Abstract

We present the first technique for directly measuring (without assumptions) the spatio-temporal intensity and phase of a train of ultrashort pulses at and near a focus. Our method uses an experimentally simple and high-spectral resolution variant of spectral interferometry (SEA TADPOLE). To illustrate our technique, we measured the spatio-temporal electric field in and around the foci of several different types of lenses. To confirm our results, we also simulated these measurements by numerically propagating a pulse through each of the lenses used. From one set of measurements, we made a movie showing a focusing pulse with severe chromatic aberration.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  4. Ulrike Fuchs, Uwe D. Zeitner, and Andreas Tünnermann, "Ultra-short pulse propagation in complex optical systems," Opt. Express 13, 9903-9908 (2005).
  5. Dan Oron, and Yaron Silberberg, "Spatiotemporal coherent control using shaped, temporally focused pulses," Opt. Express 13, 9903-9908 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Nirit Dudovich, Dan Oron, and Yaron Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Mueller, J. Squier, and G.J. Brakenhoff, "Measurement if femtosecond pulses in the focal point of a high-numerical-aperature lens by two-photon absorption," Opt. Lett. 20, 1038-1040 (1995).
  8. Franco Quercioli, Bruno Tiribilli, Massimo Vassalli, and Francesca Sbrana, "Autocorrelator designs for nonlinear optical microscopy," Opt. Eng. 45, (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. VadimV. Lozovoy, Igor Pastirk, and Marcos Dantus, "Multiphoton intrepulse interference. IV. Ultrashort pulse spectral phase characterization and compensation," Opt. Lett. 29, 775-777 (2004).
  10. DavidN. Fittinghoff, Jeff A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, John N. Sweetser, Rick Trebino, and Michiel Mueller, "Collinear type II second-harmonic-generation frequency-resolved optical gating for use with high-numerical-aperture objectives," Opt. Lett. 23, 1046-1048 (1998).
  11. Rebecca Chadwick, Erik Spahr, Jeff A. Squier, and Charles G. Durfee, "Fringe-free, background-free, collinear third-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating measurements for multiphoton microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 3366-3368 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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  13. DavidN. Fittinghoff, Andrew C. Millard, Jeffery A. Squier, and Michiel Mueller, "Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating Measurement of Ultrashort Pulses Passing Through a High Numerical Aperture Objective," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, (1999).
  14. W. Amir, T. A. Planchon, C. G. Durfee, J. A. Squier, P. Gabolde, R. Trebino, and M. Mueller, "Simultaneous visualizations of spatial and chromatic abberations by two-dimensional Fourier transform spectral interferometry," Opt. Lett. 31, 2927-2929 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Zs. Bor, Z. Gogolak, and G. Szabo, "Femtosecond-resolution pulse-front distortion measurement by time-of-flight interferometry," Opt. Lett. 14, 862-864 (1989).
  16. J. Jasapara, and W. Rudolph, "Characterization of sub-10-fs pulse focusing with high-numerical-aperture microscope objectives," Opt. Lett. 24, 777-779 (1999).
  17. Pamela Bowlan, Pable Gabolde, Aparna Schreenath, Kristen McGresham, and Rick Trebino, "Crossed-beam spectral interferometry: a simple, high-spectral-resolution method for completely characterizing complex ultrashort pulses in real time," Opt. Express 14, 11892-11900 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. A.C Kovaecs, K. Osvay, Bor, Zs , "Group-delay measurement on laser mirrors by spectrally resolved white-light interferometry," Opt. Lett. 20, 788-791 (1995).
  20. A.P. Kovaecs, K. Osvay, G. Kurdi, M. Gorbe, J. Klenbniczki, and Z. Bor, "Dispersion Control of a pulse stretcher-compressor system with two-dimensional spectral interferometry," Appl. Phys. B 80, 165-170 (2005).
  21. J.P. Geindre, P. Audebert, S. Rebibo, and J.C. Gauthier, "Single-shot spectral interferometry with chirped pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 1612-1614 (2001).
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  24. M.L.M Balistreri, H. Gersen, J.P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N.F. van Hulst, "Tracking Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Space and Time," Science 294, (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M.L.M Balistreri, J.P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N.F. van Hulst, "Phase Mapping of Optical Fields in Integrated Optical Waveguide Structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1169 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Gersen, J.P. Korterik, N.F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Tracking ultrashort pulses through dispersive media: Experiement and theory," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Gersen, E.M.H.P. van Dijk, J.P. Korterik, N.F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Phase mapping of ultrashort pulses in bimodal photonic structures: A window on local group velocity dispersion," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066609 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Kempe, U. Stamm, B. Wilhelmi, and W. Rudolph, "Spatial and temporal transformation of femtosecond laser pulses by lenses and lens systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1158-1165 (1992).
  29. Max Born, and Emil Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1999).
  30. "OSLO Optical Design Program," (Lambda Research Corporation, 2004).
  31. JohnA.  Buck, Fundamentals of Optical Fibers (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 2004).

2006 (4)

2005 (3)

Ulrike Fuchs, Uwe D. Zeitner, and Andreas Tünnermann, "Ultra-short pulse propagation in complex optical systems," Opt. Express 13, 9903-9908 (2005).

Dan Oron, and Yaron Silberberg, "Spatiotemporal coherent control using shaped, temporally focused pulses," Opt. Express 13, 9903-9908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A.P. Kovaecs, K. Osvay, G. Kurdi, M. Gorbe, J. Klenbniczki, and Z. Bor, "Dispersion Control of a pulse stretcher-compressor system with two-dimensional spectral interferometry," Appl. Phys. B 80, 165-170 (2005).

2004 (2)

H. Gersen, E.M.H.P. van Dijk, J.P. Korterik, N.F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Phase mapping of ultrashort pulses in bimodal photonic structures: A window on local group velocity dispersion," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

VadimV. Lozovoy, Igor Pastirk, and Marcos Dantus, "Multiphoton intrepulse interference. IV. Ultrashort pulse spectral phase characterization and compensation," Opt. Lett. 29, 775-777 (2004).

2003 (1)

H. Gersen, J.P. Korterik, N.F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Tracking ultrashort pulses through dispersive media: Experiement and theory," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Nirit Dudovich, Dan Oron, and Yaron Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

1999 (2)

DavidN. Fittinghoff, Andrew C. Millard, Jeffery A. Squier, and Michiel Mueller, "Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating Measurement of Ultrashort Pulses Passing Through a High Numerical Aperture Objective," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, (1999).

J. Jasapara, and W. Rudolph, "Characterization of sub-10-fs pulse focusing with high-numerical-aperture microscope objectives," Opt. Lett. 24, 777-779 (1999).

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (3)

1993 (2)

M. Kempe, and W. Rudolph, "Femtosecond pulses in the focal region of lenses," Phys. Rev. A 48, 4721-4729 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Kempe, and W. Rudolph, "Impact of chromatic and spherical aberration on the focusing of ultrashort light pulses by lenses," Opt. Lett. 18, 137-139 (1993).

1992 (1)

1989 (2)

1973 (1)

Cl. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. Ch. Vienot, "Time Impulse Responce and time Frequency Responce of Optical Pupils," Nouvelle Revue D'Optique 4, 183-196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A.P. Kovaecs, K. Osvay, G. Kurdi, M. Gorbe, J. Klenbniczki, and Z. Bor, "Dispersion Control of a pulse stretcher-compressor system with two-dimensional spectral interferometry," Appl. Phys. B 80, 165-170 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

DavidN. Fittinghoff, Andrew C. Millard, Jeffery A. Squier, and Michiel Mueller, "Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating Measurement of Ultrashort Pulses Passing Through a High Numerical Aperture Objective," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, (1999).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (1)

Nirit Dudovich, Dan Oron, and Yaron Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nouvelle Revue D'Optique (1)

Cl. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. Ch. Vienot, "Time Impulse Responce and time Frequency Responce of Optical Pupils," Nouvelle Revue D'Optique 4, 183-196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Franco Quercioli, Bruno Tiribilli, Massimo Vassalli, and Francesca Sbrana, "Autocorrelator designs for nonlinear optical microscopy," Opt. Eng. 45, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (12)

W. Amir, T. A. Planchon, C. G. Durfee, J. A. Squier, P. Gabolde, R. Trebino, and M. Mueller, "Simultaneous visualizations of spatial and chromatic abberations by two-dimensional Fourier transform spectral interferometry," Opt. Lett. 31, 2927-2929 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rebecca Chadwick, Erik Spahr, Jeff A. Squier, and Charles G. Durfee, "Fringe-free, background-free, collinear third-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating measurements for multiphoton microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 3366-3368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

VadimV. Lozovoy, Igor Pastirk, and Marcos Dantus, "Multiphoton intrepulse interference. IV. Ultrashort pulse spectral phase characterization and compensation," Opt. Lett. 29, 775-777 (2004).

Kazuhiko Misawa, and Takayoshi Kobayashi, "Femtosecond Sangac interferometer for phase spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 20, (1995).

DavidN. Fittinghoff, Jeff A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, John N. Sweetser, Rick Trebino, and Michiel Mueller, "Collinear type II second-harmonic-generation frequency-resolved optical gating for use with high-numerical-aperture objectives," Opt. Lett. 23, 1046-1048 (1998).

J. Jasapara, and W. Rudolph, "Characterization of sub-10-fs pulse focusing with high-numerical-aperture microscope objectives," Opt. Lett. 24, 777-779 (1999).

Zs. Bor, Z. Gogolak, and G. Szabo, "Femtosecond-resolution pulse-front distortion measurement by time-of-flight interferometry," Opt. Lett. 14, 862-864 (1989).

J.P. Geindre, P. Audebert, S. Rebibo, and J.C. Gauthier, "Single-shot spectral interferometry with chirped pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 1612-1614 (2001).

Z. Bor, "Distortion of femtosecond laser pulses in lenses," Opt. Lett. 14, 119-121 (1989).

M. Kempe, and W. Rudolph, "Impact of chromatic and spherical aberration on the focusing of ultrashort light pulses by lenses," Opt. Lett. 18, 137-139 (1993).

A.C Kovaecs, K. Osvay, Bor, Zs , "Group-delay measurement on laser mirrors by spectrally resolved white-light interferometry," Opt. Lett. 20, 788-791 (1995).

M. Mueller, J. Squier, and G.J. Brakenhoff, "Measurement if femtosecond pulses in the focal point of a high-numerical-aperature lens by two-photon absorption," Opt. Lett. 20, 1038-1040 (1995).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Kempe, and W. Rudolph, "Femtosecond pulses in the focal region of lenses," Phys. Rev. A 48, 4721-4729 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

H. Gersen, J.P. Korterik, N.F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Tracking ultrashort pulses through dispersive media: Experiement and theory," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Gersen, E.M.H.P. van Dijk, J.P. Korterik, N.F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Phase mapping of ultrashort pulses in bimodal photonic structures: A window on local group velocity dispersion," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M.L.M Balistreri, H. Gersen, J.P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N.F. van Hulst, "Tracking Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Space and Time," Science 294, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Max Born, and Emil Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1999).

"OSLO Optical Design Program," (Lambda Research Corporation, 2004).

JohnA.  Buck, Fundamentals of Optical Fibers (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 2004).

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 2002).

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