Abstract

Abstract

Three dimensional images were obtained using a single high numerical aperture hologram recorded in a high resolution photoresist with a table top λ=46.9 nm laser. Gabor holograms were numerically reconstructed over a range of image planes by sweeping the propagation distance in the numerical reconstruction algorithm, allowing numerical optical sectioning. A robust three dimension image of a test object was obtained with numerical optical sectioning, providing a longitudinal resolution of approximately 2 µm and a lateral resolution of 164 nm.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, "Demonstration of X-Ray holography with an X-Ray laser," Science 238, 517-519 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Lindaas, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, and A. Kalinovsky, "X-ray holographic microscopy by means of photoresist recording and atomic force microscope readout," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1788-1800 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, "High resolution imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray holography," Science 256, 1009-1012 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Jacobsen, M. Howells, J. Kirz, and S. Rothman, "X-ray holographic microscopy using photoresist," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1847-1861 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. McNulty, "The future of X-ray holography," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 347, 170-176 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwing, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  8. A. S. Morlens, J. Gautier, G. Rey, P. Zeitoun, J. P. Caumes, M. Kos-Rosset, H. Merdji, S. Kazamias, K. Cassou and M. Fajardo, "Submicrometer digital in-line holographic microscopy at 32 nm with high-order harmonics," Opt. Lett. 31, 3095-3097 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. I. Tobey, M. E. Siemens, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn and K. A. Nelson, "Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet holography: dynamic monitoring of surface deformation," Opt. Lett. 32, 286-288 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, "Generation of millijoule-level soft-X ray laser pulses at a 4-Hz repetition rate in a highly saturated tabletop capillary discharge amplifier," Opt. Lett. 24, 1115-1117 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, "Demonstration of high-repetition-rate tabletop soft-x-ray lasers with saturated output at wavelengths down to 13.9 nm and gain down to 10.9 nm," Phys. Rev. A 72, Art. No. 053807 (2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Vaschenko, F. Brizuela, C. Brewer, M. Grisham, H. Mancini, C. S. Menoni, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, W. Chao, A. Liddle, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, A. V. Vinogradov, I. A. Artioukov, Y. P. Pershyn and V. V. Kondratenko. "Nano-imaging with a compact extreme ultraviolet laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 2095-2097 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. Brizuela, G. Vaschenko, C, Brewer, M. Grisham, C. S. Menoni, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, W. Chao, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, A. V. Vinogradov, I. A. Artiukov, Y. P. Pershing and V. V. Kondratenko, "Reflection mode imaging with nanoscale resolution using a compact extreme ultraviolet laser," Opt. Express 13, 3983-3988 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, "Demonstration of a high average power tabletop soft X-ray laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804-5807 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. J. Rocca, "Table-top soft x-ray lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3799-3827 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. J. Rocca, D. P. Clark, J. L. A. Chilla, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, "Energy extraction and achievement of the saturation limit in a discharge-pumped table-top soft x-ray amplifier," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1476-1479 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. W. Wachulak, R. A. Bartels, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca. "Sub-400 nm spatial resolution extreme ultraviolet holography with table top laser," Opt. Express 14, 9636-9642 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Center for X-Ray Optics. http://www-cxro.lbl.gov.
  20. Suspension 2.62% in water of latex spheres from Polysciences Inc., diameter 465 nm.
  21. U. Schnars and P. O. Jüptner, "Digital recording and reconstruction of holograms in hologram interferometry and shearography," Appl. Opt. 33, 4373-4377 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. U. Schnars and P. O. Jüptner, "Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of holograms," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85-R101 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw Hill, 1996), Chap 4, p. 66.
  24. G. L. Rogers. "Gabor diffraction microscopy. The hologram as a generalized zone-plate," Nature 166, 236-237 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Attwood, Soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation, (Cambridge University Press. 1999), Chap. 9, p. 361.

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwing, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

U. Schnars and P. O. Jüptner, "Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of holograms," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85-R101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, "Demonstration of a high average power tabletop soft X-ray laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804-5807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

J. J. Rocca, D. P. Clark, J. L. A. Chilla, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, "Energy extraction and achievement of the saturation limit in a discharge-pumped table-top soft x-ray amplifier," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1476-1479 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lindaas, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, and A. Kalinovsky, "X-ray holographic microscopy by means of photoresist recording and atomic force microscope readout," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1788-1800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1992 (1)

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, "High resolution imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray holography," Science 256, 1009-1012 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, "Demonstration of X-Ray holography with an X-Ray laser," Science 238, 517-519 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1950 (1)

G. L. Rogers. "Gabor diffraction microscopy. The hologram as a generalized zone-plate," Nature 166, 236-237 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E.

Anderson, E. H.

Artioukov, I. A.

Attwood, D.

G. Vaschenko, F. Brizuela, C. Brewer, M. Grisham, H. Mancini, C. S. Menoni, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, W. Chao, A. Liddle, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, A. V. Vinogradov, I. A. Artioukov, Y. P. Pershyn and V. V. Kondratenko. "Nano-imaging with a compact extreme ultraviolet laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 2095-2097 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

Backus, S.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bartels, R. A.

P. W. Wachulak, R. A. Bartels, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca. "Sub-400 nm spatial resolution extreme ultraviolet holography with table top laser," Opt. Express 14, 9636-9642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Benware, B. R.

C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, "Generation of millijoule-level soft-X ray laser pulses at a 4-Hz repetition rate in a highly saturated tabletop capillary discharge amplifier," Opt. Lett. 24, 1115-1117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, "Demonstration of a high average power tabletop soft X-ray laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804-5807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, C.

Brizuela, F.

Brown, S. B.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, "Demonstration of X-Ray holography with an X-Ray laser," Science 238, 517-519 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, E. M.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, "Demonstration of X-Ray holography with an X-Ray laser," Science 238, 517-519 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cassou, K.

Caumes, J. P.

Chao, W.

Chilla, J. L. A.

J. J. Rocca, D. P. Clark, J. L. A. Chilla, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, "Energy extraction and achievement of the saturation limit in a discharge-pumped table-top soft x-ray amplifier," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1476-1479 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christov, I. P.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Clark, D. P.

J. J. Rocca, D. P. Clark, J. L. A. Chilla, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, "Energy extraction and achievement of the saturation limit in a discharge-pumped table-top soft x-ray amplifier," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1476-1479 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

Eberhardt, W.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwing, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisebitt, S.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwing, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fajardo, M.

Gautier, J.

Green, H.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Grisham, M.

Harteneck, B. D.

Hellwing, O.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwing, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howells, M.

Howells, M. R.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, "High resolution imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray holography," Science 256, 1009-1012 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, C.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

S. Lindaas, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, and A. Kalinovsky, "X-ray holographic microscopy by means of photoresist recording and atomic force microscope readout," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1788-1800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, "High resolution imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray holography," Science 256, 1009-1012 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jacobsen, M. Howells, J. Kirz, and S. Rothman, "X-ray holographic microscopy using photoresist," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1847-1861 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jüptner, P. O.

U. Schnars and P. O. Jüptner, "Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of holograms," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85-R101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Schnars and P. O. Jüptner, "Digital recording and reconstruction of holograms in hologram interferometry and shearography," Appl. Opt. 33, 4373-4377 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalinovsky, A.

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. I. Tobey, M. E. Siemens, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn and K. A. Nelson, "Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet holography: dynamic monitoring of surface deformation," Opt. Lett. 32, 286-288 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kazamias, S.

Kern, D. P.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, "High resolution imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray holography," Science 256, 1009-1012 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirz, J.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, "High resolution imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray holography," Science 256, 1009-1012 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jacobsen, M. Howells, J. Kirz, and S. Rothman, "X-ray holographic microscopy using photoresist," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1847-1861 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kondratenko, V. V.

Kos-Rosset, M.

Larotonda, M. A.

Liddle, A.

Liddle, J. A.

Lindaas, S.

Liu, Y.

Liu, Y. W.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Lörgen, M.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwing, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lüning, J.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwing, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luther, B. M.

Macchietto, C. D.

C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, "Generation of millijoule-level soft-X ray laser pulses at a 4-Hz repetition rate in a highly saturated tabletop capillary discharge amplifier," Opt. Lett. 24, 1115-1117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, "Demonstration of a high average power tabletop soft X-ray laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804-5807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mancini, H.

Marconi, M. C.

Matthews, D. L.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, "Demonstration of X-Ray holography with an X-Ray laser," Science 238, 517-519 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNulty, I.

I. McNulty, "The future of X-ray holography," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 347, 170-176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, "High resolution imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray holography," Science 256, 1009-1012 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menoni, C. S.

Merdji, H.

Moreno, C. H.

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, "Demonstration of a high average power tabletop soft X-ray laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804-5807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morlens, A. S.

Murnane, M. M.

R. I. Tobey, M. E. Siemens, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn and K. A. Nelson, "Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet holography: dynamic monitoring of surface deformation," Opt. Lett. 32, 286-288 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Nelson, K. A.

Nilson, D. G.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, "Demonstration of X-Ray holography with an X-Ray laser," Science 238, 517-519 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, A.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Pershyn, Y. P.

Rey, G.

Rocca, J. J.

P. W. Wachulak, R. A. Bartels, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, and J. J. Rocca. "Sub-400 nm spatial resolution extreme ultraviolet holography with table top laser," Opt. Express 14, 9636-9642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Vaschenko, C. Brewer, F. Brizuela, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, Y. Liu, D. T. Attwood. "Sub-38 nm resolution table-top microscopy using 13 nm wavelength laser light," Opt. Lett. 31, 1214-1216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Vaschenko, F. Brizuela, C. Brewer, M. Grisham, H. Mancini, C. S. Menoni, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, W. Chao, A. Liddle, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, A. V. Vinogradov, I. A. Artioukov, Y. P. Pershyn and V. V. Kondratenko. "Nano-imaging with a compact extreme ultraviolet laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 2095-2097 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, "Generation of millijoule-level soft-X ray laser pulses at a 4-Hz repetition rate in a highly saturated tabletop capillary discharge amplifier," Opt. Lett. 24, 1115-1117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, "Table-top soft x-ray lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3799-3827 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, "Demonstration of a high average power tabletop soft X-ray laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804-5807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, D. P. Clark, J. L. A. Chilla, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, "Energy extraction and achievement of the saturation limit in a discharge-pumped table-top soft x-ray amplifier," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1476-1479 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, G. L.

G. L. Rogers. "Gabor diffraction microscopy. The hologram as a generalized zone-plate," Nature 166, 236-237 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, S.

Schlotter, W. F.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwing, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnars, U.

U. Schnars and P. O. Jüptner, "Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of holograms," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85-R101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Suspension 2.62% in water of latex spheres from Polysciences Inc., diameter 465 nm.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Diagram of the experimental set up. b) Detail of the test object used.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Hologram of the sample with a random distribution of 465nm diameter latex spheres over the tilted surface of an Al foil recorded in the photoresist surface and digitized with an atomic force microscope. b) Digital reconstruction of the hologram. Right: intensity cuts in the vertical direction of one “in focus” marker (top curve) and one “out of focus” marker (bottom curve). The white dotted lines indicate the region in the reconstruction that is “in focus”.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Surface topographies obtained from reconstructed images in different regions of the object. a) Region close to the edge of the spacer where a high slope is revealed, b) Region approximately 200 µm away from the edge showing a lower slope.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated heights of the markers in two different positions of the object. a) Close to the edge of the Maylard spacer where a higher slope is expected. b) Approximately at 200 µm from the edge, where a smaller slope was measured. These two plots correspond to the same regions plotted in Fig. 3(a) and Fig. 3(b) respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Small section (42×42 µm2) of the hologram of a broken AFM tip recorded in the surface of PMMA photoresist. (b). Optimum reconstruction of the hologram depicted in a). c) Correlation curves showing that the reconstruction is optimum for the wavelet order 2 for a wide range of zp indicating a lateral resolution of 22=4 pixels, for this case Δ=164 nm.

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