, "Linewidth broadening of Er-doped superfluorescent fiber source using long-period grating," Electron. Lett. 35, 331-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Web, D.J.

T. Allsop, D.J. Web, I. Bennion, "Bend and index insensitive long period grating in progressive three layered optical fiber," Electron. Lett. 39, 508-509 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D.J.

B.A.L Gwandu, X. Shu, T.D.P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, D.J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fiber," Electron. Lett. 38,695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

X. Dong, X. Yang, P. Shum, C.C. Chan, "Tunable WDM filter with 0.8-nm channel spacing using a pair of long period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 795-797 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

B.A.L Gwandu, X. Shu, T.D.P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, D.J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fiber," Electron. Lett. 38,695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol,  20, 255-266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

B.A.L Gwandu, X. Shu, T.D.P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, D.J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fiber," Electron. Lett. 38,695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

C.D. Su, L.A. Wang, "Linewidth broadening of Er-doped superfluorescent fiber source using long-period grating," Electron. Lett. 35, 331-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B.A.L Gwandu, X. Shu, T.D.P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, D.J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fiber," Electron. Lett. 38,695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, D.J. Web, I. Bennion, "Bend and index insensitive long period grating in progressive three layered optical fiber," Electron. Lett. 39, 508-509 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

X. Dong, X. Yang, P. Shum, C.C. Chan, "Tunable WDM filter with 0.8-nm channel spacing using a pair of long period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 795-797 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B.O. Guan, H.Y. Tam, S.L. Ho, S.Y. Liu, X.Y. Dong, "Growth of long period gratings in H2 loaded fibers after 193nm UV inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 642-644 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol (1)

X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol,  20, 255-266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P.L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J.E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters, " J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58- 65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, G. Guerra, "Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity optochemical sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1776-1786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

S.K.A. Kaed-Bey, T. Song, K.T.V. Grattan, "Optimization of a long-period grating-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer for temperature measurement," Opt. Commun. 272, 15-21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.S. Shin, C.C. Chiang, S.K. Liaw, "Comparison of single and double cladding long period fiber grating sensor using an intensity modulation interrogation system," Opt. Commun. 258, 23-29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

E.M. Dianov, S.A. Vasiliev, A.S. Kurkov, O.I. Medvedkov, V.N. Protopopov, "In-fiber Mach Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long period gratings," Proceedings 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’96) Vol. 1, 65-68 (1996).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spectrum of a grating of 11.5 mm length and 120.5 µm period. The inset shows a detail of the 1530 nm notch.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Resonant wavelength of different modes as a function of the grating period. Solid line: theory. Dots: experimental results; triangles: 120 µm period grating; squares: 190 µm grating.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Evolution of LP09 and LP010 resonances after grating inscription.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Diagram of the interferometer. LPG: long period grating, PZT: piezoelectric tube.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectrum of the interferometer (solid line) and spectrum of one of the gratings (dashed line).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Thermal response of the interferometer.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(b) Mechanical response of the interferometer.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Modulated light at different relative positions of the laser line: (a) Laser line on the top of the interferomertic fringe fringe. (b) Laser in the bottom of the fringe. (c) Laser in the center of the fringe.

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