Abstract

We present an LED-based ultra-mini DMD projector with a size of 75 mm x 67 mm x 42 mm. A compact homogenizer consisting of a double-side microlens array and two condensers was proposed to reduce the size of the pocket-sized projector. The homogenizer not only allowed for a reduction in the total track length of the system, but also reduced the angle of the rays emitted from the LED with the micro field lens array. The double-side well-aligned 124 x 146 microlens array was fabricated using backside alignment and hot embossing techniques. The microlens array was square-arranged and the fill-factor was extremely high. The uniformity and total throughput of this projector were higher than those of the current pocket-sized projectors. Moreover, the optical performances of the projector such as color difference and the LED alignment tolerance were also measured and discussed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Ruther, B. Gerlach, J. Gottert, M. Ilie, J. Mohr, A. Muller, and C. Oßmann, "Fabrication and characterization of microlenses realized by a modified LIGA process," Pure Appl. Opt. 6,643-653 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. R. King, L. Y. Lin, and M. C. Wu, "Out-of-plane refractive microlens fabricated by surface micromachining," Photon. Technol. Lett. 8,1349-1351 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, M. Klaus, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, H. Muller and A. Picard, "Parallel optical interconnection using self-adjusting microlenses on injection-molded ferrules made by LIGA technique," Proc. SPIE 3737,562-571 (1999).
  4. U. Kohler, A. E. Guber, W. Bier, and M. Heckele, "Fabrication of microlenses by plasmaless isotropic etching combined with plastic moulding," Sens. Actuators A. 53,361-363 (1996).
  5. L. J. Hornbeck, "Digital light processing for high-brightness, high-resolution applications," Proc. SPIE 3013,27-40 (1997).
  6. G. H. Moss, R. G. Fielding, M. Kavanagh, and B. R. Critchley, "A high-luminance large-screen projection system using the digital micromirror device (DMD)," in SID ’96 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif.,) 907-910 (1996)
  7. H. C. Burstyn, D. Meyerhofer, and P. M. Heyman, "The design of high-efficiency high-resolution projectors with the digital micromirror device," in SID ’94 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif.,) 677-680 (1994)
  8. G. Harbers, M. Keuper, and S. Paolini, "Performance of high power LED illuminators in color sequential projection displays," in Proceeding of Internal Display Workshop (IDW, 2003) pp. 1585-1589.
  9. G. Harbers, M. Keuper, and S. Paolini, "High power LED illuminators for data and video projector," in Proceeding of Internal Display Workshop (IDW, 2002) pp. 501-504.
  10. M. H. Keuper, G. Harbers, and S. Paolini, "RGB LED Illuminator for Pocket-sized Projectors," in SID ’04 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif.,) 943-945 (2004)
  11. C. M. Chang and H. P. D. Shieh, "Design of illumination and projection optics for projectors with single digital micromirror devices," Appl. Opt. 39, 3202-3208 (2000).
  12. E. H. Stupp and M. S. Brennesholtz, Projection Display, (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1999).
  13. E. Geißler "Meeting the challenges of developing LED-based projection display," Proc. SPIE 6196, 616901-616912 (2007).
  14. Y. Meuret, B. Vangiel, F. Christiaens, and H. Thienpont, "Efficient illumination in LED-based projection system using lenslet integrators," Opt. Eng. 6196, 619605-619620 (2006).
  15. S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, Microoptics (John Wiley, 2003)
  16. Y. Meuret, and P. D. Visschere, "Contrast-improving methods for Digital Micromirror Device projectors," Opt. Eng. 42(3), 840-845 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. J. Smith, Optical System Design, (McGraw- Hell, 2004) pp.46-47.
  18. J. W. Pan, C. M. Wang, W. S. Sun and J. Y. Chang, "Portable digital micromirror device projector using a novel prim," Appl. Opt. 46, 5097-5102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. European EN ISO 13694 (April 2000); this is the official version of the document that takes into account the corrections introduced on the 19 July, 2000.
  20. Breault Research Organization. Website: http://www.breault.com/
  21. Osram Opto-Semiconductor GmbH.  Website http://www.orsram-os.com (part number LE AB A2A (Red and Blue LED) part number LE T A2A (Green LED)).
  22. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative data and Formulae, (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1982).

2007

E. Geißler "Meeting the challenges of developing LED-based projection display," Proc. SPIE 6196, 616901-616912 (2007).

J. W. Pan, C. M. Wang, W. S. Sun and J. Y. Chang, "Portable digital micromirror device projector using a novel prim," Appl. Opt. 46, 5097-5102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Meuret, B. Vangiel, F. Christiaens, and H. Thienpont, "Efficient illumination in LED-based projection system using lenslet integrators," Opt. Eng. 6196, 619605-619620 (2006).

2003

Y. Meuret, and P. D. Visschere, "Contrast-improving methods for Digital Micromirror Device projectors," Opt. Eng. 42(3), 840-845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, M. Klaus, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, H. Muller and A. Picard, "Parallel optical interconnection using self-adjusting microlenses on injection-molded ferrules made by LIGA technique," Proc. SPIE 3737,562-571 (1999).

1997

P. Ruther, B. Gerlach, J. Gottert, M. Ilie, J. Mohr, A. Muller, and C. Oßmann, "Fabrication and characterization of microlenses realized by a modified LIGA process," Pure Appl. Opt. 6,643-653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Hornbeck, "Digital light processing for high-brightness, high-resolution applications," Proc. SPIE 3013,27-40 (1997).

1996

C. R. King, L. Y. Lin, and M. C. Wu, "Out-of-plane refractive microlens fabricated by surface micromachining," Photon. Technol. Lett. 8,1349-1351 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Kohler, A. E. Guber, W. Bier, and M. Heckele, "Fabrication of microlenses by plasmaless isotropic etching combined with plastic moulding," Sens. Actuators A. 53,361-363 (1996).

Bier, W.

U. Kohler, A. E. Guber, W. Bier, and M. Heckele, "Fabrication of microlenses by plasmaless isotropic etching combined with plastic moulding," Sens. Actuators A. 53,361-363 (1996).

Chang, C. M.

Chang, J. Y.

Christiaens, F.

Y. Meuret, B. Vangiel, F. Christiaens, and H. Thienpont, "Efficient illumination in LED-based projection system using lenslet integrators," Opt. Eng. 6196, 619605-619620 (2006).

Ehrfeld, W.

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, M. Klaus, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, H. Muller and A. Picard, "Parallel optical interconnection using self-adjusting microlenses on injection-molded ferrules made by LIGA technique," Proc. SPIE 3737,562-571 (1999).

Geißler, E.

E. Geißler "Meeting the challenges of developing LED-based projection display," Proc. SPIE 6196, 616901-616912 (2007).

Gerlach, B.

P. Ruther, B. Gerlach, J. Gottert, M. Ilie, J. Mohr, A. Muller, and C. Oßmann, "Fabrication and characterization of microlenses realized by a modified LIGA process," Pure Appl. Opt. 6,643-653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gottert, J.

P. Ruther, B. Gerlach, J. Gottert, M. Ilie, J. Mohr, A. Muller, and C. Oßmann, "Fabrication and characterization of microlenses realized by a modified LIGA process," Pure Appl. Opt. 6,643-653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guber, A. E.

U. Kohler, A. E. Guber, W. Bier, and M. Heckele, "Fabrication of microlenses by plasmaless isotropic etching combined with plastic moulding," Sens. Actuators A. 53,361-363 (1996).

Heckele, M.

U. Kohler, A. E. Guber, W. Bier, and M. Heckele, "Fabrication of microlenses by plasmaless isotropic etching combined with plastic moulding," Sens. Actuators A. 53,361-363 (1996).

Hornbeck, L. J.

L. J. Hornbeck, "Digital light processing for high-brightness, high-resolution applications," Proc. SPIE 3013,27-40 (1997).

Hossfeld, J.

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, M. Klaus, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, H. Muller and A. Picard, "Parallel optical interconnection using self-adjusting microlenses on injection-molded ferrules made by LIGA technique," Proc. SPIE 3737,562-571 (1999).

Ilie, M.

P. Ruther, B. Gerlach, J. Gottert, M. Ilie, J. Mohr, A. Muller, and C. Oßmann, "Fabrication and characterization of microlenses realized by a modified LIGA process," Pure Appl. Opt. 6,643-653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

King, C. R.

C. R. King, L. Y. Lin, and M. C. Wu, "Out-of-plane refractive microlens fabricated by surface micromachining," Photon. Technol. Lett. 8,1349-1351 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Klaus, M.

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, M. Klaus, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, H. Muller and A. Picard, "Parallel optical interconnection using self-adjusting microlenses on injection-molded ferrules made by LIGA technique," Proc. SPIE 3737,562-571 (1999).

Kohler, U.

U. Kohler, A. E. Guber, W. Bier, and M. Heckele, "Fabrication of microlenses by plasmaless isotropic etching combined with plastic moulding," Sens. Actuators A. 53,361-363 (1996).

Kufner, M.

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, M. Klaus, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, H. Muller and A. Picard, "Parallel optical interconnection using self-adjusting microlenses on injection-molded ferrules made by LIGA technique," Proc. SPIE 3737,562-571 (1999).

Kufner, S.

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, M. Klaus, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, H. Muller and A. Picard, "Parallel optical interconnection using self-adjusting microlenses on injection-molded ferrules made by LIGA technique," Proc. SPIE 3737,562-571 (1999).

Lin, L. Y.

C. R. King, L. Y. Lin, and M. C. Wu, "Out-of-plane refractive microlens fabricated by surface micromachining," Photon. Technol. Lett. 8,1349-1351 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meuret, Y.

Y. Meuret, B. Vangiel, F. Christiaens, and H. Thienpont, "Efficient illumination in LED-based projection system using lenslet integrators," Opt. Eng. 6196, 619605-619620 (2006).

Y. Meuret, and P. D. Visschere, "Contrast-improving methods for Digital Micromirror Device projectors," Opt. Eng. 42(3), 840-845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mohr, J.

P. Ruther, B. Gerlach, J. Gottert, M. Ilie, J. Mohr, A. Muller, and C. Oßmann, "Fabrication and characterization of microlenses realized by a modified LIGA process," Pure Appl. Opt. 6,643-653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Muller, A.

P. Ruther, B. Gerlach, J. Gottert, M. Ilie, J. Mohr, A. Muller, and C. Oßmann, "Fabrication and characterization of microlenses realized by a modified LIGA process," Pure Appl. Opt. 6,643-653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H.

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, M. Klaus, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, H. Muller and A. Picard, "Parallel optical interconnection using self-adjusting microlenses on injection-molded ferrules made by LIGA technique," Proc. SPIE 3737,562-571 (1999).

Oßmann, C.

P. Ruther, B. Gerlach, J. Gottert, M. Ilie, J. Mohr, A. Muller, and C. Oßmann, "Fabrication and characterization of microlenses realized by a modified LIGA process," Pure Appl. Opt. 6,643-653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J. W.

Picard, A.

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, M. Klaus, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, H. Muller and A. Picard, "Parallel optical interconnection using self-adjusting microlenses on injection-molded ferrules made by LIGA technique," Proc. SPIE 3737,562-571 (1999).

Ruther, P.

P. Ruther, B. Gerlach, J. Gottert, M. Ilie, J. Mohr, A. Muller, and C. Oßmann, "Fabrication and characterization of microlenses realized by a modified LIGA process," Pure Appl. Opt. 6,643-653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schulze, J.

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, M. Klaus, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, H. Muller and A. Picard, "Parallel optical interconnection using self-adjusting microlenses on injection-molded ferrules made by LIGA technique," Proc. SPIE 3737,562-571 (1999).

Shieh, H. P. D.

Sun, W. S.

Thienpont, H.

Y. Meuret, B. Vangiel, F. Christiaens, and H. Thienpont, "Efficient illumination in LED-based projection system using lenslet integrators," Opt. Eng. 6196, 619605-619620 (2006).

Vangiel, B.

Y. Meuret, B. Vangiel, F. Christiaens, and H. Thienpont, "Efficient illumination in LED-based projection system using lenslet integrators," Opt. Eng. 6196, 619605-619620 (2006).

Visschere, P. D.

Y. Meuret, and P. D. Visschere, "Contrast-improving methods for Digital Micromirror Device projectors," Opt. Eng. 42(3), 840-845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. M.

Wu, M. C.

C. R. King, L. Y. Lin, and M. C. Wu, "Out-of-plane refractive microlens fabricated by surface micromachining," Photon. Technol. Lett. 8,1349-1351 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Eng.

Y. Meuret, B. Vangiel, F. Christiaens, and H. Thienpont, "Efficient illumination in LED-based projection system using lenslet integrators," Opt. Eng. 6196, 619605-619620 (2006).

Y. Meuret, and P. D. Visschere, "Contrast-improving methods for Digital Micromirror Device projectors," Opt. Eng. 42(3), 840-845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. R. King, L. Y. Lin, and M. C. Wu, "Out-of-plane refractive microlens fabricated by surface micromachining," Photon. Technol. Lett. 8,1349-1351 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, M. Klaus, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, H. Muller and A. Picard, "Parallel optical interconnection using self-adjusting microlenses on injection-molded ferrules made by LIGA technique," Proc. SPIE 3737,562-571 (1999).

L. J. Hornbeck, "Digital light processing for high-brightness, high-resolution applications," Proc. SPIE 3013,27-40 (1997).

E. Geißler "Meeting the challenges of developing LED-based projection display," Proc. SPIE 6196, 616901-616912 (2007).

Pure Appl. Opt.

P. Ruther, B. Gerlach, J. Gottert, M. Ilie, J. Mohr, A. Muller, and C. Oßmann, "Fabrication and characterization of microlenses realized by a modified LIGA process," Pure Appl. Opt. 6,643-653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A.

U. Kohler, A. E. Guber, W. Bier, and M. Heckele, "Fabrication of microlenses by plasmaless isotropic etching combined with plastic moulding," Sens. Actuators A. 53,361-363 (1996).

Other

E. H. Stupp and M. S. Brennesholtz, Projection Display, (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1999).

G. H. Moss, R. G. Fielding, M. Kavanagh, and B. R. Critchley, "A high-luminance large-screen projection system using the digital micromirror device (DMD)," in SID ’96 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif.,) 907-910 (1996)

H. C. Burstyn, D. Meyerhofer, and P. M. Heyman, "The design of high-efficiency high-resolution projectors with the digital micromirror device," in SID ’94 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif.,) 677-680 (1994)

G. Harbers, M. Keuper, and S. Paolini, "Performance of high power LED illuminators in color sequential projection displays," in Proceeding of Internal Display Workshop (IDW, 2003) pp. 1585-1589.

G. Harbers, M. Keuper, and S. Paolini, "High power LED illuminators for data and video projector," in Proceeding of Internal Display Workshop (IDW, 2002) pp. 501-504.

M. H. Keuper, G. Harbers, and S. Paolini, "RGB LED Illuminator for Pocket-sized Projectors," in SID ’04 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif.,) 943-945 (2004)

S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, Microoptics (John Wiley, 2003)

European EN ISO 13694 (April 2000); this is the official version of the document that takes into account the corrections introduced on the 19 July, 2000.

Breault Research Organization. Website: http://www.breault.com/

Osram Opto-Semiconductor GmbH.  Website http://www.orsram-os.com (part number LE AB A2A (Red and Blue LED) part number LE T A2A (Green LED)).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative data and Formulae, (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1982).

W. J. Smith, Optical System Design, (McGraw- Hell, 2004) pp.46-47.

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