Abstract

Abstract

For the first time to our knowledge, bulk modification of lithium niobate using high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses has been studied. A fiber based ultrafast laser has been applied in a range of 0.1 to 1.5 MHz repetition rate to directly inscribe optical waveguides in z-cut lithium niobate. Circularly polarized light with stretched 600 fs pulses produced waveguides with nearly circular mode profiles that guided in the telecom band of 1300 nm. Higher laser repetition rate of 700 kHz was found to offer smooth waveguides with low propagation loss of 0.6 dB/cm, matching the best reported value so far, with the advantage of 50 fold faster writing speed. At repetition rates of 250 kHz and higher, the tracks exhibited a cladding-like modification zone that extended outside the main laser interaction volume, yielding smoother structures, despite higher net fluence delivery, providing concrete evidence of heat accumulation and thermal annealing effects. We also present the first observation of periodic micro-structures in the bulk laser interaction volume of a non-glass material.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, "Transmission electron microscopy studies of femtosecond laser induced modifications in quartz," Appl. Phys. A 76, 309-311 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Gui, B. X. Xu, and T. C. Chong, "Microstructure in lithium niobate by use of focused femtosecond laser pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1337-1339 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laser written waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081108 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. A 86, 165-170 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. H. Nejadmalayeri and P. R. Herman, "Ultrafast laser waveguide writing: lithium niobate and the role of circular polarization and picosecond pulse width," Opt. Lett. 31, 2987-2989 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 42-43 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 26, 1516-1518 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fabrication of coupled mode photonic devices in glass by nonlinear femtosecond laser materials processing," Opt. Express 10, 645-652 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  14. C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 76, 351-354 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Will, J. Burghoff, J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "High speed fabrication of optical waveguides inside glasses using a high rep-rate fiber CPA system," Proc. SPIE 5339, 168-174 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, "Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441-1443 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Ho, and R. Vallee, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, "Thermal accumulation effect in three-dimensional recording by picosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5239-5241 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. M. Eaton, H. B. Zhang, and P. R. Herman, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. Shah, A. Arai, S. Eaton, and P. Herman, "Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 1999-2006 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1900-1902 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Express 13, 5976-5982 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. M. Kowalevicz, V. Sharma, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Minoshima, "Three-dimensional photonic devices fabricated in glass by use of a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 30, 1060-1062 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. Osellame, V. Maselli, N. Chiodo, D. Polli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Fabrication of 3D photonic devices at 1.55 ?m wavelength by femtosecond Ti:sapphire oscillator," Electron. Lett. 41, 315-317 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. J. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing," Opt. Express 14, 10,117-10,124 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. Suzuki, V. Sharma, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, "Characterization of symmetric [3x3] directional couplers fabricated by direct writing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Express 14, 2335-2343 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. R. R. Gattass, L. R. Cerami, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining of bulk glass with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses at variable repetition rates," Opt. Express 14, 5279-5284 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. Regener and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  29. K. G. Deshmukh and K. Singh, "Domain structure in lithium niobate single crystals," J. Phys. D 5, 1680-1687 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. A. H. Nejadmalayeri, "Ultrafast Laser Matter Interaction: Bulk Guided Wave Optics in Crystals," Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada (2007).
  33. K. K. Wong, ed., Properties of Lithium Niobate (IEE, London, UK, 2002).

2007 (1)

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. A 86, 165-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (8)

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Nejadmalayeri and P. R. Herman, "Ultrafast laser waveguide writing: lithium niobate and the role of circular polarization and picosecond pulse width," Opt. Lett. 31, 2987-2989 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laser written waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing," Opt. Express 14, 10,117-10,124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Suzuki, V. Sharma, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, "Characterization of symmetric [3x3] directional couplers fabricated by direct writing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Express 14, 2335-2343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Gattass, L. R. Cerami, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining of bulk glass with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses at variable repetition rates," Opt. Express 14, 5279-5284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

2004 (7)

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1900-1902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gui, B. X. Xu, and T. C. Chong, "Microstructure in lithium niobate by use of focused femtosecond laser pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1337-1339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Will, J. Burghoff, J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "High speed fabrication of optical waveguides inside glasses using a high rep-rate fiber CPA system," Proc. SPIE 5339, 168-174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, "Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441-1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Ho, and R. Vallee, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, "Thermal accumulation effect in three-dimensional recording by picosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5239-5241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, "Transmission electron microscopy studies of femtosecond laser induced modifications in quartz," Appl. Phys. A 76, 309-311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

1996 (1)

1985 (1)

R. Regener and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

K. G. Deshmukh and K. Singh, "Domain structure in lithium niobate single crystals," J. Phys. D 5, 1680-1687 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A.

Arai, A. Y.

W. J. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing," Opt. Express 14, 10,117-10,124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blewett, I. J.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

Bovatsek, J.

W. J. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing," Opt. Express 14, 10,117-10,124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bricchi, E.

W. J. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing," Opt. Express 14, 10,117-10,124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, A.

Burghoff, J.

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. A 86, 165-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laser written waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Will, J. Burghoff, J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "High speed fabrication of optical waveguides inside glasses using a high rep-rate fiber CPA system," Proc. SPIE 5339, 168-174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, S.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cerami, L. R.

Cerullo, G.

Chiodo, N.

Choi, S. C.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chong, T. C.

L. Gui, B. X. Xu, and T. C. Chong, "Microstructure in lithium niobate by use of focused femtosecond laser pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1337-1339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, K. M.

Della Valle, G.

Deshmukh, K. G.

K. G. Deshmukh and K. Singh, "Domain structure in lithium niobate single crystals," J. Phys. D 5, 1680-1687 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S.

Eaton, S. M.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Garcia, J. F.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

Glatzel, U.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, "Transmission electron microscopy studies of femtosecond laser induced modifications in quartz," Appl. Phys. A 76, 309-311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gorelik, T.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, "Transmission electron microscopy studies of femtosecond laser induced modifications in quartz," Appl. Phys. A 76, 309-311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grebing, C.

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laser written waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gui, L.

L. Gui, B. X. Xu, and T. C. Chong, "Microstructure in lithium niobate by use of focused femtosecond laser pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1337-1339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Hartung, H.

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. A 86, 165-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P.

Herman, P. R.

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, N.

Ippen, E. P.

Iwanow, R.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jamison, A. O.

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, "Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441-1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jung, C.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, "Thermal accumulation effect in three-dimensional recording by picosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5239-5241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

W. J. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing," Opt. Express 14, 10,117-10,124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Killi, A.

Kim, W. K.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ko, D. K.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Laporta, P.

Lederer, F.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, M.

Lee, H. M.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. Y.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. L.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Limpert, J.

M. Will, J. Burghoff, J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "High speed fabrication of optical waveguides inside glasses using a high rep-rate fiber CPA system," Proc. SPIE 5339, 168-174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, C.

Maksimov, I.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, "Thermal accumulation effect in three-dimensional recording by picosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5239-5241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maselli, V.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, N. Chiodo, D. Polli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Fabrication of 3D photonic devices at 1.55 ?m wavelength by femtosecond Ti:sapphire oscillator," Electron. Lett. 41, 315-317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass, L. R. Cerami, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining of bulk glass with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses at variable repetition rates," Opt. Express 14, 5279-5284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, "Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441-1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Min, Y.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minoshima, K.

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, "Thermal accumulation effect in three-dimensional recording by picosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5239-5241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

Morgner, U.

Nejadmalayeri, A. H.

Noh, Y. C.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. A 86, 165-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laser written waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Will, J. Burghoff, J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "High speed fabrication of optical waveguides inside glasses using a high rep-rate fiber CPA system," Proc. SPIE 5339, 168-174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, "Transmission electron microscopy studies of femtosecond laser induced modifications in quartz," Appl. Phys. A 76, 309-311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

Pertsch, T.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polli, D.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, N. Chiodo, D. Polli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Fabrication of 3D photonic devices at 1.55 ?m wavelength by femtosecond Ti:sapphire oscillator," Electron. Lett. 41, 315-317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J. R.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajeev, P. P.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, N. Chiodo, D. Polli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Fabrication of 3D photonic devices at 1.55 ?m wavelength by femtosecond Ti:sapphire oscillator," Electron. Lett. 41, 315-317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1900-1902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Regener, R.

R. Regener and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D. T.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

Richardson, M.

Rivero, C.

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, "Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441-1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schiek, R.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreiber, T.

M. Will, J. Burghoff, J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "High speed fabrication of optical waveguides inside glasses using a high rep-rate fiber CPA system," Proc. SPIE 5339, 168-174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, A.

Shah, L.

Sharma, V.

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simova, E.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, K.

K. G. Deshmukh and K. Singh, "Domain structure in lithium niobate single crystals," J. Phys. D 5, 1680-1687 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Regener and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, I. B.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Streltsov, A. M.

Sugimoto, N.

Suzuki, K.

Taccheo, S.

Taylor, R. S.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomson, R. R.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tuennermann, A.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, "Transmission electron microscopy studies of femtosecond laser induced modifications in quartz," Appl. Phys. A 76, 309-311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tunnermann, A.

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. A 86, 165-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laser written waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Will, J. Burghoff, J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "High speed fabrication of optical waveguides inside glasses using a high rep-rate fiber CPA system," Proc. SPIE 5339, 168-174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vallee, R.

Vazquez, R. M.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, N. Chiodo, D. Polli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Fabrication of 3D photonic devices at 1.55 ?m wavelength by femtosecond Ti:sapphire oscillator," Electron. Lett. 41, 315-317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Will, M.

M. Will, J. Burghoff, J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "High speed fabrication of optical waveguides inside glasses using a high rep-rate fiber CPA system," Proc. SPIE 5339, 168-174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, "Transmission electron microscopy studies of femtosecond laser induced modifications in quartz," Appl. Phys. A 76, 309-311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B. X.

L. Gui, B. X. Xu, and T. C. Chong, "Microstructure in lithium niobate by use of focused femtosecond laser pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1337-1339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W. J.

W. J. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing," Opt. Express 14, 10,117-10,124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W. S.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B. A.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N. E.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. B.

Zoubir, A.

Appl. Phys. A (2)

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, "Transmission electron microscopy studies of femtosecond laser induced modifications in quartz," Appl. Phys. A 76, 309-311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. A 86, 165-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Regener and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, "Thermal accumulation effect in three-dimensional recording by picosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5239-5241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, "Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441-1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laser written waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, N. Chiodo, D. Polli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Fabrication of 3D photonic devices at 1.55 ?m wavelength by femtosecond Ti:sapphire oscillator," Electron. Lett. 41, 315-317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Gui, B. X. Xu, and T. C. Chong, "Microstructure in lithium niobate by use of focused femtosecond laser pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1337-1339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

K. G. Deshmukh and K. Singh, "Domain structure in lithium niobate single crystals," J. Phys. D 5, 1680-1687 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Express 13, 5976-5982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing," Opt. Express 14, 10,117-10,124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Suzuki, V. Sharma, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, "Characterization of symmetric [3x3] directional couplers fabricated by direct writing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Express 14, 2335-2343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Gattass, L. R. Cerami, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining of bulk glass with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses at variable repetition rates," Opt. Express 14, 5279-5284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, H. B. Zhang, and P. R. Herman, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Shah, A. Arai, S. Eaton, and P. Herman, "Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 1999-2006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fabrication of coupled mode photonic devices in glass by nonlinear femtosecond laser materials processing," Opt. Express 10, 645-652 (2002).
[PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (8)

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 42-43 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 26, 1516-1518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Ho, and R. Vallee, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Nejadmalayeri and P. R. Herman, "Ultrafast laser waveguide writing: lithium niobate and the role of circular polarization and picosecond pulse width," Opt. Lett. 31, 2987-2989 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1900-1902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Kowalevicz, V. Sharma, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Minoshima, "Three-dimensional photonic devices fabricated in glass by use of a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 30, 1060-1062 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Will, J. Burghoff, J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "High speed fabrication of optical waveguides inside glasses using a high rep-rate fiber CPA system," Proc. SPIE 5339, 168-174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, "Ultrafast Laser Matter Interaction: Bulk Guided Wave Optics in Crystals," Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada (2007).

K. K. Wong, ed., Properties of Lithium Niobate (IEE, London, UK, 2002).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross section (first row) and top section (second row) optical microscope images of laser-formed tracks in z-cut lithium niobate at 46 mm/s scan speed and pulse energy of ≈270 nJ for different values of repetition rates. Laser exposure direction is from the bottom in the top row images.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

First column depicts the cross section and top views of a track formed at laser exposure conditions of 250 kHz, 700 nJ/pulse, and 60 mm/s. Cross section and top views of a track formed at 700 kHz, 500 nJ/pulse, and 46 mm/s are depicted in the second column. All images were obtained with a 100× microscope objective (0.95 NA).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The cross section microscope view of the 700 kHz track of Fig. 2, together with the 1300 nm TE-guided mode profile, showing its relative position with respect to the laser modified zone. The writing laser was applied from the bottom in this figure.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The measured transmission spectra of the lowest loss lithium niobate TE-mode waveguides, written at repetition rates of (a) 250 kHz and (b) 700 kHz (depicted in Fig. 2 and 3), showing Fabry-Perot fringes. Both waveguides were 9.2 mm long.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

TE polarization mode profiles recorded at 1300 nm wavelength in waveguides fabricated at 250 kHz (a) and 700 kHz (b), whose transmission spectra are depicted in Fig. 4(a) and 4(b), respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The 2-D maps for TE-mode waveguides indicating low-loss laser processing window for a repetition rates of (a) 250 kHz and (b) 700 kHz. Normalized pseudo color (scale on top) indicates low loss guiding with dark colors (black to dark red) and high loss or weak guiding with light colors (yellow to white).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Thermal parameters of lithium niobate33

Tables Icon

Table 2. Thermal effects in LN waveguides for 46 mm/s scan speed

Tables Icon

Table 3. Comparison of laser-formed waveguides in lithium niobate

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L D = 4 D R p ,
h = v s R p ,
N = d R p v s .

Metrics