Abstract

Buried waveguides in glass are manufactured by irradiation with femtosecond laser double pulses. The refractive index change Δn is determined by measuring the numerical aperture NA of the waveguides and by through light microscopy. The value of Δn shows a significant dependency on the time delay Δt of the fs-laser double pulses. A Δn of up to 2×10-3 in fused silica is reached at a Δt between 400 and 800 ps. Based on the results of the double pulse experiments the initial effects of the refractive index change are discussed, taking into account thermal effects and the formation of self trapped excitons (STE) and transient color centers and their interaction with the next laser pulse.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Will, S. Nolte, B. Chichkov, and A. Tünnermann “Optical properties of waveguides fabricated in fused silica by fs-laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4360–4364 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Saliminia, N.T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petits, L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz fs infrared pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724–3728 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Tacche, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. DeSilvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5µm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1938–1940 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, and K. Richardson “Direct fabrication of waveguiding structures with a fs-laser”
  6. L. Shah, F. Yoshino, A. Arai, S. Eaton, H. Zhang, S. Ho, and P. Herman, “MHz-rate ultrafast fiber laser for optical waveguides in silica glasses,” Proceedings of SPIE, Applications of ultrafast and free electron lasers 5714, (2005).
  7. S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, A. Arai, and S. Ho, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 4708 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Guizard, P. Martin, G. Petite, and P. Meynadier, “Time resolved study of laser-induced colour centres in SiO2,” J. Phys.: Condens Matter 8, 1281–1290 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J.B. Lonzaga, S.M. Avanesyan, S.C. Langford, and J.T. Dickinson, “Color center formation in soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R.A. Devine, C. Fiori, and J. Robertson, “Defects in glasses,” Materials research society, p.177 (1986).
  11. M.G. Jani, R.B. Bossoli, and L.E. Halliburton, “Further characterization of the E′1 center in crystalline SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 2285 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Nagata et al. “Optical waveguide fabrication with double pulse femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 251103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2003 (2)

A. Saliminia, N.T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petits, L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz fs infrared pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724–3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.B. Lonzaga, S.M. Avanesyan, S.C. Langford, and J.T. Dickinson, “Color center formation in soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Guizard, P. Martin, G. Petite, and P. Meynadier, “Time resolved study of laser-induced colour centres in SiO2,” J. Phys.: Condens Matter 8, 1281–1290 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R.A. Devine, C. Fiori, and J. Robertson, “Defects in glasses,” Materials research society, p.177 (1986).

1983 (1)

M.G. Jani, R.B. Bossoli, and L.E. Halliburton, “Further characterization of the E′1 center in crystalline SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 2285 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A.

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, A. Arai, and S. Ho, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 4708 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Shah, F. Yoshino, A. Arai, S. Eaton, H. Zhang, S. Ho, and P. Herman, “MHz-rate ultrafast fiber laser for optical waveguides in silica glasses,” Proceedings of SPIE, Applications of ultrafast and free electron lasers 5714, (2005).

Avanesyan, S.M.

J.B. Lonzaga, S.M. Avanesyan, S.C. Langford, and J.T. Dickinson, “Color center formation in soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bossoli, R.B.

M.G. Jani, R.B. Bossoli, and L.E. Halliburton, “Further characterization of the E′1 center in crystalline SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 2285 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, C.

Chichkov, B.

Chin, L.

A. Saliminia, N.T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petits, L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz fs infrared pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724–3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DeSilvestri, S.

Devine, R.A.

R.A. Devine, C. Fiori, and J. Robertson, “Defects in glasses,” Materials research society, p.177 (1986).

Dickinson, J.T.

J.B. Lonzaga, S.M. Avanesyan, S.C. Langford, and J.T. Dickinson, “Color center formation in soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S.

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, A. Arai, and S. Ho, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 4708 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Shah, F. Yoshino, A. Arai, S. Eaton, H. Zhang, S. Ho, and P. Herman, “MHz-rate ultrafast fiber laser for optical waveguides in silica glasses,” Proceedings of SPIE, Applications of ultrafast and free electron lasers 5714, (2005).

Fiori, C.

R.A. Devine, C. Fiori, and J. Robertson, “Defects in glasses,” Materials research society, p.177 (1986).

Guizard, S.

S. Guizard, P. Martin, G. Petite, and P. Meynadier, “Time resolved study of laser-induced colour centres in SiO2,” J. Phys.: Condens Matter 8, 1281–1290 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Halliburton, L.E.

M.G. Jani, R.B. Bossoli, and L.E. Halliburton, “Further characterization of the E′1 center in crystalline SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 2285 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P.

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, A. Arai, and S. Ho, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 4708 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Shah, F. Yoshino, A. Arai, S. Eaton, H. Zhang, S. Ho, and P. Herman, “MHz-rate ultrafast fiber laser for optical waveguides in silica glasses,” Proceedings of SPIE, Applications of ultrafast and free electron lasers 5714, (2005).

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S.

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, A. Arai, and S. Ho, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 4708 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Shah, F. Yoshino, A. Arai, S. Eaton, H. Zhang, S. Ho, and P. Herman, “MHz-rate ultrafast fiber laser for optical waveguides in silica glasses,” Proceedings of SPIE, Applications of ultrafast and free electron lasers 5714, (2005).

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jani, M.G.

M.G. Jani, R.B. Bossoli, and L.E. Halliburton, “Further characterization of the E′1 center in crystalline SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 2285 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Langford, S.C.

J.B. Lonzaga, S.M. Avanesyan, S.C. Langford, and J.T. Dickinson, “Color center formation in soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

Lonzaga, J.B.

J.B. Lonzaga, S.M. Avanesyan, S.C. Langford, and J.T. Dickinson, “Color center formation in soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, C.

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, and K. Richardson “Direct fabrication of waveguiding structures with a fs-laser”

Marangoni, M.

Martin, P.

S. Guizard, P. Martin, G. Petite, and P. Meynadier, “Time resolved study of laser-induced colour centres in SiO2,” J. Phys.: Condens Matter 8, 1281–1290 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meynadier, P.

S. Guizard, P. Martin, G. Petite, and P. Meynadier, “Time resolved study of laser-induced colour centres in SiO2,” J. Phys.: Condens Matter 8, 1281–1290 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nadeau, M.-C.

A. Saliminia, N.T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petits, L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz fs infrared pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724–3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nagata,

Nagata et al. “Optical waveguide fabrication with double pulse femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 251103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, N.T.

A. Saliminia, N.T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petits, L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz fs infrared pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724–3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

Osellame, R.

Petite, G.

S. Guizard, P. Martin, G. Petite, and P. Meynadier, “Time resolved study of laser-induced colour centres in SiO2,” J. Phys.: Condens Matter 8, 1281–1290 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Petits, S.

A. Saliminia, N.T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petits, L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz fs infrared pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724–3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Polli, D.

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

Richardson, K.

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, and K. Richardson “Direct fabrication of waveguiding structures with a fs-laser”

Richardson, M.

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, and K. Richardson “Direct fabrication of waveguiding structures with a fs-laser”

Rivero, C.

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, and K. Richardson “Direct fabrication of waveguiding structures with a fs-laser”

Robertson, J.

R.A. Devine, C. Fiori, and J. Robertson, “Defects in glasses,” Materials research society, p.177 (1986).

Saliminia, A.

A. Saliminia, N.T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petits, L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz fs infrared pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724–3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shah, L.

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, A. Arai, and S. Ho, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 4708 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Shah, F. Yoshino, A. Arai, S. Eaton, H. Zhang, S. Ho, and P. Herman, “MHz-rate ultrafast fiber laser for optical waveguides in silica glasses,” Proceedings of SPIE, Applications of ultrafast and free electron lasers 5714, (2005).

Tacche, S.

Tünnermann, A.

Vallee, R.

A. Saliminia, N.T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petits, L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz fs infrared pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724–3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Will, M.

Yoshino, F.

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, A. Arai, and S. Ho, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 4708 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Shah, F. Yoshino, A. Arai, S. Eaton, H. Zhang, S. Ho, and P. Herman, “MHz-rate ultrafast fiber laser for optical waveguides in silica glasses,” Proceedings of SPIE, Applications of ultrafast and free electron lasers 5714, (2005).

Zhang, H.

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, A. Arai, and S. Ho, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 4708 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Shah, F. Yoshino, A. Arai, S. Eaton, H. Zhang, S. Ho, and P. Herman, “MHz-rate ultrafast fiber laser for optical waveguides in silica glasses,” Proceedings of SPIE, Applications of ultrafast and free electron lasers 5714, (2005).

Zoubir, A.

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, and K. Richardson “Direct fabrication of waveguiding structures with a fs-laser”

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Nagata et al. “Optical waveguide fabrication with double pulse femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 251103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Saliminia, N.T. Nguyen, M.-C. Nadeau, S. Petits, L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Writing optical waveguides in fused silica using 1 kHz fs infrared pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3724–3728 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.B. Lonzaga, S.M. Avanesyan, S.C. Langford, and J.T. Dickinson, “Color center formation in soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens Matter (1)

S. Guizard, P. Martin, G. Petite, and P. Meynadier, “Time resolved study of laser-induced colour centres in SiO2,” J. Phys.: Condens Matter 8, 1281–1290 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Materials research society (1)

R.A. Devine, C. Fiori, and J. Robertson, “Defects in glasses,” Materials research society, p.177 (1986).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M.G. Jani, R.B. Bossoli, and L.E. Halliburton, “Further characterization of the E′1 center in crystalline SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 2285 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, and K. Richardson “Direct fabrication of waveguiding structures with a fs-laser”

L. Shah, F. Yoshino, A. Arai, S. Eaton, H. Zhang, S. Ho, and P. Herman, “MHz-rate ultrafast fiber laser for optical waveguides in silica glasses,” Proceedings of SPIE, Applications of ultrafast and free electron lasers 5714, (2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

numerical aperture NA versus delay time Δt

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

refractive index change by microscopy and QPM software

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

scheme of defect generation by fs-laser irradiation

Equations (1)

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N A = sin ( arctan ( r d ) ) , N A = n 2 2 n 1 2 , Δ n = n 2 n 1

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