Abstract

A novel and highly versatile doping method has been developed to allow active dopants, including materials incompatible with the polymer matrix, to be incorporated into microstructured polymer optical fibers through the use of nanoparticles. The incorporation of quantum dots and silica nanoparticles containing Rhodamine isothiocyanate is demonstrated.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic-Crystal Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. van Eijkelenborg, M. Large, A. Argyros, J. Zagari, S. Manos, N. Issa, I. Bassett, S. Fleming, R. McPhedran, C. Martijn de Sterke and N. A. Nicorovici, "Microstructured polymer optical fibre," Opt. Express 9, 319-327 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. C. J. Large, A. Argyros, F. Cox, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, S. Ponrathnam, N. S. Pujari, I. M. Bassett, R. Lwin, and G. W. Barton. "Microstructured polymer optical fibres: New opportunities and challenges," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 446, 219-231 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike and Y. Okamoto, "Fabrication and properties of polymer optical fibers containing Nd-Chelate," IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 12, 989-991 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. C. J. Large, S. Ponrathnam, A. Argyros, N. S. Pujari and F. Cox, "Solution doping of microstructured polymer optical fibres," Opt. Express 12,1966-1971 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Argyros, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, S. D. Jackson, and R. P. Mildren, "Microstructured polymer fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 1882-1884 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Cox, A. Michie, G. Henry, M. Large, S. Ponrathnam and A. Argyros, "Poling and Doping of Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibres," in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Polymer Optical Fiber, Seattle 14-17 September 2003. pp. 89-92.
  8. C. Barbé, J. Bartlett, L. Kong, K. Finnie, H. Q. Lin, M. Larkin, S. Calleja, A. Bush and G. Calleja, "Silica Particles: A Novel Drug-Delivery System," Adv. Mater. 16, 1959-1966 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G.  Yao, L.  Wang, Y.  Wu, J.  Smith, J.  Xu, W.  Zhao, E.  Lee and W.  Tan, "FloDots: luminescent nanoparticles," Anal Bioanal Chem 385, 518-524 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Horikawa, K. Yamaguchi, M. Inoue, T. Fujii, and K. I. Arai, "Magneto-optical effect of films with nano-clustered cobalt particles dispersed in PMMA plastics," Mater. Sci. Eng. A 217-218, 348-352 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Petit, J. Griffin, N. Carlie, V. Jubera, M. García, F. E. Hernández and K. Richardson, "Luminescence properties of Eu3+ or Dy3+/Au co-doped SiO2 nanoparticles," Mater. Lett. 61, 2879-2882 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. C. W. Chan and S. M. Nie, "Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection," Science 281, 2016-2018 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Beveratos, R. Brouri, T. Gacoin, J.-P. Poizat and P. Grangier, "Nonclassical radiation from diamond nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. A 64,061802 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. E. Meissner, C. Holton and W. B. SpillmanJr., "Optical characterization of quantum dots entrained in microstructured optical fibers," Physica E 26, 377-381 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. E. Finlayson, "Comment on ‘Optical characterization of quantum dots entrained in microstructured optical fibers’ [Physica E 26 (2005) 377-381]," Physica E 31,107-108 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. E. Meissner, C. Holton and W. B. SpillmanJr., "Response to comment on "Optical characterization of quantum dots entrained in microstructured optical fibers,"Physica E 31, 109-110 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. C. Y. Yu, C. Barbe, K. Finnie, F. Ladouceur, D. Ng and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, "Fluorescence from nano-particle doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 42, 620-621(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. H. Liu, H. Y. Wang and C. H. Ho, "Fabrication and Characterization of Gradient Refractive Index Plastic Rods Containing Inorganic Nanoparticles," J. Polym. Res. 10,13-20 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. He, J. Duan, K. Wang, W. Tan, X. Lin and C. He, "A novel fluorescent label based on organic dye-doped silica nanoparticles for HepG liver cancer cell recognition," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 4, 585-589 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Kayla Leach, Technical Representative, Evident Technologies Inc., 216 River Street, Troy, NY 12180 (personal communication, 2007).
  21. G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C. J. Large and J. Zagari, "Fabrication of microstructured polymer optical fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 325-335 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. I. Voitenko, J. F. Muth, M. Gerhold, D. Cui, and J. Xu, "Tunable photoluminescence of polymer doped with PbSe quantum dots," Mat. Sci. Eng. C. (to be published).
  23. N. A. M. Verhaegh and A. van Blaaderen, "Dispersions of Rhodamine-labeled silica spheres: synthesis, characterization, and fluorescence confocal scanning laser microscopy," Langmuir 10, 1427-1438 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Kurian, N. A. George, B. Paul, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, "Studies on fluorescence efficiency and photodegeneration of rhodamine 6G doped PMMA using a dual beam thermal lens technique," Laser Chem. 20, 99-110 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. X. Xingsheng, M. Hai, Z. Qijing, and Z. Yunsheng, "Properties of Raman spectra and laser-induced birefringence in polymethyl methacrylate optical fibres," J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op. 4, 237-242 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. Petit, J. Griffin, N. Carlie, V. Jubera, M. García, F. E. Hernández and K. Richardson, "Luminescence properties of Eu3+ or Dy3+/Au co-doped SiO2 nanoparticles," Mater. Lett. 61, 2879-2882 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

G.  Yao, L.  Wang, Y.  Wu, J.  Smith, J.  Xu, W.  Zhao, E.  Lee and W.  Tan, "FloDots: luminescent nanoparticles," Anal Bioanal Chem 385, 518-524 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Finlayson, "Comment on ‘Optical characterization of quantum dots entrained in microstructured optical fibers’ [Physica E 26 (2005) 377-381]," Physica E 31,107-108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Meissner, C. Holton and W. B. SpillmanJr., "Response to comment on "Optical characterization of quantum dots entrained in microstructured optical fibers,"Physica E 31, 109-110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Y. Yu, C. Barbe, K. Finnie, F. Ladouceur, D. Ng and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, "Fluorescence from nano-particle doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 42, 620-621(2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. J. Large, A. Argyros, F. Cox, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, S. Ponrathnam, N. S. Pujari, I. M. Bassett, R. Lwin, and G. W. Barton. "Microstructured polymer optical fibres: New opportunities and challenges," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 446, 219-231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic-Crystal Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

K. E. Meissner, C. Holton and W. B. SpillmanJr., "Optical characterization of quantum dots entrained in microstructured optical fibers," Physica E 26, 377-381 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

M. C. J. Large, S. Ponrathnam, A. Argyros, N. S. Pujari and F. Cox, "Solution doping of microstructured polymer optical fibres," Opt. Express 12,1966-1971 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Argyros, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, S. D. Jackson, and R. P. Mildren, "Microstructured polymer fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 1882-1884 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Barbé, J. Bartlett, L. Kong, K. Finnie, H. Q. Lin, M. Larkin, S. Calleja, A. Bush and G. Calleja, "Silica Particles: A Novel Drug-Delivery System," Adv. Mater. 16, 1959-1966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. He, J. Duan, K. Wang, W. Tan, X. Lin and C. He, "A novel fluorescent label based on organic dye-doped silica nanoparticles for HepG liver cancer cell recognition," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 4, 585-589 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C. J. Large and J. Zagari, "Fabrication of microstructured polymer optical fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 325-335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. H. Liu, H. Y. Wang and C. H. Ho, "Fabrication and Characterization of Gradient Refractive Index Plastic Rods Containing Inorganic Nanoparticles," J. Polym. Res. 10,13-20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Kurian, N. A. George, B. Paul, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, "Studies on fluorescence efficiency and photodegeneration of rhodamine 6G doped PMMA using a dual beam thermal lens technique," Laser Chem. 20, 99-110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Xingsheng, M. Hai, Z. Qijing, and Z. Yunsheng, "Properties of Raman spectra and laser-induced birefringence in polymethyl methacrylate optical fibres," J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op. 4, 237-242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike and Y. Okamoto, "Fabrication and properties of polymer optical fibers containing Nd-Chelate," IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 12, 989-991 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

W. C. W. Chan and S. M. Nie, "Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection," Science 281, 2016-2018 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. Horikawa, K. Yamaguchi, M. Inoue, T. Fujii, and K. I. Arai, "Magneto-optical effect of films with nano-clustered cobalt particles dispersed in PMMA plastics," Mater. Sci. Eng. A 217-218, 348-352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

N. A. M. Verhaegh and A. van Blaaderen, "Dispersions of Rhodamine-labeled silica spheres: synthesis, characterization, and fluorescence confocal scanning laser microscopy," Langmuir 10, 1427-1438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. Barbé, J. Bartlett, L. Kong, K. Finnie, H. Q. Lin, M. Larkin, S. Calleja, A. Bush and G. Calleja, "Silica Particles: A Novel Drug-Delivery System," Adv. Mater. 16, 1959-1966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anal Bioanal Chem (1)

G.  Yao, L.  Wang, Y.  Wu, J.  Smith, J.  Xu, W.  Zhao, E.  Lee and W.  Tan, "FloDots: luminescent nanoparticles," Anal Bioanal Chem 385, 518-524 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. C. Y. Yu, C. Barbe, K. Finnie, F. Ladouceur, D. Ng and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, "Fluorescence from nano-particle doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 42, 620-621(2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonic Tech. L. (1)

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike and Y. Okamoto, "Fabrication and properties of polymer optical fibers containing Nd-Chelate," IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 12, 989-991 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

X. He, J. Duan, K. Wang, W. Tan, X. Lin and C. He, "A novel fluorescent label based on organic dye-doped silica nanoparticles for HepG liver cancer cell recognition," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 4, 585-589 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op. (1)

X. Xingsheng, M. Hai, Z. Qijing, and Z. Yunsheng, "Properties of Raman spectra and laser-induced birefringence in polymethyl methacrylate optical fibres," J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op. 4, 237-242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Res. (1)

J. H. Liu, H. Y. Wang and C. H. Ho, "Fabrication and Characterization of Gradient Refractive Index Plastic Rods Containing Inorganic Nanoparticles," J. Polym. Res. 10,13-20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

N. A. M. Verhaegh and A. van Blaaderen, "Dispersions of Rhodamine-labeled silica spheres: synthesis, characterization, and fluorescence confocal scanning laser microscopy," Langmuir 10, 1427-1438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Laser Chem. (1)

A. Kurian, N. A. George, B. Paul, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, "Studies on fluorescence efficiency and photodegeneration of rhodamine 6G doped PMMA using a dual beam thermal lens technique," Laser Chem. 20, 99-110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett. (1)

L. Petit, J. Griffin, N. Carlie, V. Jubera, M. García, F. E. Hernández and K. Richardson, "Luminescence properties of Eu3+ or Dy3+/Au co-doped SiO2 nanoparticles," Mater. Lett. 61, 2879-2882 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. A (1)

A. Horikawa, K. Yamaguchi, M. Inoue, T. Fujii, and K. I. Arai, "Magneto-optical effect of films with nano-clustered cobalt particles dispersed in PMMA plastics," Mater. Sci. Eng. A 217-218, 348-352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

M. C. J. Large, A. Argyros, F. Cox, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, S. Ponrathnam, N. S. Pujari, I. M. Bassett, R. Lwin, and G. W. Barton. "Microstructured polymer optical fibres: New opportunities and challenges," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 446, 219-231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C. J. Large and J. Zagari, "Fabrication of microstructured polymer optical fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 325-335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Beveratos, R. Brouri, T. Gacoin, J.-P. Poizat and P. Grangier, "Nonclassical radiation from diamond nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. A 64,061802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Physica E (3)

K. E. Meissner, C. Holton and W. B. SpillmanJr., "Optical characterization of quantum dots entrained in microstructured optical fibers," Physica E 26, 377-381 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Finlayson, "Comment on ‘Optical characterization of quantum dots entrained in microstructured optical fibers’ [Physica E 26 (2005) 377-381]," Physica E 31,107-108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Meissner, C. Holton and W. B. SpillmanJr., "Response to comment on "Optical characterization of quantum dots entrained in microstructured optical fibers,"Physica E 31, 109-110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. C. W. Chan and S. M. Nie, "Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection," Science 281, 2016-2018 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

I. Voitenko, J. F. Muth, M. Gerhold, D. Cui, and J. Xu, "Tunable photoluminescence of polymer doped with PbSe quantum dots," Mat. Sci. Eng. C. (to be published).

Kayla Leach, Technical Representative, Evident Technologies Inc., 216 River Street, Troy, NY 12180 (personal communication, 2007).

F. Cox, A. Michie, G. Henry, M. Large, S. Ponrathnam and A. Argyros, "Poling and Doping of Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibres," in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Polymer Optical Fiber, Seattle 14-17 September 2003. pp. 89-92.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transmission Electron Microscope images of silica nanoparticles containing encapsulated RITC dye molecules. (a) The ‘core’ particles after 48 hrs growth (~60 nm in diameter), (b) particles after one shell has been added (~125 nm in diameter), and (c) particles after two shells have been added to the core (~185 nm in diameter).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Intermediate size preform with an external diameter of 11mm, (b) dye-doped mPOF, endface viewed in reflection, and (c) central region where the nanoparticles are present can be clearly seen when viewed in transmission – note that the white ring surrounding the core is the undoped PMMA sleeve used. The (pink) fluorescence is guided between the sleeve and the thin bridges at the edge of the core.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) ‘Hops Yellow’ quantum dots - (i) embedded in a suspended-core mPOF and (ii) in a toluene suspension - excited by a (15 mW) 532 nm semiconductor laser; (b) dye-doped silica nanoparticles - (i) embedded in suspended core mPOF and (ii) suspended in toluene - excited by the same 532 nm laser.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Si ( OR ) 4 + x H 2 O Si ( OR ) 4 x ( OH ) x + x ROH ,
Si-OR + HO-Si Si-O-Si + ROH ,
Si-OH + HO-Si Si-O-Si + H 2 O ,

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