Abstract

We report of a method for fabricating two-dimensional, regular arrays of polymer microlenses with focal lengths variable between 0.2 and 4.5 mm. We first make concave microlenses by ink-jetting solvent on a polymer substrate with a commercial drop-on-demand device. Solvent evaporation restructures the surface by a series of combined effects, which are discussed. In the second step we obtain convex elastomeric microlenses by casting the template made in the first step. We demonstrate the good optical quality of the microlenses by characterising their surfaces with atomic force microscopy and white light interferometry, and by directly measuring their focal lengths with ad-hoc confocal laser scanning microscopy.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, "Simple fabrication of micro lens arrays," Langmuir 21, 1709 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, L. S. Huang, and T. M. Jeng, "A novel method for rapid fabrication of microlens arrays using micro-transfer molding with soft mold," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 999 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, L. S. Huang, and K. H. Hsieh, "Fabrication of polymer microlens arrays using capillary forming with a soft mold of micro-holes array and UV-curable polymer," Opt. Express 14, 6253 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, "Fabrication of arrays of microlenses with controlled profiles using gray-scale microlens projection photolithography," Langmuir 18, 9312 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Messerschmidt, T. Possner, and R. Goering, "Colorless Gradient-Index Cylindrical Lenses with High Numerical Apertures Produced by Silver-Ion Exchange," Appl. Opt. 34, 7825 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
  10. H. J. Nam, D. Y. Jung, G. R. Yi, and H. Choi, "Close-packed hemispherical microlens array from two-dimensional ordered polymeric microspheres," Langmuir 22, 7358 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. J. Kang, J. P. Jeong, and B. S. Bae, "Direct photofabrication of focal-length-controlled microlens array using photoinduced migration mechanisms of photosensitive sol-gel hybrid materials," Opt. Express 14, 8347 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B.-J. de Gans, P. C. Duineveld, and U. S. Schubert, "Inkjet printing of polymers: State of the art and future developments," Adv. Mater. 16, 203 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. P. Keyworth, D. J. Corazza, J. N. McMullin, and L. Mabbott, "Single-step fabrication of refractive microlens arrays," Appl. Opt. 36, 2198 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Danzebrink, and M. A. Aegerter, "Deposition of micropatterned coating using an ink-jet technique," Thin Solid Films 351, 115 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Yang, T. N. Krupenkin, P. Mach, and E. A. Chandross, "Tunable and latchable liquid microlens with photopolymerizable components," Adv. Mater. 15, 940 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Applied Physics Letters 82, 316 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Kawase, H. Sirringhaus, R. H. Friend, and T. Shimoda, "Inkjet printed via-hole interconnections and resistors for all-polymer transistor circuits," Adv. Mater. 13, 1601 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. J. de Gans, S. Hoeppener, and U. S. Schubert, "Polymer-relief microstructures by inkjet etching," Adv. Mater. 18, 910 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Bonaccurso, H. J. Butt, B. Hankeln, B. Niesenhaus, and K. Graf, "Fabrication of microvessels and microlenses from polymers by solvent droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Stupperich-Sequeira, K. Graf, and W. Wiechert, "Modelling and simulation of micro-well formation," Math. Comput. Model. Dyn. Syst. 12, 263 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, "Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops," Nature 389, 827 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, "Contact line deposits in an evaporating drop," Phys. Rev. E 62, 756 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Karabasheva, S. Baluschev, and K. Graf, "Microstructures on soluble polymer surfaces via drop deposition of solvent mixtures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031110 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, G. McConnell, and A. M. Gurney, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (8)

H. Ottevaere, R. Cox, H. P. Herzig, T. Miyashita, K. Naessens, M. Taghizadeh, R. Volkel, H. J. Woo, and H. Thienpont, "Comparing glass and plastic refractive microlenses fabricated with different technologies," J. Opt. A 8, S407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, L. S. Huang, and T. M. Jeng, "A novel method for rapid fabrication of microlens arrays using micro-transfer molding with soft mold," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 999 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Nam, D. Y. Jung, G. R. Yi, and H. Choi, "Close-packed hemispherical microlens array from two-dimensional ordered polymeric microspheres," Langmuir 22, 7358 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. de Gans, S. Hoeppener, and U. S. Schubert, "Polymer-relief microstructures by inkjet etching," Adv. Mater. 18, 910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Stupperich-Sequeira, K. Graf, and W. Wiechert, "Modelling and simulation of micro-well formation," Math. Comput. Model. Dyn. Syst. 12, 263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Karabasheva, S. Baluschev, and K. Graf, "Microstructures on soluble polymer surfaces via drop deposition of solvent mixtures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, L. S. Huang, and K. H. Hsieh, "Fabrication of polymer microlens arrays using capillary forming with a soft mold of micro-holes array and UV-curable polymer," Opt. Express 14, 6253 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Kang, J. P. Jeong, and B. S. Bae, "Direct photofabrication of focal-length-controlled microlens array using photoinduced migration mechanisms of photosensitive sol-gel hybrid materials," Opt. Express 14, 8347 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

E. Bonaccurso, H. J. Butt, B. Hankeln, B. Niesenhaus, and K. Graf, "Fabrication of microvessels and microlenses from polymers by solvent droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, "Simple fabrication of micro lens arrays," Langmuir 21, 1709 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, G. McConnell, and A. M. Gurney, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. de Gans, P. C. Duineveld, and U. S. Schubert, "Inkjet printing of polymers: State of the art and future developments," Adv. Mater. 16, 203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. Yang, T. N. Krupenkin, P. Mach, and E. A. Chandross, "Tunable and latchable liquid microlens with photopolymerizable components," Adv. Mater. 15, 940 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Applied Physics Letters 82, 316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, "Fabrication of arrays of microlenses with controlled profiles using gray-scale microlens projection photolithography," Langmuir 18, 9312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Kawase, H. Sirringhaus, R. H. Friend, and T. Shimoda, "Inkjet printed via-hole interconnections and resistors for all-polymer transistor circuits," Adv. Mater. 13, 1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, "Contact line deposits in an evaporating drop," Phys. Rev. E 62, 756 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. Danzebrink, and M. A. Aegerter, "Deposition of micropatterned coating using an ink-jet technique," Thin Solid Films 351, 115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

P. Ruther, B. Gerlach, J. Gottert, M. Ilie, J. Mohr, A. Muller, and C. Ossmann, "Fabrication and characterization of microlenses realized by a modified LIGA process," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 643 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Keyworth, D. J. Corazza, J. N. McMullin, and L. Mabbott, "Single-step fabrication of refractive microlens arrays," Appl. Opt. 36, 2198 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, "Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops," Nature 389, 827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Land, "Microlens arrays in the animal kingdom," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Aegerter, M. A.

R. Danzebrink, and M. A. Aegerter, "Deposition of micropatterned coating using an ink-jet technique," Thin Solid Films 351, 115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bae, B. S.

Bakajin, O.

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, "Contact line deposits in an evaporating drop," Phys. Rev. E 62, 756 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, "Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops," Nature 389, 827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baluschev, S.

S. Karabasheva, S. Baluschev, and K. Graf, "Microstructures on soluble polymer surfaces via drop deposition of solvent mixtures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccurso, E.

E. Bonaccurso, H. J. Butt, B. Hankeln, B. Niesenhaus, and K. Graf, "Fabrication of microvessels and microlenses from polymers by solvent droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Butt, H. J.

E. Bonaccurso, H. J. Butt, B. Hankeln, B. Niesenhaus, and K. Graf, "Fabrication of microvessels and microlenses from polymers by solvent droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chandross, E. A.

S. Yang, T. N. Krupenkin, P. Mach, and E. A. Chandross, "Tunable and latchable liquid microlens with photopolymerizable components," Adv. Mater. 15, 940 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. Y.

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, L. S. Huang, and T. M. Jeng, "A novel method for rapid fabrication of microlens arrays using micro-transfer molding with soft mold," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 999 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, L. S. Huang, and K. H. Hsieh, "Fabrication of polymer microlens arrays using capillary forming with a soft mold of micro-holes array and UV-curable polymer," Opt. Express 14, 6253 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H.

H. J. Nam, D. Y. Jung, G. R. Yi, and H. Choi, "Close-packed hemispherical microlens array from two-dimensional ordered polymeric microspheres," Langmuir 22, 7358 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H. W.

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, G. McConnell, and A. M. Gurney, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corazza, D. J.

Cox, R.

H. Ottevaere, R. Cox, H. P. Herzig, T. Miyashita, K. Naessens, M. Taghizadeh, R. Volkel, H. J. Woo, and H. Thienpont, "Comparing glass and plastic refractive microlenses fabricated with different technologies," J. Opt. A 8, S407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Danzebrink, R.

R. Danzebrink, and M. A. Aegerter, "Deposition of micropatterned coating using an ink-jet technique," Thin Solid Films 351, 115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, G. McConnell, and A. M. Gurney, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Gans, B. J.

B. J. de Gans, S. Hoeppener, and U. S. Schubert, "Polymer-relief microstructures by inkjet etching," Adv. Mater. 18, 910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Gans, B.-J.

B.-J. de Gans, P. C. Duineveld, and U. S. Schubert, "Inkjet printing of polymers: State of the art and future developments," Adv. Mater. 16, 203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deegan, R. D.

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, "Contact line deposits in an evaporating drop," Phys. Rev. E 62, 756 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, "Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops," Nature 389, 827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duineveld, P. C.

B.-J. de Gans, P. C. Duineveld, and U. S. Schubert, "Inkjet printing of polymers: State of the art and future developments," Adv. Mater. 16, 203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dupont, T. F.

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, "Contact line deposits in an evaporating drop," Phys. Rev. E 62, 756 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, "Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops," Nature 389, 827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

T. Kawase, H. Sirringhaus, R. H. Friend, and T. Shimoda, "Inkjet printed via-hole interconnections and resistors for all-polymer transistor circuits," Adv. Mater. 13, 1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gerlach, B.

P. Ruther, B. Gerlach, J. Gottert, M. Ilie, J. Mohr, A. Muller, and C. Ossmann, "Fabrication and characterization of microlenses realized by a modified LIGA process," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 643 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Girkin, J. M.

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, G. McConnell, and A. M. Gurney, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goering, R.

Gottert, J.

P. Ruther, B. Gerlach, J. Gottert, M. Ilie, J. Mohr, A. Muller, and C. Ossmann, "Fabrication and characterization of microlenses realized by a modified LIGA process," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 643 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Graf, K.

C. Stupperich-Sequeira, K. Graf, and W. Wiechert, "Modelling and simulation of micro-well formation," Math. Comput. Model. Dyn. Syst. 12, 263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Karabasheva, S. Baluschev, and K. Graf, "Microstructures on soluble polymer surfaces via drop deposition of solvent mixtures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Bonaccurso, H. J. Butt, B. Hankeln, B. Niesenhaus, and K. Graf, "Fabrication of microvessels and microlenses from polymers by solvent droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, C.

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, G. McConnell, and A. M. Gurney, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, G. McConnell, and A. M. Gurney, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gurney, A. M.

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, G. McConnell, and A. M. Gurney, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hankeln, B.

E. Bonaccurso, H. J. Butt, B. Hankeln, B. Niesenhaus, and K. Graf, "Fabrication of microvessels and microlenses from polymers by solvent droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

H. Ottevaere, R. Cox, H. P. Herzig, T. Miyashita, K. Naessens, M. Taghizadeh, R. Volkel, H. J. Woo, and H. Thienpont, "Comparing glass and plastic refractive microlenses fabricated with different technologies," J. Opt. A 8, S407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoeppener, S.

B. J. de Gans, S. Hoeppener, and U. S. Schubert, "Polymer-relief microstructures by inkjet etching," Adv. Mater. 18, 910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, K. H.

Huang, L. S.

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, L. S. Huang, and T. M. Jeng, "A novel method for rapid fabrication of microlens arrays using micro-transfer molding with soft mold," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 999 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, L. S. Huang, and K. H. Hsieh, "Fabrication of polymer microlens arrays using capillary forming with a soft mold of micro-holes array and UV-curable polymer," Opt. Express 14, 6253 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, G.

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, "Contact line deposits in an evaporating drop," Phys. Rev. E 62, 756 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, "Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops," Nature 389, 827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ilie, M.

P. Ruther, B. Gerlach, J. Gottert, M. Ilie, J. Mohr, A. Muller, and C. Ossmann, "Fabrication and characterization of microlenses realized by a modified LIGA process," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 643 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jeng, T. M.

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, L. S. Huang, and T. M. Jeng, "A novel method for rapid fabrication of microlens arrays using micro-transfer molding with soft mold," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 999 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J. P.

Jung, D. Y.

H. J. Nam, D. Y. Jung, G. R. Yi, and H. Choi, "Close-packed hemispherical microlens array from two-dimensional ordered polymeric microspheres," Langmuir 22, 7358 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, D. J.

Karabasheva, S.

S. Karabasheva, S. Baluschev, and K. Graf, "Microstructures on soluble polymer surfaces via drop deposition of solvent mixtures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, T.

T. Kawase, H. Sirringhaus, R. H. Friend, and T. Shimoda, "Inkjet printed via-hole interconnections and resistors for all-polymer transistor circuits," Adv. Mater. 13, 1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Keyworth, B. P.

Krupenkin, T.

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Applied Physics Letters 82, 316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krupenkin, T. N.

S. Yang, T. N. Krupenkin, P. Mach, and E. A. Chandross, "Tunable and latchable liquid microlens with photopolymerizable components," Adv. Mater. 15, 940 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Land, M. F.

M. F. Land, "Microlens arrays in the animal kingdom," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, G. McConnell, and A. M. Gurney, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mabbott, L.

Mach, P.

S. Yang, T. N. Krupenkin, P. Mach, and E. A. Chandross, "Tunable and latchable liquid microlens with photopolymerizable components," Adv. Mater. 15, 940 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Applied Physics Letters 82, 316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McConnell, G.

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, G. McConnell, and A. M. Gurney, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McMullin, J. N.

Messerschmidt, B.

Miyashita, T.

H. Ottevaere, R. Cox, H. P. Herzig, T. Miyashita, K. Naessens, M. Taghizadeh, R. Volkel, H. J. Woo, and H. Thienpont, "Comparing glass and plastic refractive microlenses fabricated with different technologies," J. Opt. A 8, S407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mohr, J.

P. Ruther, B. Gerlach, J. Gottert, M. Ilie, J. Mohr, A. Muller, and C. Ossmann, "Fabrication and characterization of microlenses realized by a modified LIGA process," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 643 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Muller, A.

P. Ruther, B. Gerlach, J. Gottert, M. Ilie, J. Mohr, A. Muller, and C. Ossmann, "Fabrication and characterization of microlenses realized by a modified LIGA process," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 643 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Naessens, K.

H. Ottevaere, R. Cox, H. P. Herzig, T. Miyashita, K. Naessens, M. Taghizadeh, R. Volkel, H. J. Woo, and H. Thienpont, "Comparing glass and plastic refractive microlenses fabricated with different technologies," J. Opt. A 8, S407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, S. R.

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, "Contact line deposits in an evaporating drop," Phys. Rev. E 62, 756 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, "Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops," Nature 389, 827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nam, H. J.

H. J. Nam, D. Y. Jung, G. R. Yi, and H. Choi, "Close-packed hemispherical microlens array from two-dimensional ordered polymeric microspheres," Langmuir 22, 7358 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niesenhaus, B.

E. Bonaccurso, H. J. Butt, B. Hankeln, B. Niesenhaus, and K. Graf, "Fabrication of microvessels and microlenses from polymers by solvent droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ossmann, C.

P. Ruther, B. Gerlach, J. Gottert, M. Ilie, J. Mohr, A. Muller, and C. Ossmann, "Fabrication and characterization of microlenses realized by a modified LIGA process," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 643 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ottevaere, H.

H. Ottevaere, R. Cox, H. P. Herzig, T. Miyashita, K. Naessens, M. Taghizadeh, R. Volkel, H. J. Woo, and H. Thienpont, "Comparing glass and plastic refractive microlenses fabricated with different technologies," J. Opt. A 8, S407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, C.

M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, "Fabrication of arrays of microlenses with controlled profiles using gray-scale microlens projection photolithography," Langmuir 18, 9312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Possner, T.

Ruther, P.

P. Ruther, B. Gerlach, J. Gottert, M. Ilie, J. Mohr, A. Muller, and C. Ossmann, "Fabrication and characterization of microlenses realized by a modified LIGA process," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 643 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, U. S.

B. J. de Gans, S. Hoeppener, and U. S. Schubert, "Polymer-relief microstructures by inkjet etching," Adv. Mater. 18, 910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. de Gans, P. C. Duineveld, and U. S. Schubert, "Inkjet printing of polymers: State of the art and future developments," Adv. Mater. 16, 203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shimoda, T.

T. Kawase, H. Sirringhaus, R. H. Friend, and T. Shimoda, "Inkjet printed via-hole interconnections and resistors for all-polymer transistor circuits," Adv. Mater. 13, 1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shimomura, M.

H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, "Simple fabrication of micro lens arrays," Langmuir 21, 1709 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirringhaus, H.

T. Kawase, H. Sirringhaus, R. H. Friend, and T. Shimoda, "Inkjet printed via-hole interconnections and resistors for all-polymer transistor circuits," Adv. Mater. 13, 1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stupperich-Sequeira, C.

C. Stupperich-Sequeira, K. Graf, and W. Wiechert, "Modelling and simulation of micro-well formation," Math. Comput. Model. Dyn. Syst. 12, 263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M.

H. Ottevaere, R. Cox, H. P. Herzig, T. Miyashita, K. Naessens, M. Taghizadeh, R. Volkel, H. J. Woo, and H. Thienpont, "Comparing glass and plastic refractive microlenses fabricated with different technologies," J. Opt. A 8, S407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

H. Ottevaere, R. Cox, H. P. Herzig, T. Miyashita, K. Naessens, M. Taghizadeh, R. Volkel, H. J. Woo, and H. Thienpont, "Comparing glass and plastic refractive microlenses fabricated with different technologies," J. Opt. A 8, S407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Volkel, R.

H. Ottevaere, R. Cox, H. P. Herzig, T. Miyashita, K. Naessens, M. Taghizadeh, R. Volkel, H. J. Woo, and H. Thienpont, "Comparing glass and plastic refractive microlenses fabricated with different technologies," J. Opt. A 8, S407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watson, I. M.

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, G. McConnell, and A. M. Gurney, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, "Fabrication of arrays of microlenses with controlled profiles using gray-scale microlens projection photolithography," Langmuir 18, 9312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wiechert, W.

C. Stupperich-Sequeira, K. Graf, and W. Wiechert, "Modelling and simulation of micro-well formation," Math. Comput. Model. Dyn. Syst. 12, 263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Witten, T. A.

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, "Contact line deposits in an evaporating drop," Phys. Rev. E 62, 756 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, "Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops," Nature 389, 827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Woo, H. J.

H. Ottevaere, R. Cox, H. P. Herzig, T. Miyashita, K. Naessens, M. Taghizadeh, R. Volkel, H. J. Woo, and H. Thienpont, "Comparing glass and plastic refractive microlenses fabricated with different technologies," J. Opt. A 8, S407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. H.

M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, "Fabrication of arrays of microlenses with controlled profiles using gray-scale microlens projection photolithography," Langmuir 18, 9312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yabu, H.

H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, "Simple fabrication of micro lens arrays," Langmuir 21, 1709 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Applied Physics Letters 82, 316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Yang, T. N. Krupenkin, P. Mach, and E. A. Chandross, "Tunable and latchable liquid microlens with photopolymerizable components," Adv. Mater. 15, 940 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. Y.

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, L. S. Huang, and K. H. Hsieh, "Fabrication of polymer microlens arrays using capillary forming with a soft mold of micro-holes array and UV-curable polymer," Opt. Express 14, 6253 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, L. S. Huang, and T. M. Jeng, "A novel method for rapid fabrication of microlens arrays using micro-transfer molding with soft mold," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 999 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G. R.

H. J. Nam, D. Y. Jung, G. R. Yi, and H. Choi, "Close-packed hemispherical microlens array from two-dimensional ordered polymeric microspheres," Langmuir 22, 7358 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (4)

T. Kawase, H. Sirringhaus, R. H. Friend, and T. Shimoda, "Inkjet printed via-hole interconnections and resistors for all-polymer transistor circuits," Adv. Mater. 13, 1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. de Gans, S. Hoeppener, and U. S. Schubert, "Polymer-relief microstructures by inkjet etching," Adv. Mater. 18, 910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Yang, T. N. Krupenkin, P. Mach, and E. A. Chandross, "Tunable and latchable liquid microlens with photopolymerizable components," Adv. Mater. 15, 940 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. de Gans, P. C. Duineveld, and U. S. Schubert, "Inkjet printing of polymers: State of the art and future developments," Adv. Mater. 16, 203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Karabasheva, S. Baluschev, and K. Graf, "Microstructures on soluble polymer surfaces via drop deposition of solvent mixtures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Gu, H. W. Choi, C. Liu, C. Griffin, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, G. McConnell, and A. M. Gurney, "Reflection/transmission confocal microscopy characterization of single-crystal diamond microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2754 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Bonaccurso, H. J. Butt, B. Hankeln, B. Niesenhaus, and K. Graf, "Fabrication of microvessels and microlenses from polymers by solvent droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Applied Physics Letters (1)

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Applied Physics Letters 82, 316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, L. S. Huang, and T. M. Jeng, "A novel method for rapid fabrication of microlens arrays using micro-transfer molding with soft mold," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 999 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

H. Ottevaere, R. Cox, H. P. Herzig, T. Miyashita, K. Naessens, M. Taghizadeh, R. Volkel, H. J. Woo, and H. Thienpont, "Comparing glass and plastic refractive microlenses fabricated with different technologies," J. Opt. A 8, S407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (3)

H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, "Simple fabrication of micro lens arrays," Langmuir 21, 1709 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, "Fabrication of arrays of microlenses with controlled profiles using gray-scale microlens projection photolithography," Langmuir 18, 9312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Nam, D. Y. Jung, G. R. Yi, and H. Choi, "Close-packed hemispherical microlens array from two-dimensional ordered polymeric microspheres," Langmuir 22, 7358 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Math. Comput. Model. Dyn. Syst. (1)

C. Stupperich-Sequeira, K. Graf, and W. Wiechert, "Modelling and simulation of micro-well formation," Math. Comput. Model. Dyn. Syst. 12, 263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, "Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops," Nature 389, 827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, "Contact line deposits in an evaporating drop," Phys. Rev. E 62, 756 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (2)

P. Ruther, B. Gerlach, J. Gottert, M. Ilie, J. Mohr, A. Muller, and C. Ossmann, "Fabrication and characterization of microlenses realized by a modified LIGA process," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 643 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Land, "Microlens arrays in the animal kingdom," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

R. Danzebrink, and M. A. Aegerter, "Deposition of micropatterned coating using an ink-jet technique," Thin Solid Films 351, 115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. Iga, Y. Kokubun, and M. Oikawa, Fundamentals of Microoptics: Distributed-Index, Microlens, and Stacked Planar Optics (Tokyo, 1984).

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Figures (4)

Fig.1.
Fig.1.

a). Profile of a single crater in the direction of the red line at the lower picture. From this profile, the structural parameters of a microvessel such as diameter w, depth d and radius of curvature R are obtained. The dashed black line corresponds to the fit of the lens profile to a circle with radius R. (b) Average depth d and diameter w of the craters of five arrays as a function of deposited drops of toluene on the polystyrene surface. Error bars are the standard deviation of the data.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Arrays of microlenses imaged by a confocal profilometer. The upper picture shows concave microlenses obtained by ink-jet printing. The number of deposited drops is increased in the y-direction. Below, convex microlenses obtained by template casting from the concave ones. (b). The graphs present the profile of the arrays along the full and dashed green lines shown in the upper image.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Scheme of the Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy setup. Abbreviations: BS = beamsplitter, DBS = dichroic beamsplitter, GS = galvanometric scanner, BE = beamexpander, PMT = photo-multiplier, PH = pinhole, EM = emission filter, TL = tube lens, SL = scan lens, CL = collimator lens.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). Focal lengths f of an array of microlenses as a function of the number of deposited drops. Red triangles are the calculated values and the empty diamonds correspond to the experimental data. (b) Confocal reflection/transmission scan image in the X-Z plane of a convex microlens array. The vertical green lines are the transmitted laser beams. The reflection scan image has been merged with the transmission one, and can be distinguished at the bottom of the picture as a bright green horizontal line. (c) Intensity profile along the Z-axis of a transmitted laser beam through a microlens obtained with 4 deposited droplets. This beam is pointed at (b) by the white arrow at its experimental focal point. The black line is the experimental intensity and the red one is the fit to a Gaussian peak. The position of the maximum of this fit determines the experimental focal length of the microlens.

Equations (1)

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1 f = n 1 R

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