Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the presented research was to develop special spectacles capable of solving common ophthalmic problems as myopia, presbyopia and regular/irregular astigmatism. The method included adapting special all-optical extended depth of focus concept, taken from the field of digital imaging, to ophthalmology, and by that providing the required vision solutions. Special thin mask containing annular like replicated structure (thickness of the structure is less than one micron) was designed and proven to provide extended depth of focus. In this paper we present several experimental results as well as trials with volunteers. The testing included measuring the visual acuity under different illumination conditions (pupil size varied from 2 up to 4mm), as well as stereoscopy, color integrity, field of view and contrast. The results demonstrate improvements of up to 3 Diopters (for presbyopic that require the bifocal or the progressive lens solutions) for pupil sizes of 2–4mm. The approach has demonstrated improvement of more than 2 Diopters for regular as well as irregular astigmatism. The main advantage of the developed optical element is that it is very thin (less than few microns) and has low price, it has high energetic throughput and low chromatic aberrations and it operates over the full field of view while providing continuously focused image (in contrast to bifocal lenses having only 2 focused regions). The element also provides a solution for regular as well as irregular astigmatism that currently has no available treatment.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. J. O. Castaneda, E. Tepichin and A. Diaz, "Arbitrary high focal depth with a quasi optimum real and positive transmittance apodizer," Appl. Opt. 28, 2666-2669 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. O. Castaneda and L. R. Berriel-Valdos, "Zone plate for arbitrary high focal depth," Appl. Opt. 29, 994-997 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Ben-Eliezer, Z. Zalevsky, E. Marom and N. Konforti, "All-optical extended depth of field imaging system," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S164-S169 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Ben-Eliezer, E. Marom, N. Konforti and Z. Zalevsky, "Experimental realization of an imaging system with an extended depth of field," Appl. Opt. 44,2792-2798 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Z. Zalevsky, "Optical method and system for extended depth of focus," US patent application 10/97494 (August 2004).
  9. Z. Zalevsky, A. Shemer, A. Zlotnik, E. Ben Eliezer and E. Marom, "All-optical axial super resolving imaging using a low-frequency binary-phase mask," Opt. Express,  14, 2631-2643 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Callina and T. P. Reynolds, "Traditional methods for the treatment of presbyopia: spectacles, contact lenses, bifocal contact lenses," Ophthalmology Clinics of North America,  19, 25-33 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  11. C. W. Fowler and E. S. Pateras, "A gradient-index ophthalmic lens based on Wood's convex pseudo-lens," Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics,  10(3), 262-70 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. M. Sullivan and C. W. Fowler, "Progressive addition and variable focus lenses: a review," Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics,  8(4), 402-14 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Grosvenor, "Primary care optometry," pp. 24-26 (1996).
  14. T. Grosvenor, "Primary care optometry," pp. 355-356 (1996).
  15. L. A. Carvalho, "A simple mathematical model for simulation of the human optical system based on in vivo corneal data," Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Biomedica,  19, 29-37 (2003).

2006 (2)

T. Callina and T. P. Reynolds, "Traditional methods for the treatment of presbyopia: spectacles, contact lenses, bifocal contact lenses," Ophthalmology Clinics of North America,  19, 25-33 (2006).
[PubMed]

Z. Zalevsky, A. Shemer, A. Zlotnik, E. Ben Eliezer and E. Marom, "All-optical axial super resolving imaging using a low-frequency binary-phase mask," Opt. Express,  14, 2631-2643 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

L. A. Carvalho, "A simple mathematical model for simulation of the human optical system based on in vivo corneal data," Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Biomedica,  19, 29-37 (2003).

E. Ben-Eliezer, Z. Zalevsky, E. Marom and N. Konforti, "All-optical extended depth of field imaging system," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S164-S169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1990 (2)

J. O. Castaneda and L. R. Berriel-Valdos, "Zone plate for arbitrary high focal depth," Appl. Opt. 29, 994-997 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fowler and E. S. Pateras, "A gradient-index ophthalmic lens based on Wood's convex pseudo-lens," Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics,  10(3), 262-70 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

C. M. Sullivan and C. W. Fowler, "Progressive addition and variable focus lenses: a review," Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics,  8(4), 402-14 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ben Eliezer, E.

Ben-Eliezer, E.

E. Ben-Eliezer, E. Marom, N. Konforti and Z. Zalevsky, "Experimental realization of an imaging system with an extended depth of field," Appl. Opt. 44,2792-2798 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ben-Eliezer, Z. Zalevsky, E. Marom and N. Konforti, "All-optical extended depth of field imaging system," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S164-S169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berriel-Valdos, L. R.

Callina, T.

T. Callina and T. P. Reynolds, "Traditional methods for the treatment of presbyopia: spectacles, contact lenses, bifocal contact lenses," Ophthalmology Clinics of North America,  19, 25-33 (2006).
[PubMed]

Carvalho, L. A.

L. A. Carvalho, "A simple mathematical model for simulation of the human optical system based on in vivo corneal data," Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Biomedica,  19, 29-37 (2003).

Castaneda, J. O.

Cathey, W. T.

Chi, W.

Deaver, D.

Diaz, A.

Dowski, E.

Dowski, E. R

Fowler, C. W.

C. W. Fowler and E. S. Pateras, "A gradient-index ophthalmic lens based on Wood's convex pseudo-lens," Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics,  10(3), 262-70 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Sullivan and C. W. Fowler, "Progressive addition and variable focus lenses: a review," Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics,  8(4), 402-14 (1988).
[CrossRef]

George, N.

Konforti, N.

E. Ben-Eliezer, E. Marom, N. Konforti and Z. Zalevsky, "Experimental realization of an imaging system with an extended depth of field," Appl. Opt. 44,2792-2798 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ben-Eliezer, Z. Zalevsky, E. Marom and N. Konforti, "All-optical extended depth of field imaging system," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S164-S169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marom, E.

Pateras, E. S.

C. W. Fowler and E. S. Pateras, "A gradient-index ophthalmic lens based on Wood's convex pseudo-lens," Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics,  10(3), 262-70 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, T. P.

T. Callina and T. P. Reynolds, "Traditional methods for the treatment of presbyopia: spectacles, contact lenses, bifocal contact lenses," Ophthalmology Clinics of North America,  19, 25-33 (2006).
[PubMed]

Shemer, A.

Sullivan, C. M.

C. M. Sullivan and C. W. Fowler, "Progressive addition and variable focus lenses: a review," Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics,  8(4), 402-14 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, M.

Tepichin, E.

van der Gracht, J.

Zalevsky, Z.

Zlotnik, A.

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

E. Ben-Eliezer, Z. Zalevsky, E. Marom and N. Konforti, "All-optical extended depth of field imaging system," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S164-S169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics (2)

C. W. Fowler and E. S. Pateras, "A gradient-index ophthalmic lens based on Wood's convex pseudo-lens," Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics,  10(3), 262-70 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Sullivan and C. W. Fowler, "Progressive addition and variable focus lenses: a review," Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics,  8(4), 402-14 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology Clinics of North America (1)

T. Callina and T. P. Reynolds, "Traditional methods for the treatment of presbyopia: spectacles, contact lenses, bifocal contact lenses," Ophthalmology Clinics of North America,  19, 25-33 (2006).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Biomedica (1)

L. A. Carvalho, "A simple mathematical model for simulation of the human optical system based on in vivo corneal data," Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Biomedica,  19, 29-37 (2003).

Other (3)

T. Grosvenor, "Primary care optometry," pp. 24-26 (1996).

T. Grosvenor, "Primary care optometry," pp. 355-356 (1996).

Z. Zalevsky, "Optical method and system for extended depth of focus," US patent application 10/97494 (August 2004).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic sketch of the effect of the EDOF element.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental demonstration for 1.75D. Left part with EDOF element. Right part without it.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Visual acuity for near vision obtained over a test group with elements number: (a). 31 and (b). 32. The horizontal units are the illumination power of the illuminating lamp in Watts, the vertical axis is for VA in Log units. The dark blue bars present reading VA without near distance optical correction and the light blue bars present VA with the EDOF element.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Visual acuity for far field vision obtained over the same test group and with various types of elements.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Visual acuity for near vision obtained over a test group with elements number 51, 52 and 53.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Time dependency and field of view testing. (a). Maximal continuous field of view versus time for binocular element without allowing head movement. (b). Entire field of view for binocular element. (c).–(d). The same as (a) and (b) but for monocular element while allowing head movement. Element number 1 is low density random pattern, element number 2 is periodic high density pattern, elements number 3 and 4 are elements for sun-glasses application while element 3 is high density periodic pattern and element 4 is low density random pattern.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

S.W.C.T contrast sensitivity values chart and one example form that was filled by one subject of the experiment. The gray region is the region with the normal values range. One may see in Fig. 7(b) that the filled values fall inside the gray region.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Experimental results for: (a). Irregular astigmatism. (b). Regular astigmatism. In both cases left part is the result that is obtained with the EDOF element and the right part is obtained without it.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Test group for astigmatism treatment characterization.

Tables (3)

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Table 1. Test group for the first experiment.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Summary of the effect of the element on far vision.

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Table 3. Summary of the reading test.

Equations (7)

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H ( μ x , μ y ; Z i ) = P ( x + λ Z i μ x 2 , y + λ Z i μ y 2 ) P * ( x λ Z i μ x 2 , y λ Z i μ y 2 ) dx dy P ( x , y ) 2 dx dy
P ( x , y ) = P ( x , y ) exp [ i kW ( x , y ) ]
W ( x , y ) = W m ( x 2 + y 2 ) b 2
tan θ = χ R
χ = 6 m · tan θ = 6 m · 0.000291 = 0.001746 m = 1.746 mm
S F = R T R 5
C = L max L min L max + L min

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