Abstract

The second harmonic (SH) generation from the highly epitaxial Al-doped ZnO film on sapphire was measured, using the femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser at the near-resonant SH wavelength, in reflection geometry to avoid the sapphire’s contribution in the conventional Maker fringes technique. By investigating SH intensities as a function of the azimuthal angle along the film’s normal, we found that the sapphire substrate had a negligible contribution to the reflective SH signal and the film had a pure and well-aligned c-domain. We also developed a new method to calculate the component’s ratios of the nonlinear susceptibility tensor by analyzing the polarization diagrams of SH intensities under the incidence with two different angles. The ratios indicate that Kleinman’s symmetry is broken due to the absorption at SH wavelength and the dominant component of the nonlinear susceptibility tensor is d33. Calibration using the Z-cut quartz shows a possible overestimate of the nonlinear response by Maker fringes technique.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. H. Jeong, J. W. Lee, S. B. Lee, and J. H. Boo, "Deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films by RF magnetron sputtering and study of their structural, electrical and optical properties," Thin Solid Films 435, 78-82 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. J. Henley, M. N. R. Ashfold, and D. Cherns, "The growth of transparent conducting ZnO films by pulsed laser ablation," Surf. Coat. Technol. 177-178, 271-276 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Wacogne, M. P. Roe, T. J. Pattinson, and C. N. Pannell, "Effective piezoelectric activity of zinc oxide films grown by radio-frequency planar magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1674-1676 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. P. Roe, B. Wacogne, and C. N. Pannell, "High-efficiency all-fiber phase modulator using an annular zinc oxide piezoelectric transducer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1026-1028 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, and S. Niki., "Uniaxial locked epitaxy of ZnO on the a face of sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1801-03 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, W. E. Mayo, and Y. Lu "Structural, optical, and surface acoustic wave properties of epitaxial ZnO films grown on (01[REMOVED EQ FIELD]2) sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2595-2602 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. F. Aktaruzzaman, G. L. Sharma, and L. K. Malhotra, "Electrical, Optical And Annealing Characteristics Of Zno : Al Films Prepared By Spray Pyrolysis," Thin Solid Films 198, 67-74 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Sang II Park, Tae Sik Cho, Seok Joo Doh, Jong Lam Lee, and Jung Ho Je, "Structural evolution of ZnO/sapphire(001) heteroepitaxy studied by real time synchrotron X-ray scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 349-351 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, "Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023501-6 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Cao, J.Y. Wu, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, "Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 572-574 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X.W. Sun and H.S. Kwok, "Optical properties of epitaxially grown zinc oxide films on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition, " J. Appl. Phys. 86, 408-411 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P.L. Washington, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, "Determination of the optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3261-3263 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S.W. Liu, S. Jolly, Min Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. Liu, C.L. Chen, and Wenkai Zhu, "Domain microstructures and ferroelectric phase transition in Pb0.35Sr0.65TiO3 films studied by second harmonic generation in reflection geometry," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104118 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of nonlinear optics, (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996), Chap. 2.
  15. J.E. Sipe, D.J. Moss, and H.M. van Driel, "Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals," Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129-1141 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Lax, J.G. Mavroides and D.F. Edwards, "Non-linear interband and plasma effects in solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 166-168 (1962).
    [CrossRef]

2007

S.W. Liu, S. Jolly, Min Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. Liu, C.L. Chen, and Wenkai Zhu, "Domain microstructures and ferroelectric phase transition in Pb0.35Sr0.65TiO3 films studied by second harmonic generation in reflection geometry," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, "Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023501-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. J. Henley, M. N. R. Ashfold, and D. Cherns, "The growth of transparent conducting ZnO films by pulsed laser ablation," Surf. Coat. Technol. 177-178, 271-276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. H. Jeong, J. W. Lee, S. B. Lee, and J. H. Boo, "Deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films by RF magnetron sputtering and study of their structural, electrical and optical properties," Thin Solid Films 435, 78-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, and S. Niki., "Uniaxial locked epitaxy of ZnO on the a face of sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1801-03 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sang II Park, Tae Sik Cho, Seok Joo Doh, Jong Lam Lee, and Jung Ho Je, "Structural evolution of ZnO/sapphire(001) heteroepitaxy studied by real time synchrotron X-ray scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 349-351 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

X.W. Sun and H.S. Kwok, "Optical properties of epitaxially grown zinc oxide films on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition, " J. Appl. Phys. 86, 408-411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, W. E. Mayo, and Y. Lu "Structural, optical, and surface acoustic wave properties of epitaxial ZnO films grown on (01[REMOVED EQ FIELD]2) sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2595-2602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Cao, J.Y. Wu, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, "Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 572-574 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.L. Washington, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, "Determination of the optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3261-3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. P. Roe, B. Wacogne, and C. N. Pannell, "High-efficiency all-fiber phase modulator using an annular zinc oxide piezoelectric transducer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

B. Wacogne, M. P. Roe, T. J. Pattinson, and C. N. Pannell, "Effective piezoelectric activity of zinc oxide films grown by radio-frequency planar magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1674-1676 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

A. F. Aktaruzzaman, G. L. Sharma, and L. K. Malhotra, "Electrical, Optical And Annealing Characteristics Of Zno : Al Films Prepared By Spray Pyrolysis," Thin Solid Films 198, 67-74 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

J.E. Sipe, D.J. Moss, and H.M. van Driel, "Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals," Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129-1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1962

B. Lax, J.G. Mavroides and D.F. Edwards, "Non-linear interband and plasma effects in solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 166-168 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Aktaruzzaman, A. F.

A. F. Aktaruzzaman, G. L. Sharma, and L. K. Malhotra, "Electrical, Optical And Annealing Characteristics Of Zno : Al Films Prepared By Spray Pyrolysis," Thin Solid Films 198, 67-74 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ashfold, M. N. R.

S. J. Henley, M. N. R. Ashfold, and D. Cherns, "The growth of transparent conducting ZnO films by pulsed laser ablation," Surf. Coat. Technol. 177-178, 271-276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Belardini, A.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, "Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023501-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bertolotti, M.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, "Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023501-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boo, J. H.

S. H. Jeong, J. W. Lee, S. B. Lee, and J. H. Boo, "Deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films by RF magnetron sputtering and study of their structural, electrical and optical properties," Thin Solid Films 435, 78-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, J.Y. Wu, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, "Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 572-574 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R.P.H.

H. Cao, J.Y. Wu, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, "Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 572-574 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.L. Washington, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, "Determination of the optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3261-3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cherns, D.

S. J. Henley, M. N. R. Ashfold, and D. Cherns, "The growth of transparent conducting ZnO films by pulsed laser ablation," Surf. Coat. Technol. 177-178, 271-276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.Y.

H. Cao, J.Y. Wu, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, "Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 572-574 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.L. Washington, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, "Determination of the optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3261-3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D.F.

B. Lax, J.G. Mavroides and D.F. Edwards, "Non-linear interband and plasma effects in solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 166-168 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Emanetoglu, N. W.

C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, W. E. Mayo, and Y. Lu "Structural, optical, and surface acoustic wave properties of epitaxial ZnO films grown on (01[REMOVED EQ FIELD]2) sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2595-2602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fons, P.

P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, and S. Niki., "Uniaxial locked epitaxy of ZnO on the a face of sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1801-03 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gorla, C. R.

C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, W. E. Mayo, and Y. Lu "Structural, optical, and surface acoustic wave properties of epitaxial ZnO films grown on (01[REMOVED EQ FIELD]2) sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2595-2602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Henley, S. J.

S. J. Henley, M. N. R. Ashfold, and D. Cherns, "The growth of transparent conducting ZnO films by pulsed laser ablation," Surf. Coat. Technol. 177-178, 271-276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iwata, K.

P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, and S. Niki., "Uniaxial locked epitaxy of ZnO on the a face of sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1801-03 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S. H.

S. H. Jeong, J. W. Lee, S. B. Lee, and J. H. Boo, "Deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films by RF magnetron sputtering and study of their structural, electrical and optical properties," Thin Solid Films 435, 78-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jolly, S.

S.W. Liu, S. Jolly, Min Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. Liu, C.L. Chen, and Wenkai Zhu, "Domain microstructures and ferroelectric phase transition in Pb0.35Sr0.65TiO3 films studied by second harmonic generation in reflection geometry," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H.S.

X.W. Sun and H.S. Kwok, "Optical properties of epitaxially grown zinc oxide films on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition, " J. Appl. Phys. 86, 408-411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Larciprete, M.C.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, "Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023501-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lax, B.

B. Lax, J.G. Mavroides and D.F. Edwards, "Non-linear interband and plasma effects in solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 166-168 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

S. H. Jeong, J. W. Lee, S. B. Lee, and J. H. Boo, "Deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films by RF magnetron sputtering and study of their structural, electrical and optical properties," Thin Solid Films 435, 78-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. B.

S. H. Jeong, J. W. Lee, S. B. Lee, and J. H. Boo, "Deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films by RF magnetron sputtering and study of their structural, electrical and optical properties," Thin Solid Films 435, 78-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liang, S.

C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, W. E. Mayo, and Y. Lu "Structural, optical, and surface acoustic wave properties of epitaxial ZnO films grown on (01[REMOVED EQ FIELD]2) sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2595-2602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.W.

S.W. Liu, S. Jolly, Min Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. Liu, C.L. Chen, and Wenkai Zhu, "Domain microstructures and ferroelectric phase transition in Pb0.35Sr0.65TiO3 films studied by second harmonic generation in reflection geometry," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lo Mastro, S.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, "Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023501-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, W. E. Mayo, and Y. Lu "Structural, optical, and surface acoustic wave properties of epitaxial ZnO films grown on (01[REMOVED EQ FIELD]2) sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2595-2602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Malhotra, L. K.

A. F. Aktaruzzaman, G. L. Sharma, and L. K. Malhotra, "Electrical, Optical And Annealing Characteristics Of Zno : Al Films Prepared By Spray Pyrolysis," Thin Solid Films 198, 67-74 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, K.

P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, and S. Niki., "Uniaxial locked epitaxy of ZnO on the a face of sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1801-03 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mavroides, J.G.

B. Lax, J.G. Mavroides and D.F. Edwards, "Non-linear interband and plasma effects in solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 166-168 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Mayo, W. E.

C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, W. E. Mayo, and Y. Lu "Structural, optical, and surface acoustic wave properties of epitaxial ZnO films grown on (01[REMOVED EQ FIELD]2) sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2595-2602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Michelotti, F.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, "Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023501-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Min Xiao, S.

S.W. Liu, S. Jolly, Min Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. Liu, C.L. Chen, and Wenkai Zhu, "Domain microstructures and ferroelectric phase transition in Pb0.35Sr0.65TiO3 films studied by second harmonic generation in reflection geometry," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D.J.

J.E. Sipe, D.J. Moss, and H.M. van Driel, "Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals," Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129-1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Niki, S.

P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, and S. Niki., "Uniaxial locked epitaxy of ZnO on the a face of sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1801-03 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ong, H.C.

P.L. Washington, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, "Determination of the optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3261-3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, J.Y. Wu, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, "Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 572-574 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pannell, C. N.

M. P. Roe, B. Wacogne, and C. N. Pannell, "High-efficiency all-fiber phase modulator using an annular zinc oxide piezoelectric transducer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Wacogne, M. P. Roe, T. J. Pattinson, and C. N. Pannell, "Effective piezoelectric activity of zinc oxide films grown by radio-frequency planar magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1674-1676 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Paoloni, S.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, "Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023501-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Passeri, D.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, "Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023501-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pattinson, T. J.

B. Wacogne, M. P. Roe, T. J. Pattinson, and C. N. Pannell, "Effective piezoelectric activity of zinc oxide films grown by radio-frequency planar magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1674-1676 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roe, M. P.

M. P. Roe, B. Wacogne, and C. N. Pannell, "High-efficiency all-fiber phase modulator using an annular zinc oxide piezoelectric transducer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Wacogne, M. P. Roe, T. J. Pattinson, and C. N. Pannell, "Effective piezoelectric activity of zinc oxide films grown by radio-frequency planar magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1674-1676 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sarto, F.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, "Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023501-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, G. L.

A. F. Aktaruzzaman, G. L. Sharma, and L. K. Malhotra, "Electrical, Optical And Annealing Characteristics Of Zno : Al Films Prepared By Spray Pyrolysis," Thin Solid Films 198, 67-74 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sibilia, C.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, "Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023501-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J.E.

J.E. Sipe, D.J. Moss, and H.M. van Driel, "Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals," Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129-1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Somma, F.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, "Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023501-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.W.

X.W. Sun and H.S. Kwok, "Optical properties of epitaxially grown zinc oxide films on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition, " J. Appl. Phys. 86, 408-411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H.M.

J.E. Sipe, D.J. Moss, and H.M. van Driel, "Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals," Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129-1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wacogne, B.

M. P. Roe, B. Wacogne, and C. N. Pannell, "High-efficiency all-fiber phase modulator using an annular zinc oxide piezoelectric transducer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Wacogne, M. P. Roe, T. J. Pattinson, and C. N. Pannell, "Effective piezoelectric activity of zinc oxide films grown by radio-frequency planar magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1674-1676 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Washington, P.L.

P.L. Washington, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, "Determination of the optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3261-3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.Y.

H. Cao, J.Y. Wu, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, "Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 572-574 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, A.

P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, and S. Niki., "Uniaxial locked epitaxy of ZnO on the a face of sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1801-03 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. Wacogne, M. P. Roe, T. J. Pattinson, and C. N. Pannell, "Effective piezoelectric activity of zinc oxide films grown by radio-frequency planar magnetron sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1674-1676 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, and S. Niki., "Uniaxial locked epitaxy of ZnO on the a face of sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1801-03 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sang II Park, Tae Sik Cho, Seok Joo Doh, Jong Lam Lee, and Jung Ho Je, "Structural evolution of ZnO/sapphire(001) heteroepitaxy studied by real time synchrotron X-ray scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 349-351 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, J.Y. Wu, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, "Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 572-574 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.L. Washington, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, "Determination of the optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3261-3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. P. Roe, B. Wacogne, and C. N. Pannell, "High-efficiency all-fiber phase modulator using an annular zinc oxide piezoelectric transducer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, "Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023501-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, W. E. Mayo, and Y. Lu "Structural, optical, and surface acoustic wave properties of epitaxial ZnO films grown on (01[REMOVED EQ FIELD]2) sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2595-2602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.W. Liu, S. Jolly, Min Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. Liu, C.L. Chen, and Wenkai Zhu, "Domain microstructures and ferroelectric phase transition in Pb0.35Sr0.65TiO3 films studied by second harmonic generation in reflection geometry," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X.W. Sun and H.S. Kwok, "Optical properties of epitaxially grown zinc oxide films on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition, " J. Appl. Phys. 86, 408-411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

J.E. Sipe, D.J. Moss, and H.M. van Driel, "Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals," Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129-1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

B. Lax, J.G. Mavroides and D.F. Edwards, "Non-linear interband and plasma effects in solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 166-168 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Technol.

S. J. Henley, M. N. R. Ashfold, and D. Cherns, "The growth of transparent conducting ZnO films by pulsed laser ablation," Surf. Coat. Technol. 177-178, 271-276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

S. H. Jeong, J. W. Lee, S. B. Lee, and J. H. Boo, "Deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films by RF magnetron sputtering and study of their structural, electrical and optical properties," Thin Solid Films 435, 78-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Aktaruzzaman, G. L. Sharma, and L. K. Malhotra, "Electrical, Optical And Annealing Characteristics Of Zno : Al Films Prepared By Spray Pyrolysis," Thin Solid Films 198, 67-74 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of nonlinear optics, (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996), Chap. 2.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics