Abstract

Buried waveguides in glass are manufactured by irradiation with femtosecond laser double pulses. The refractive index change Δn is determined by measuring the numerical aperture NA of the waveguides and by through light microscopy. The value of Δn shows a significant dependency on the time delay Δt of the fs-laser double pulses. A Δn of up to 2×10-3 in fused silica is reached at a Δt between 400 and 800 ps. Based on the results of the double pulse experiments the initial effects of the refractive index change are discussed, taking into account thermal effects and the formation of self trapped excitons (STE) and transient color centers and their interaction with the next laser pulse.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]

2005

2003

A. Saliminia, N.T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petits, L. Chin and R. Vallee, "Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz fs infrared pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 93,3724-3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.B. Lonzaga, S.M. Avanesyan, S.C. Langford, J.T. Dickinson, "Color center formation in soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 94,7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

1997

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, "photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ul-trashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71,3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Guizard, P. Martin, G. Petite, P. Meynadier, "Time resolved study of laser-induced colour centres in SiO2," J. Phys.: Condens Matter 8,1281-1290 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1983

M.G. Jani, R.B. Bossoli, L.E. Halliburton, "Further characterization of the E1′ center in crystalline SiO2," Phys. Rev. B 27,2285 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, "photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ul-trashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71,3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nagata et al. "Optical waveguide fabrication with double pulse femtosecond lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,251103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J.B. Lonzaga, S.M. Avanesyan, S.C. Langford, J.T. Dickinson, "Color center formation in soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 94,7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Saliminia, N.T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petits, L. Chin and R. Vallee, "Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz fs infrared pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 93,3724-3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens Matter

S. Guizard, P. Martin, G. Petite, P. Meynadier, "Time resolved study of laser-induced colour centres in SiO2," J. Phys.: Condens Matter 8,1281-1290 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

M.G. Jani, R.B. Bossoli, L.E. Halliburton, "Further characterization of the E1′ center in crystalline SiO2," Phys. Rev. B 27,2285 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, C. Lopez and K. Richardson "Direct fabrication of waveguiding structures with a fs-laser"

L. Shah, F. Yoshino, A. Arai, S. Eaton, H. Zhang, S. Ho and P. Herman, "MHz-rate ultrafast fiber laser for optical waveguides in silica glasses," Proceedings of SPIE, Applications of ultrafast and free electron lasers 5714, (2005).

R.A. Devine, C. Fiori, J. Robertson, "Defects in glasses," Materials research society, p.177 (1986).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

numerical aperture NA versus delay time Δt

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

refractive index change by microscopy and QPM software

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

scheme of defect generation by fs-laser irradiation

Equations (1)

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N A = sin ( arctan ( r d ) ) , N A = n 2 2 n 1 2 , Δ n = n 2 n 1

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