Abstract

Abstract

The second harmonic (SH) generation from the highly epitaxial Al-doped ZnO film on sapphire was measured, using the femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser at the near-resonant SH wavelength, in reflection geometry to avoid the sapphire’s contribution in the conventional Maker fringes technique. By investigating SH intensities as a function of the azimuthal angle along the film’s normal, we found that the sapphire substrate had a negligible contribution to the reflective SH signal and the film had a pure and well-aligned c-domain. We also developed a new method to calculate the component’s ratios of the nonlinear susceptibility tensor by analyzing the polarization diagrams of SH intensities under the incidence with two different angles. The ratios indicate that Kleinman’s symmetry is broken due to the absorption at SH wavelength and the dominant component of the nonlinear susceptibility tensor is d 33. Calibration using the Z-cut quartz shows a possible overestimate of the nonlinear response by Maker fringes technique.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. H. Jeong, J. W. Lee, S. B. Lee, and J. H. Boo, “Deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films by RF magnetron sputtering and study of their structural, electrical and optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 435, 78–82 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. J. Henley, M. N. R. Ashfold, and D. Cherns, “The growth of transparent conducting ZnO films by pulsed laser ablation,” Surf. Coat. Technol.  177–178, 271–276 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. B. Wacogne, M. P. Roe, T. J. Pattinson, and C. N. Pannell, “Effective piezoelectric activity of zinc oxide films grown by radio-frequency planar magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  67, 1674–1676 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. P. Roe, B. Wacogne, and C. N. Pannell, “High-efficiency all-fiber phase modulator using an annular zinc oxide piezoelectric transducer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  8, 1026–1028 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, and S. Niki etc., “Uniaxial locked epitaxy of ZnO on the a face of sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  77, 1801–03 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, W. E. Mayo, and Y. Lu etc., “Structural, optical, and surface acoustic wave properties of epitaxial ZnO films grown on (011̄ 2) sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.  85, 2595–2602 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. F. Aktaruzzaman, G. L. Sharma, and L. K. Malhotra, “Electrical, Optical And Annealing Characteristics Of Zno : Al Films Prepared By Spray Pyrolysis,” Thin Solid Films 198, 67–74 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  8. Sang II Park, Tae Sik Cho, Seok Joo Doh, Jong Lam Lee, and Jung Ho Je, “Structural evolution of ZnO/sapphire(001) heteroepitaxy studied by real time synchrotron X-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  77, 349–351 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  9. M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.  97, 023501–6 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. Cao, J.Y. Wu, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, “Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  73, 572–574 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. X.W. Sun and H.S. Kwok, “Optical properties of epitaxially grown zinc oxide films on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.  86, 408–411 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  12. P.L. Washington, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, “Determination of the optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  72, 3261–3263 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. S.W. Liu, S. Jolly, Min Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. Liu, C.L. Chen, and Wenkai Zhu, “Domain microstructures and ferroelectric phase transition in Pb0.35Sr0.65TiO3 films studied by second harmonic generation in reflection geometry,” J. Appl. Phys.  101, 104118 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of nonlinear optics, (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996), Chap. 2.
  15. J.E. Sipe, D.J. Moss, and H.M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev.  B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).
  16. B. Lax, J.G. Mavroides, and D.F. Edwards, “Non-linear interband and plasma effects in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  8, 166–168 (1962).
    [Crossref]

2007 (1)

S.W. Liu, S. Jolly, Min Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. Liu, C.L. Chen, and Wenkai Zhu, “Domain microstructures and ferroelectric phase transition in Pb0.35Sr0.65TiO3 films studied by second harmonic generation in reflection geometry,” J. Appl. Phys.  101, 104118 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.  97, 023501–6 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. J. Henley, M. N. R. Ashfold, and D. Cherns, “The growth of transparent conducting ZnO films by pulsed laser ablation,” Surf. Coat. Technol.  177–178, 271–276 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. H. Jeong, J. W. Lee, S. B. Lee, and J. H. Boo, “Deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films by RF magnetron sputtering and study of their structural, electrical and optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 435, 78–82 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, and S. Niki etc., “Uniaxial locked epitaxy of ZnO on the a face of sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  77, 1801–03 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sang II Park, Tae Sik Cho, Seok Joo Doh, Jong Lam Lee, and Jung Ho Je, “Structural evolution of ZnO/sapphire(001) heteroepitaxy studied by real time synchrotron X-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  77, 349–351 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

X.W. Sun and H.S. Kwok, “Optical properties of epitaxially grown zinc oxide films on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.  86, 408–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, W. E. Mayo, and Y. Lu etc., “Structural, optical, and surface acoustic wave properties of epitaxial ZnO films grown on (011̄ 2) sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.  85, 2595–2602 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

H. Cao, J.Y. Wu, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, “Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  73, 572–574 (1998).
[Crossref]

P.L. Washington, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, “Determination of the optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  72, 3261–3263 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. P. Roe, B. Wacogne, and C. N. Pannell, “High-efficiency all-fiber phase modulator using an annular zinc oxide piezoelectric transducer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  8, 1026–1028 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

B. Wacogne, M. P. Roe, T. J. Pattinson, and C. N. Pannell, “Effective piezoelectric activity of zinc oxide films grown by radio-frequency planar magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  67, 1674–1676 (1995).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

A. F. Aktaruzzaman, G. L. Sharma, and L. K. Malhotra, “Electrical, Optical And Annealing Characteristics Of Zno : Al Films Prepared By Spray Pyrolysis,” Thin Solid Films 198, 67–74 (1991).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

J.E. Sipe, D.J. Moss, and H.M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev.  B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).

1962 (1)

B. Lax, J.G. Mavroides, and D.F. Edwards, “Non-linear interband and plasma effects in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  8, 166–168 (1962).
[Crossref]

Aktaruzzaman, A. F.

A. F. Aktaruzzaman, G. L. Sharma, and L. K. Malhotra, “Electrical, Optical And Annealing Characteristics Of Zno : Al Films Prepared By Spray Pyrolysis,” Thin Solid Films 198, 67–74 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ashfold, M. N. R.

S. J. Henley, M. N. R. Ashfold, and D. Cherns, “The growth of transparent conducting ZnO films by pulsed laser ablation,” Surf. Coat. Technol.  177–178, 271–276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Belardini, A.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.  97, 023501–6 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bertolotti, M.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.  97, 023501–6 (2005).
[Crossref]

Boo, J. H.

S. H. Jeong, J. W. Lee, S. B. Lee, and J. H. Boo, “Deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films by RF magnetron sputtering and study of their structural, electrical and optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 435, 78–82 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, J.Y. Wu, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, “Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  73, 572–574 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chang, R.P.H.

H. Cao, J.Y. Wu, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, “Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  73, 572–574 (1998).
[Crossref]

P.L. Washington, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, “Determination of the optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  72, 3261–3263 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.L.

S.W. Liu, S. Jolly, Min Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. Liu, C.L. Chen, and Wenkai Zhu, “Domain microstructures and ferroelectric phase transition in Pb0.35Sr0.65TiO3 films studied by second harmonic generation in reflection geometry,” J. Appl. Phys.  101, 104118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cherns, D.

S. J. Henley, M. N. R. Ashfold, and D. Cherns, “The growth of transparent conducting ZnO films by pulsed laser ablation,” Surf. Coat. Technol.  177–178, 271–276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cho, Tae Sik

Sang II Park, Tae Sik Cho, Seok Joo Doh, Jong Lam Lee, and Jung Ho Je, “Structural evolution of ZnO/sapphire(001) heteroepitaxy studied by real time synchrotron X-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  77, 349–351 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dai, J.Y.

H. Cao, J.Y. Wu, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, “Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  73, 572–574 (1998).
[Crossref]

P.L. Washington, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, “Determination of the optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  72, 3261–3263 (1998).
[Crossref]

Doh, Seok Joo

Sang II Park, Tae Sik Cho, Seok Joo Doh, Jong Lam Lee, and Jung Ho Je, “Structural evolution of ZnO/sapphire(001) heteroepitaxy studied by real time synchrotron X-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  77, 349–351 (2000).
[Crossref]

Driel, H.M. van

J.E. Sipe, D.J. Moss, and H.M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev.  B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).

Edwards, D.F.

B. Lax, J.G. Mavroides, and D.F. Edwards, “Non-linear interband and plasma effects in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  8, 166–168 (1962).
[Crossref]

Emanetoglu, N. W.

C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, W. E. Mayo, and Y. Lu etc., “Structural, optical, and surface acoustic wave properties of epitaxial ZnO films grown on (011̄ 2) sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.  85, 2595–2602 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fons, P.

P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, and S. Niki etc., “Uniaxial locked epitaxy of ZnO on the a face of sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  77, 1801–03 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gorla, C. R.

C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, W. E. Mayo, and Y. Lu etc., “Structural, optical, and surface acoustic wave properties of epitaxial ZnO films grown on (011̄ 2) sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.  85, 2595–2602 (1999).
[Crossref]

Henley, S. J.

S. J. Henley, M. N. R. Ashfold, and D. Cherns, “The growth of transparent conducting ZnO films by pulsed laser ablation,” Surf. Coat. Technol.  177–178, 271–276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Iwata, K.

P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, and S. Niki etc., “Uniaxial locked epitaxy of ZnO on the a face of sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  77, 1801–03 (2000).
[Crossref]

Je, Jung Ho

Sang II Park, Tae Sik Cho, Seok Joo Doh, Jong Lam Lee, and Jung Ho Je, “Structural evolution of ZnO/sapphire(001) heteroepitaxy studied by real time synchrotron X-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  77, 349–351 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S. H.

S. H. Jeong, J. W. Lee, S. B. Lee, and J. H. Boo, “Deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films by RF magnetron sputtering and study of their structural, electrical and optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 435, 78–82 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jolly, S.

S.W. Liu, S. Jolly, Min Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. Liu, C.L. Chen, and Wenkai Zhu, “Domain microstructures and ferroelectric phase transition in Pb0.35Sr0.65TiO3 films studied by second harmonic generation in reflection geometry,” J. Appl. Phys.  101, 104118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H.S.

X.W. Sun and H.S. Kwok, “Optical properties of epitaxially grown zinc oxide films on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.  86, 408–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

Larciprete, M.C.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.  97, 023501–6 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lax, B.

B. Lax, J.G. Mavroides, and D.F. Edwards, “Non-linear interband and plasma effects in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  8, 166–168 (1962).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. W.

S. H. Jeong, J. W. Lee, S. B. Lee, and J. H. Boo, “Deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films by RF magnetron sputtering and study of their structural, electrical and optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 435, 78–82 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, Jong Lam

Sang II Park, Tae Sik Cho, Seok Joo Doh, Jong Lam Lee, and Jung Ho Je, “Structural evolution of ZnO/sapphire(001) heteroepitaxy studied by real time synchrotron X-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  77, 349–351 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. B.

S. H. Jeong, J. W. Lee, S. B. Lee, and J. H. Boo, “Deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films by RF magnetron sputtering and study of their structural, electrical and optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 435, 78–82 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liang, S.

C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, W. E. Mayo, and Y. Lu etc., “Structural, optical, and surface acoustic wave properties of epitaxial ZnO films grown on (011̄ 2) sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.  85, 2595–2602 (1999).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

S.W. Liu, S. Jolly, Min Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. Liu, C.L. Chen, and Wenkai Zhu, “Domain microstructures and ferroelectric phase transition in Pb0.35Sr0.65TiO3 films studied by second harmonic generation in reflection geometry,” J. Appl. Phys.  101, 104118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.W.

S.W. Liu, S. Jolly, Min Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. Liu, C.L. Chen, and Wenkai Zhu, “Domain microstructures and ferroelectric phase transition in Pb0.35Sr0.65TiO3 films studied by second harmonic generation in reflection geometry,” J. Appl. Phys.  101, 104118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, W. E. Mayo, and Y. Lu etc., “Structural, optical, and surface acoustic wave properties of epitaxial ZnO films grown on (011̄ 2) sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.  85, 2595–2602 (1999).
[Crossref]

Malhotra, L. K.

A. F. Aktaruzzaman, G. L. Sharma, and L. K. Malhotra, “Electrical, Optical And Annealing Characteristics Of Zno : Al Films Prepared By Spray Pyrolysis,” Thin Solid Films 198, 67–74 (1991).
[Crossref]

Mastro, S. Lo

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.  97, 023501–6 (2005).
[Crossref]

Matsubara, K.

P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, and S. Niki etc., “Uniaxial locked epitaxy of ZnO on the a face of sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  77, 1801–03 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mavroides, J.G.

B. Lax, J.G. Mavroides, and D.F. Edwards, “Non-linear interband and plasma effects in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  8, 166–168 (1962).
[Crossref]

Mayo, W. E.

C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, W. E. Mayo, and Y. Lu etc., “Structural, optical, and surface acoustic wave properties of epitaxial ZnO films grown on (011̄ 2) sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.  85, 2595–2602 (1999).
[Crossref]

Michelotti, F.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.  97, 023501–6 (2005).
[Crossref]

Moss, D.J.

J.E. Sipe, D.J. Moss, and H.M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev.  B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).

Niki, S.

P. Fons, K. Iwata, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, and S. Niki etc., “Uniaxial locked epitaxy of ZnO on the a face of sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  77, 1801–03 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ong, H.C.

H. Cao, J.Y. Wu, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, “Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  73, 572–574 (1998).
[Crossref]

P.L. Washington, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, “Determination of the optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  72, 3261–3263 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pannell, C. N.

M. P. Roe, B. Wacogne, and C. N. Pannell, “High-efficiency all-fiber phase modulator using an annular zinc oxide piezoelectric transducer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  8, 1026–1028 (1996).
[Crossref]

B. Wacogne, M. P. Roe, T. J. Pattinson, and C. N. Pannell, “Effective piezoelectric activity of zinc oxide films grown by radio-frequency planar magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  67, 1674–1676 (1995).
[Crossref]

Paoloni, S.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.  97, 023501–6 (2005).
[Crossref]

Park, Sang II

Sang II Park, Tae Sik Cho, Seok Joo Doh, Jong Lam Lee, and Jung Ho Je, “Structural evolution of ZnO/sapphire(001) heteroepitaxy studied by real time synchrotron X-ray scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  77, 349–351 (2000).
[Crossref]

Passeri, D.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.  97, 023501–6 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pattinson, T. J.

B. Wacogne, M. P. Roe, T. J. Pattinson, and C. N. Pannell, “Effective piezoelectric activity of zinc oxide films grown by radio-frequency planar magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  67, 1674–1676 (1995).
[Crossref]

Roe, M. P.

M. P. Roe, B. Wacogne, and C. N. Pannell, “High-efficiency all-fiber phase modulator using an annular zinc oxide piezoelectric transducer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  8, 1026–1028 (1996).
[Crossref]

B. Wacogne, M. P. Roe, T. J. Pattinson, and C. N. Pannell, “Effective piezoelectric activity of zinc oxide films grown by radio-frequency planar magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  67, 1674–1676 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sarto, F.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.  97, 023501–6 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sharma, G. L.

A. F. Aktaruzzaman, G. L. Sharma, and L. K. Malhotra, “Electrical, Optical And Annealing Characteristics Of Zno : Al Films Prepared By Spray Pyrolysis,” Thin Solid Films 198, 67–74 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sibilia, C.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.  97, 023501–6 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sipe, J.E.

J.E. Sipe, D.J. Moss, and H.M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev.  B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).

Somma, F.

M.C. Larciprete, D. Passeri, F. Michelotti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, A. Belardini, F. Sarto, F. Somma, and S. Lo Mastro, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.  97, 023501–6 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.W.

X.W. Sun and H.S. Kwok, “Optical properties of epitaxially grown zinc oxide films on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.  86, 408–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of nonlinear optics, (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996), Chap. 2.

Wacogne, B.

M. P. Roe, B. Wacogne, and C. N. Pannell, “High-efficiency all-fiber phase modulator using an annular zinc oxide piezoelectric transducer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  8, 1026–1028 (1996).
[Crossref]

B. Wacogne, M. P. Roe, T. J. Pattinson, and C. N. Pannell, “Effective piezoelectric activity of zinc oxide films grown by radio-frequency planar magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  67, 1674–1676 (1995).
[Crossref]

Washington, P.L.

P.L. Washington, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, “Determination of the optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  72, 3261–3263 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.Y.

H. Cao, J.Y. Wu, H.C. Ong, J.Y. Dai, and R.P.H. Chang, “Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  73, 572–574 (1998).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Min

S.W. Liu, S. Jolly, Min Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. Liu, C.L. Chen, and Wenkai Zhu, “Domain microstructures and ferroelectric phase transition in Pb0.35Sr0.65TiO3 films studied by second harmonic generation in reflection geometry,” J. Appl. Phys.  101, 104118 (2007).
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Yamada, A.

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Yuan, Z.

S.W. Liu, S. Jolly, Min Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. Liu, C.L. Chen, and Wenkai Zhu, “Domain microstructures and ferroelectric phase transition in Pb0.35Sr0.65TiO3 films studied by second harmonic generation in reflection geometry,” J. Appl. Phys.  101, 104118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Wenkai

S.W. Liu, S. Jolly, Min Xiao, Z. Yuan, J. Liu, C.L. Chen, and Wenkai Zhu, “Domain microstructures and ferroelectric phase transition in Pb0.35Sr0.65TiO3 films studied by second harmonic generation in reflection geometry,” J. Appl. Phys.  101, 104118 (2007).
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Appl. Phys. Lett (5)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

XRD ϕ scans of Al-doped ZnO film grown on (0001) sapphire

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Φ-dependence of SH intensity under the configuration of Pin -Pout .

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

s-polarized (a) and p-polarized (b) SH intensities as a function of the polarization angle φ of the fundamental beam with the incidence angle 45°. Filled squares correspond to the experimental data and solid lines correspond to the theoretical fits.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

s-polarized (a) and p-polarized (b) SH intensities as a function of the polarization angle φ of the fundamental beam with the incidence angle 20.4°. Filled squares correspond to the experimental data and solid lines correspond to the theoretical fits.

Equations (7)

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E s 2 ϖ ( S s ( E ω ) 2 ) = 2 d 15 f s t s t p cos φ sin φ ,
E p 2 ϖ ( S p ( E ω ) 2 ) = ( d 31 f c 2 F s + d 33 f s 2 F s 2 d 15 f c f s F c ) t p 2 sin φ 2 + d 31 F s t s 2 cos φ 2 .
I s 2 ω = ( c s cos φ sin φ ) 2 ,
I p 2 ω = ( a p cos φ 2 + b p sin φ 2 ) 2 ,
( d 33 d 31 ) 2 f c F c f s F s ( d 15 d 31 ) = t s 2 f s 2 t p 2 ( b p a p ) f c 2 f s 2 .
d 31 ZnO = ( I ( s p ) ZnO I ( s s ) quartz ) 1 2 ( t s quartz t s ZnO ) 2 S s quartz S p ZnO ( d 11 quarts F s ZnO ) ,
S s quartz S p ZnO = W ZnO ( W ZnO + 2 w ZnO ) W quartz ( W quartz + 2 w quartz ) ( T s quartz T p ZnO ) 1 exp ( i D W ZnO + 2 w ZnO ) 1

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