Abstract

We report the results of a study aimed at the assessment of the trade-off between precision and horizontal resolution of the retrieval products of MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) operating onboard the ENVIronmental SATellite. By exploiting different observation setups we could perform the study by acting on both the retrieval and the sampling grids. Our results are compared with those previously obtained on simulated observations [Appl. Opt. 43, 1–11 (2004)]. We show that the horizontal sampling of the atmosphere operated by the spectrometer cannot be pushed beyond some limits without inducing unacceptable correlations among the retrieved profiles. These correlations show-up only when using a two-dimensional retrieval algorithm and can be evaluated through the instabilities that they trigger in the horizontal distribution of the retrieval products. In order to reduce these instabilities we compare the strategy of degrading the retrieval grid with the strategy of applying horizontal regularization. We discuss the different trade-off between precision and spatial resolution connected with the two strategies. The method adopted in this study, is applicable to any orbiting limb sounder measuring along the orbit track.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys 7, 1435–1440, (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

J. R. Warden, K. W. Bojwman, and D. B. Jones, “Two-dimensional characterization of atmospheric profile retrievals from limb sounding observations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 45–71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, L. Magnani, M. Carlotti, and B.M. Dinelli, “MIPAS-ENVISAT limb-sounding measurements: trade-off study for improvement of horizontal resolution,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1988 (1)

1963 (2)

A. Tikhonov, “On the solution of incorrectly stated problems and a method 5 of regularization,” Dokl. Acad. Nauk SSSR 151, 501–504 (1963).

D. W. Marquardt, “An algorithm for the least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 11, 431–441 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, J.

B. J. Kerridge, J. Barnett, M. Birk, S Buehler, A-C Vandaele, and M Carlotti et al., “Process Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation (PREMIER),” Proposal for ESA Core Explorer Mission: CCLRC, SSTD, SSTD-RSG.

Beer, R.

R. Beer and T. A. Glavich in Advanced Optical Instrumentation for Remote Sensing of the Earth’s Surface from SpaceG. Duchossois, F. L. Herr, and R. J. Zander, eds., Proc. SPIE1129, 42 (1989).

Belotti, C.

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys 7, 1435–1440, (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 3rd edition (McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2003).

Birk, M.

B. J. Kerridge, J. Barnett, M. Birk, S Buehler, A-C Vandaele, and M Carlotti et al., “Process Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation (PREMIER),” Proposal for ESA Core Explorer Mission: CCLRC, SSTD, SSTD-RSG.

Bojwman, K. W.

J. R. Warden, K. W. Bojwman, and D. B. Jones, “Two-dimensional characterization of atmospheric profile retrievals from limb sounding observations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 45–71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boyles, M.A.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brizzi, G.

Buehler, S

B. J. Kerridge, J. Barnett, M. Birk, S Buehler, A-C Vandaele, and M Carlotti et al., “Process Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation (PREMIER),” Proposal for ESA Core Explorer Mission: CCLRC, SSTD, SSTD-RSG.

Burke, J.R.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carli, B.

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys 7, 1435–1440, (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, P.E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R.J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti and B. Carli, “Approach to the Design and Data-Analysis of a Limb-Scanning Experiment,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3237–3249 (1994)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlotti, M

B. J. Kerridge, J. Barnett, M. Birk, S Buehler, A-C Vandaele, and M Carlotti et al., “Process Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation (PREMIER),” Proposal for ESA Core Explorer Mission: CCLRC, SSTD, SSTD-RSG.

Carlotti, M.

Ceccherini, S.

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys 7, 1435–1440, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clarmann, T. v.

Cofield, R.E.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dinelli, B.M.

Doicu, A.

A. Doicu, F. Schreier, and M. Hess, “Iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton method for atmospheric remote sensing,” Comp. Phys. Commun. 148, 214–226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dudhia, A.

Endmann, M. J.

M. J. Endmann, G. Lange, and B. Fladt in Space Optics 1994: Earth Observation and AstronomyM. G. Cerutti-Maori and P. Roussel, eds., Proc. SPIE2209, 36 (1994).

Filipiak, M.J.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fladt, B.

M. J. Endmann, G. Lange, and B. Fladt in Space Optics 1994: Earth Observation and AstronomyM. G. Cerutti-Maori and P. Roussel, eds., Proc. SPIE2209, 36 (1994).

Flaud, J.-M.

Flower, D.A.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Froidevaux, L.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Glavich, T. A.

R. Beer and T. A. Glavich in Advanced Optical Instrumentation for Remote Sensing of the Earth’s Surface from SpaceG. Duchossois, F. L. Herr, and R. J. Zander, eds., Proc. SPIE1129, 42 (1989).

Grabowski, U.

Harwood, R.S.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hess, M.

A. Doicu, F. Schreier, and M. Hess, “Iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton method for atmospheric remote sensing,” Comp. Phys. Commun. 148, 214–226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoepfner, M.

Hopfner, M.

Jarnot, R.F.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jay, V. L.

Jones, D. B.

J. R. Warden, K. W. Bojwman, and D. B. Jones, “Two-dimensional characterization of atmospheric profile retrievals from limb sounding observations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 45–71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kerridge, B. J.

B. J. Kerridge, J. Barnett, M. Birk, S Buehler, A-C Vandaele, and M Carlotti et al., “Process Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation (PREMIER),” Proposal for ESA Core Explorer Mission: CCLRC, SSTD, SSTD-RSG.

Lange, G.

M. J. Endmann, G. Lange, and B. Fladt in Space Optics 1994: Earth Observation and AstronomyM. G. Cerutti-Maori and P. Roussel, eds., Proc. SPIE2209, 36 (1994).

Lau, G.K.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lay, R.R.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Livesey, N. J.

N. J. Livesey and W. G. Read, “Direct retrieval of Line-of-Sight Atmospheric Structure from Limb Sounding Observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 891–894 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Livesey, N.J.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Loo, M.S.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lungu, T.A.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Magnani, L.

M. Carlotti, G. Brizzi, E. Papandrea, M. Prevedelli, M. Ridolfi, B.M. Dinelli, and L. Magnani, “GMTR: two-dimensional multi-target retrieval model for MIPAS/ENVISAT observations,” Appl. Opt. 45, 716–727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ridolfi, L. Magnani, M. Carlotti, and B.M. Dinelli, “MIPAS-ENVISAT limb-sounding measurements: trade-off study for improvement of horizontal resolution,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manney, G.L.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marquardt, D. W.

D. W. Marquardt, “An algorithm for the least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 11, 431–441 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Morris, P.E.

Nakamura, L.L.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Papandrea, E.

Perun, V.S.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pickett, H.M.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prevedelli, M.

Pumphrey, H.C.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raspollini, P.

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys 7, 1435–1440, (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, B.M. Dinelli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Geo-fit Approach to the analysis of limb-scanning satellite measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1872–1885 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, P.E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R.J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Read, W. G.

N. J. Livesey and W. G. Read, “Direct retrieval of Line-of-Sight Atmospheric Structure from Limb Sounding Observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 891–894 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Read, W.G.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Remedios, J. J.

J. J. Remedios, “Extreme Atmospheric Constituent Profiles for MIPAS,” in Proceedings of the European symposium on atmospheric measurements from space, ed.(ESA publication division, 1999), pp 779–783.

Ridenoure, B.P.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ridolfi, M.

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys 7, 1435–1440, (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, G. Brizzi, E. Papandrea, M. Prevedelli, M. Ridolfi, B.M. Dinelli, and L. Magnani, “GMTR: two-dimensional multi-target retrieval model for MIPAS/ENVISAT observations,” Appl. Opt. 45, 716–727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ridolfi, L. Magnani, M. Carlotti, and B.M. Dinelli, “MIPAS-ENVISAT limb-sounding measurements: trade-off study for improvement of horizontal resolution,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, B.M. Dinelli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Geo-fit Approach to the analysis of limb-scanning satellite measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1872–1885 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, P.E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R.J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, D. K.

P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 3rd edition (McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2003).

Rodgers, C. D.

A. Dudhia, V. L. Jay, and C. D. Rodgers, “Microwindow selection for high-spectral-resolution sounders,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3665–3673 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice, Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics - Vol. 2 (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000).

Santee, M.L.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schreier, F.

A. Doicu, F. Schreier, and M. Hess, “Iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton method for atmospheric remote sensing,” Comp. Phys. Commun. 148, 214–226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shippony, Z.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P.H.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steck, T.

Stiller, G.

Thurstans, R.P.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonov, A.

A. Tikhonov, “On the solution of incorrectly stated problems and a method 5 of regularization,” Dokl. Acad. Nauk SSSR 151, 501–504 (1963).

Vandaele, A-C

B. J. Kerridge, J. Barnett, M. Birk, S Buehler, A-C Vandaele, and M Carlotti et al., “Process Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation (PREMIER),” Proposal for ESA Core Explorer Mission: CCLRC, SSTD, SSTD-RSG.

von Clarmann, T.

Warden, J. R.

J. R. Warden, K. W. Bojwman, and D. B. Jones, “Two-dimensional characterization of atmospheric profile retrievals from limb sounding observations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 45–71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Waters, J. W.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wells, R.J.

Wu, D.L.

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (10)

M. Ridolfi, L. Magnani, M. Carlotti, and B.M. Dinelli, “MIPAS-ENVISAT limb-sounding measurements: trade-off study for improvement of horizontal resolution,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, “Global-Fit Approach to the Analysis of Limb-scanning Atmospheric Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3250–3254 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Carlotti and B. Carli, “Approach to the Design and Data-Analysis of a Limb-Scanning Experiment,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3237–3249 (1994)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Carlotti, B.M. Dinelli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Geo-fit Approach to the analysis of limb-scanning satellite measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1872–1885 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Steck and T. v. Clarmann, “Constrained profile retrieval applied to the observation mode of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3559–3571 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Steck, “Methods for determining regularization for atmospheric retrieval problems,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1788–1797 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B.M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, P.E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R.J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Dudhia, V. L. Jay, and C. D. Rodgers, “Microwindow selection for high-spectral-resolution sounders,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3665–3673 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Steck, M. Hopfner, T. v. Clarmann, and U. Grabowski, “Tomographic retrieval of atmospheric parameters from infrared limb emission observations,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3291–301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Carlotti, G. Brizzi, E. Papandrea, M. Prevedelli, M. Ridolfi, B.M. Dinelli, and L. Magnani, “GMTR: two-dimensional multi-target retrieval model for MIPAS/ENVISAT observations,” Appl. Opt. 45, 716–727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atmos. Chem. Phys (1)

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys 7, 1435–1440, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Comp. Phys. Commun. (1)

A. Doicu, F. Schreier, and M. Hess, “Iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton method for atmospheric remote sensing,” Comp. Phys. Commun. 148, 214–226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dokl. Acad. Nauk SSSR (1)

A. Tikhonov, “On the solution of incorrectly stated problems and a method 5 of regularization,” Dokl. Acad. Nauk SSSR 151, 501–504 (1963).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

N. J. Livesey and W. G. Read, “Direct retrieval of Line-of-Sight Atmospheric Structure from Limb Sounding Observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 891–894 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

J. W. Waters, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, R.E. Cofield, D.A. Flower, G.K. Lau, H.M. Pickett, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M.A. Boyles, J.R. Burke, R.R. Lay, M.S. Loo, N.J. Livesey, T.A. Lungu, G.L. Manney, L.L. Nakamura, V.S. Perun, B.P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P.H. Siegel, R.P. Thurstans, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Filipiak, “The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

J. R. Warden, K. W. Bojwman, and D. B. Jones, “Two-dimensional characterization of atmospheric profile retrievals from limb sounding observations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 45–71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

SIAM J. Appl. Math. (1)

D. W. Marquardt, “An algorithm for the least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 11, 431–441 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 3rd edition (McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2003).

J. J. Remedios, “Extreme Atmospheric Constituent Profiles for MIPAS,” in Proceedings of the European symposium on atmospheric measurements from space, ed.(ESA publication division, 1999), pp 779–783.

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice, Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics - Vol. 2 (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000).

European Space Agency, “Envisat, MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric chemistry and climate research,” SP-1229 (European Space Reseach and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2000).

M. J. Endmann, G. Lange, and B. Fladt in Space Optics 1994: Earth Observation and AstronomyM. G. Cerutti-Maori and P. Roussel, eds., Proc. SPIE2209, 36 (1994).

R. Beer and T. A. Glavich in Advanced Optical Instrumentation for Remote Sensing of the Earth’s Surface from SpaceG. Duchossois, F. L. Herr, and R. J. Zander, eds., Proc. SPIE1129, 42 (1989).

B. J. Kerridge, J. Barnett, M. Birk, S Buehler, A-C Vandaele, and M Carlotti et al., “Process Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation (PREMIER),” Proposal for ESA Core Explorer Mission: CCLRC, SSTD, SSTD-RSG.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Trade-off between precision and horizontal resolution for ozone retrievals. The overall precision is represented by the ESD quantifier (see text for definition). The solid and the dotted lines respectively refer to retrievals operated on real and simulated MIPAS observations. The arrow marks the reference retrieval grid of the nominal observation mode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Variation of χ 2 R as a function of the horizontal resolution for the retrievals reported in figure 1. The drawing notations are the same of fig. 1.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Trade-off curves for the retrieval of pressure (orange), temperature (red), water (blue) and ozone (green, already shown in figure 1). The value of the ESD quantifiers is also reported (with the same colors) for the retrievals operated on reduced resolution measurements.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Percent value of the ESDs associated with the retrieved ozone VMRs. Panel (a) refers to reduced spectral resolution measurements, panel (b) refers to full spectral resolution measurements. The white bands correspond to regions of the atmosphere in which the presence of clouds invalidates the observations.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Altitude distribution of the percentage systematic error associated with the set of observations analyzed in the reduced spectral resolution measurements (solid line) and in the full spectral resolution measurements (dashed line).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Ozone VMRs retrieved by GMTR from the measurements of MIPAS with the S6 observation mode. The white bands correspond to regions of the atmosphere in which the presence of clouds invalidates the observations.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Ozone VMR values retrieved at 28 km from S6 observation mode measurements. The three curves were obtained using the reference retrieval grid (blue), using a retrieval grid in which the profiles are separated by about 550 km (green), applying regularization in the horizontal domain to the profiles retrieved in correspondence of the reference retrieval grid (red).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Absolute value of the ESDs associated with the ozone VMRs reported in Fig. 7. The solid, dotted and dot-dashed lines report respectively the reference, the dispersed-grid, and the regularized cases.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Value of the horizontal resolution associated with the ozone VMRs reported in Fig. 7. The notations are the same of Fig. 8.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ x = ( x i + 1 x i ) = [ K T S n 1 K + λ I + R ] 1 [ K T S n 1 n R ( x i x a ) ]
χ 2 = n T S n 1 n + ( x a x ) T R ( x a x ) .
V Δ x = [ K T S n 1 K + λ I + R ] 1
χ R 2 χ 2 m p
A = [ K T S n 1 K + λ I + R ] 1 K T S n 1 K
R = S a 1 + C
C = R h + R v
R v = R g 0 0 0 0 0 R g 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 R g 0 0 0 0 0 R g
R g = 1 Ω v 2 L v T L v
L v = l 1 l 2 0 0 0 0 l 2 l 3 0 0 0 0 . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . 0 0 0 l n 1 l n
l k = 1 z k z k + 1 .
R h = 1 Ω h 2 L h T L h .
l h = 1 ρ Earth · θ j θ j + 1

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