Abstract

The production of high-quality low-defect single-domain flexible polymer opals which possess fundamental photonic bandgaps tuneable across the visible and near-infrared regions is demonstrated in an industrially-scalable process. Incorporating sub-50nm nanoparticles into the interstices of the fcc lattice dramatically changes the perceived color without affecting the lattice quality. Contrary to iridescence based on Bragg diffraction, color generation arises through spectrally-resonant scattering inside the 3D photonic crystal. Viewing angles widen beyond 40° removing the strong dependence of the perceived color on the position of light sources, greatly enhancing the color appearance. This opens up a range of decorative, sensing, security and photonic applications, and suggests an origin for structural colors in Nature.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. K. Iler, "Formation of precious opal," Nature 207, 472-473 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. J. Darragh, A. J. Gaskin, B. C. Terrell, and J. V. Sanders, "Origin of precious opal," Nature 209, 13-16 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. V. Sanders and M. J. Murray, "Ordered arrangements of spheres of two different sizes in opal," Nature 275, 201-203 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. van Blaaderen, "Opals in a new light," Science 282, 887-888 (1998).
  5. D. W. Oxtoby, "Crystallization: Diversity suppresses growth," Nature 413, 694-695 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, "Photonic structures in biology," Nature 424, 852-855 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Ghiradella, D. Aneshansley, T. Eisner, R. E. Silberglied, and H. E. Hinton, "Ultraviolet reflection of a male butterfly: Interference color caused by thin-layer elaboration of wing scales," Science 178, 1214-1217 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Jenkins, "Photonics: Wingèd light," Nature 438, 436 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Vukusic and I. Hooper, "Directionally controlled fluorescence emission in butterflies," Science 18, 1151 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven and W. L. Vos, "Preparation of photonic crystals made of air spheres in titania," Science 281, 802-804 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. de la Rue, "Photonic crystals: Microassembly in 3D," Nature Mater. 2, 74-76 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. V. Braun and P. Wiltzius, "Electrochemically grown photonic crystals," Nature 402, 603-604 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Subramania, K. Constant, R. Biswas, M. M. Sigalas, and K. -M. Ho, "Inverse face-centered cubic thin film photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 13, 443-446 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, Z. Iqbal, C. Cui, I. Khayrullin, S. O. Dantas, J. Marti, and V. G. Ralchenko, "Carbon structures with three-dimensional periodicity at optical wavelengths," Science 282, 897-901 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. H. Holtz and S. A. Asher, "Polymerized colloidal crystal hydrogel films as intelligent chemical sensing materials," Nature 389, 829-832 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, J. M. Jethmalani, and W. T. Ford, "Diffraction of visible light by ordered monodisperse silica-poly(methyl acrylate) composite films," Chem. Mater.  8, 2138-2146 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. H. Foulger, P. Jiang, A. Lattam, D. W. SmithJr., J. Ballato, D. E. Dausch, S. Grego, and B. R. Stoner, "Photonic crystal composites with reversible high-frequency stop band shifts," Adv. Mater. 15, 685-689 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Ruhl, P. Spahn, and G. P. Hellmann, "Artificial opals prepared by melt compression," Polymer 44, 7625-7634 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. O. L. J. Pursiainen, J. J. Baumberg, H. Winkler, B. Viel, and T. Ruhl, "Compact strain-sensitive flexible photonic crystals for sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 101902-101904 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Labeyrie, C. A. Muller, D. S. Wiersma, C. Miniatura, and R. Kaiser, "Observation of coherent backscattering of light by cold atoms," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, 672-685 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Using conventional spectro-photometers thus yields erroneous measurements as some significant fraction of S is also collected.
  24. V. N. Astratov, A. M. Adawi, S. Fricker, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, and P. N. Pusey "Interplay of order and disorder in the optical properties of opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 165215-165227 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Ruhl and G. P. Hellmann, "Colloidal crystals in latex films: rubbery opals," Macromol. Chem. Phys. 202, 3502-3505 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Yu. A. Vlasov, M. A. Kaliteevski, and V. V. Nikolaev, "Different regimes of light localization in a disordered photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 60, 1555-1562 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. Rengarajan, D. Mittleman, C. Rich, and V. Colvin, "Effect of disorder on the optical properties of colloidal crystals," Phys. Rev. E 71, 016615-016625 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. F. Koenderink and W. L. Vos, "Optical properties of real photonic crystals: anomalous diffuse transmission," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1075-1084 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. Hermann and O. Hess, "Modified spontaneous-emission rate in an inverted-opal structure with complete photonic bandgap," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3013-3018 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, J. McOrist, A. A. Asatryan, C. M. de Sterke, and N. A. Nicorovici, "Density of states functions for photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 16609-16624 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. V. Baryshev, V. A. Kosobukin, K. B. Samusev, D. E. Usvyat, and M. F. Limonov, "Light diffraction from opal-based photonic crystals with growth-induced disorder: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. E 73, 205118 (2006).
  32. S. A. Asher, J. M. Weissman, A. Tikhonov, R. D. Coalson, and R. Kesavamoorthy, "Diffraction in crystalline colloidal-array photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 69, 066619 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. V. Baryshev, V. A. Kosobukin, K. B. Samusev, D. E. Usvyat, and M. F. Limonov, "Light diffraction from opal-based photonic crystals with growth-induced disorder: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. E 73, 205118 (2006).

2005 (5)

R. Rengarajan, D. Mittleman, C. Rich, and V. Colvin, "Effect of disorder on the optical properties of colloidal crystals," Phys. Rev. E 71, 016615-016625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Koenderink and W. L. Vos, "Optical properties of real photonic crystals: anomalous diffuse transmission," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1075-1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. L. J. Pursiainen, J. J. Baumberg, H. Winkler, B. Viel, and T. Ruhl, "Compact strain-sensitive flexible photonic crystals for sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 101902-101904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Jenkins, "Photonics: Wingèd light," Nature 438, 436 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vukusic and I. Hooper, "Directionally controlled fluorescence emission in butterflies," Science 18, 1151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. A. Asher, J. M. Weissman, A. Tikhonov, R. D. Coalson, and R. Kesavamoorthy, "Diffraction in crystalline colloidal-array photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 69, 066619 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, J. McOrist, A. A. Asatryan, C. M. de Sterke, and N. A. Nicorovici, "Density of states functions for photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 16609-16624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

R. de la Rue, "Photonic crystals: Microassembly in 3D," Nature Mater. 2, 74-76 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Foulger, P. Jiang, A. Lattam, D. W. SmithJr., J. Ballato, D. E. Dausch, S. Grego, and B. R. Stoner, "Photonic crystal composites with reversible high-frequency stop band shifts," Adv. Mater. 15, 685-689 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Ruhl, P. Spahn, and G. P. Hellmann, "Artificial opals prepared by melt compression," Polymer 44, 7625-7634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, "Photonic structures in biology," Nature 424, 852-855 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

V. N. Astratov, A. M. Adawi, S. Fricker, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, and P. N. Pusey "Interplay of order and disorder in the optical properties of opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 165215-165227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Hermann and O. Hess, "Modified spontaneous-emission rate in an inverted-opal structure with complete photonic bandgap," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3013-3018 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

T. Ruhl and G. P. Hellmann, "Colloidal crystals in latex films: rubbery opals," Macromol. Chem. Phys. 202, 3502-3505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Oxtoby, "Crystallization: Diversity suppresses growth," Nature 413, 694-695 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Subramania, K. Constant, R. Biswas, M. M. Sigalas, and K. -M. Ho, "Inverse face-centered cubic thin film photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 13, 443-446 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. Labeyrie, C. A. Muller, D. S. Wiersma, C. Miniatura, and R. Kaiser, "Observation of coherent backscattering of light by cold atoms," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, 672-685 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

Yu. A. Vlasov, M. A. Kaliteevski, and V. V. Nikolaev, "Different regimes of light localization in a disordered photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 60, 1555-1562 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Braun and P. Wiltzius, "Electrochemically grown photonic crystals," Nature 402, 603-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, Z. Iqbal, C. Cui, I. Khayrullin, S. O. Dantas, J. Marti, and V. G. Ralchenko, "Carbon structures with three-dimensional periodicity at optical wavelengths," Science 282, 897-901 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven and W. L. Vos, "Preparation of photonic crystals made of air spheres in titania," Science 281, 802-804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. van Blaaderen, "Opals in a new light," Science 282, 887-888 (1998).

1997 (1)

J. H. Holtz and S. A. Asher, "Polymerized colloidal crystal hydrogel films as intelligent chemical sensing materials," Nature 389, 829-832 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, J. M. Jethmalani, and W. T. Ford, "Diffraction of visible light by ordered monodisperse silica-poly(methyl acrylate) composite films," Chem. Mater.  8, 2138-2146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

J. V. Sanders and M. J. Murray, "Ordered arrangements of spheres of two different sizes in opal," Nature 275, 201-203 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

H. Ghiradella, D. Aneshansley, T. Eisner, R. E. Silberglied, and H. E. Hinton, "Ultraviolet reflection of a male butterfly: Interference color caused by thin-layer elaboration of wing scales," Science 178, 1214-1217 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

P. J. Darragh, A. J. Gaskin, B. C. Terrell, and J. V. Sanders, "Origin of precious opal," Nature 209, 13-16 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

R. K. Iler, "Formation of precious opal," Nature 207, 472-473 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Adawi, A. M.

V. N. Astratov, A. M. Adawi, S. Fricker, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, and P. N. Pusey "Interplay of order and disorder in the optical properties of opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 165215-165227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aneshansley, D.

H. Ghiradella, D. Aneshansley, T. Eisner, R. E. Silberglied, and H. E. Hinton, "Ultraviolet reflection of a male butterfly: Interference color caused by thin-layer elaboration of wing scales," Science 178, 1214-1217 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arsenault, A. C.

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, J. M. Jethmalani, and W. T. Ford, "Diffraction of visible light by ordered monodisperse silica-poly(methyl acrylate) composite films," Chem. Mater.  8, 2138-2146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Asatryan, A. A.

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, J. McOrist, A. A. Asatryan, C. M. de Sterke, and N. A. Nicorovici, "Density of states functions for photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 16609-16624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Asher, S. A.

S. A. Asher, J. M. Weissman, A. Tikhonov, R. D. Coalson, and R. Kesavamoorthy, "Diffraction in crystalline colloidal-array photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 69, 066619 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Holtz and S. A. Asher, "Polymerized colloidal crystal hydrogel films as intelligent chemical sensing materials," Nature 389, 829-832 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Astratov, V. N.

V. N. Astratov, A. M. Adawi, S. Fricker, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, and P. N. Pusey "Interplay of order and disorder in the optical properties of opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 165215-165227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ballato, J.

S. H. Foulger, P. Jiang, A. Lattam, D. W. SmithJr., J. Ballato, D. E. Dausch, S. Grego, and B. R. Stoner, "Photonic crystal composites with reversible high-frequency stop band shifts," Adv. Mater. 15, 685-689 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baryshev, A. V.

A. V. Baryshev, V. A. Kosobukin, K. B. Samusev, D. E. Usvyat, and M. F. Limonov, "Light diffraction from opal-based photonic crystals with growth-induced disorder: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. E 73, 205118 (2006).

Baughman, R. H.

A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, Z. Iqbal, C. Cui, I. Khayrullin, S. O. Dantas, J. Marti, and V. G. Ralchenko, "Carbon structures with three-dimensional periodicity at optical wavelengths," Science 282, 897-901 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumberg, J. J.

O. L. J. Pursiainen, J. J. Baumberg, H. Winkler, B. Viel, and T. Ruhl, "Compact strain-sensitive flexible photonic crystals for sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 101902-101904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bertolotti, J.

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, J. M. Jethmalani, and W. T. Ford, "Diffraction of visible light by ordered monodisperse silica-poly(methyl acrylate) composite films," Chem. Mater.  8, 2138-2146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

G. Subramania, K. Constant, R. Biswas, M. M. Sigalas, and K. -M. Ho, "Inverse face-centered cubic thin film photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 13, 443-446 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Botten, L. C.

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, J. McOrist, A. A. Asatryan, C. M. de Sterke, and N. A. Nicorovici, "Density of states functions for photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 16609-16624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Braun, P. V.

P. V. Braun and P. Wiltzius, "Electrochemically grown photonic crystals," Nature 402, 603-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cademartiri, L.

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, J. M. Jethmalani, and W. T. Ford, "Diffraction of visible light by ordered monodisperse silica-poly(methyl acrylate) composite films," Chem. Mater.  8, 2138-2146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clark, T. J.

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, J. M. Jethmalani, and W. T. Ford, "Diffraction of visible light by ordered monodisperse silica-poly(methyl acrylate) composite films," Chem. Mater.  8, 2138-2146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Coalson, R. D.

S. A. Asher, J. M. Weissman, A. Tikhonov, R. D. Coalson, and R. Kesavamoorthy, "Diffraction in crystalline colloidal-array photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 69, 066619 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Colvin, V.

R. Rengarajan, D. Mittleman, C. Rich, and V. Colvin, "Effect of disorder on the optical properties of colloidal crystals," Phys. Rev. E 71, 016615-016625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Constant, K.

G. Subramania, K. Constant, R. Biswas, M. M. Sigalas, and K. -M. Ho, "Inverse face-centered cubic thin film photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 13, 443-446 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cui, C.

A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, Z. Iqbal, C. Cui, I. Khayrullin, S. O. Dantas, J. Marti, and V. G. Ralchenko, "Carbon structures with three-dimensional periodicity at optical wavelengths," Science 282, 897-901 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dantas, S. O.

A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, Z. Iqbal, C. Cui, I. Khayrullin, S. O. Dantas, J. Marti, and V. G. Ralchenko, "Carbon structures with three-dimensional periodicity at optical wavelengths," Science 282, 897-901 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darragh, P. J.

P. J. Darragh, A. J. Gaskin, B. C. Terrell, and J. V. Sanders, "Origin of precious opal," Nature 209, 13-16 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Dausch, D. E.

S. H. Foulger, P. Jiang, A. Lattam, D. W. SmithJr., J. Ballato, D. E. Dausch, S. Grego, and B. R. Stoner, "Photonic crystal composites with reversible high-frequency stop band shifts," Adv. Mater. 15, 685-689 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de la Rue, R.

R. de la Rue, "Photonic crystals: Microassembly in 3D," Nature Mater. 2, 74-76 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, J. McOrist, A. A. Asatryan, C. M. de Sterke, and N. A. Nicorovici, "Density of states functions for photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 16609-16624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eisner, T.

H. Ghiradella, D. Aneshansley, T. Eisner, R. E. Silberglied, and H. E. Hinton, "Ultraviolet reflection of a male butterfly: Interference color caused by thin-layer elaboration of wing scales," Science 178, 1214-1217 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, W. T.

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, J. M. Jethmalani, and W. T. Ford, "Diffraction of visible light by ordered monodisperse silica-poly(methyl acrylate) composite films," Chem. Mater.  8, 2138-2146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Foulger, S. H.

S. H. Foulger, P. Jiang, A. Lattam, D. W. SmithJr., J. Ballato, D. E. Dausch, S. Grego, and B. R. Stoner, "Photonic crystal composites with reversible high-frequency stop band shifts," Adv. Mater. 15, 685-689 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fricker, S.

V. N. Astratov, A. M. Adawi, S. Fricker, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, and P. N. Pusey "Interplay of order and disorder in the optical properties of opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 165215-165227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gaskin, A. J.

P. J. Darragh, A. J. Gaskin, B. C. Terrell, and J. V. Sanders, "Origin of precious opal," Nature 209, 13-16 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ghiradella, H.

H. Ghiradella, D. Aneshansley, T. Eisner, R. E. Silberglied, and H. E. Hinton, "Ultraviolet reflection of a male butterfly: Interference color caused by thin-layer elaboration of wing scales," Science 178, 1214-1217 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grego, S.

S. H. Foulger, P. Jiang, A. Lattam, D. W. SmithJr., J. Ballato, D. E. Dausch, S. Grego, and B. R. Stoner, "Photonic crystal composites with reversible high-frequency stop band shifts," Adv. Mater. 15, 685-689 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hellmann, G. P.

T. Ruhl, P. Spahn, and G. P. Hellmann, "Artificial opals prepared by melt compression," Polymer 44, 7625-7634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Ruhl and G. P. Hellmann, "Colloidal crystals in latex films: rubbery opals," Macromol. Chem. Phys. 202, 3502-3505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, C.

Hess, O.

Hinton, H. E.

H. Ghiradella, D. Aneshansley, T. Eisner, R. E. Silberglied, and H. E. Hinton, "Ultraviolet reflection of a male butterfly: Interference color caused by thin-layer elaboration of wing scales," Science 178, 1214-1217 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, K. -M.

G. Subramania, K. Constant, R. Biswas, M. M. Sigalas, and K. -M. Ho, "Inverse face-centered cubic thin film photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 13, 443-446 (2001).
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J. H. Holtz and S. A. Asher, "Polymerized colloidal crystal hydrogel films as intelligent chemical sensing materials," Nature 389, 829-832 (1997).
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P. Vukusic and I. Hooper, "Directionally controlled fluorescence emission in butterflies," Science 18, 1151 (2005).
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R. K. Iler, "Formation of precious opal," Nature 207, 472-473 (1965).
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A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, Z. Iqbal, C. Cui, I. Khayrullin, S. O. Dantas, J. Marti, and V. G. Ralchenko, "Carbon structures with three-dimensional periodicity at optical wavelengths," Science 282, 897-901 (1998).
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A. Jenkins, "Photonics: Wingèd light," Nature 438, 436 (2005).
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A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, J. M. Jethmalani, and W. T. Ford, "Diffraction of visible light by ordered monodisperse silica-poly(methyl acrylate) composite films," Chem. Mater.  8, 2138-2146 (1996).
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S. H. Foulger, P. Jiang, A. Lattam, D. W. SmithJr., J. Ballato, D. E. Dausch, S. Grego, and B. R. Stoner, "Photonic crystal composites with reversible high-frequency stop band shifts," Adv. Mater. 15, 685-689 (2003).
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A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, J. M. Jethmalani, and W. T. Ford, "Diffraction of visible light by ordered monodisperse silica-poly(methyl acrylate) composite films," Chem. Mater.  8, 2138-2146 (1996).
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Kaliteevski, M. A.

Yu. A. Vlasov, M. A. Kaliteevski, and V. V. Nikolaev, "Different regimes of light localization in a disordered photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 60, 1555-1562 (1999).
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S. A. Asher, J. M. Weissman, A. Tikhonov, R. D. Coalson, and R. Kesavamoorthy, "Diffraction in crystalline colloidal-array photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 69, 066619 (2004).
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A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, Z. Iqbal, C. Cui, I. Khayrullin, S. O. Dantas, J. Marti, and V. G. Ralchenko, "Carbon structures with three-dimensional periodicity at optical wavelengths," Science 282, 897-901 (1998).
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A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, J. M. Jethmalani, and W. T. Ford, "Diffraction of visible light by ordered monodisperse silica-poly(methyl acrylate) composite films," Chem. Mater.  8, 2138-2146 (1996).
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Labeyrie, G.

G. Labeyrie, C. A. Muller, D. S. Wiersma, C. Miniatura, and R. Kaiser, "Observation of coherent backscattering of light by cold atoms," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, 672-685 (2000).
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S. H. Foulger, P. Jiang, A. Lattam, D. W. SmithJr., J. Ballato, D. E. Dausch, S. Grego, and B. R. Stoner, "Photonic crystal composites with reversible high-frequency stop band shifts," Adv. Mater. 15, 685-689 (2003).
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Limonov, M. F.

A. V. Baryshev, V. A. Kosobukin, K. B. Samusev, D. E. Usvyat, and M. F. Limonov, "Light diffraction from opal-based photonic crystals with growth-induced disorder: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. E 73, 205118 (2006).

Manners, I.

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, J. M. Jethmalani, and W. T. Ford, "Diffraction of visible light by ordered monodisperse silica-poly(methyl acrylate) composite films," Chem. Mater.  8, 2138-2146 (1996).
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A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, Z. Iqbal, C. Cui, I. Khayrullin, S. O. Dantas, J. Marti, and V. G. Ralchenko, "Carbon structures with three-dimensional periodicity at optical wavelengths," Science 282, 897-901 (1998).
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R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, J. McOrist, A. A. Asatryan, C. M. de Sterke, and N. A. Nicorovici, "Density of states functions for photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 16609-16624 (2004).
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R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, J. McOrist, A. A. Asatryan, C. M. de Sterke, and N. A. Nicorovici, "Density of states functions for photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 16609-16624 (2004).
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G. Labeyrie, C. A. Muller, D. S. Wiersma, C. Miniatura, and R. Kaiser, "Observation of coherent backscattering of light by cold atoms," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, 672-685 (2000).
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R. Rengarajan, D. Mittleman, C. Rich, and V. Colvin, "Effect of disorder on the optical properties of colloidal crystals," Phys. Rev. E 71, 016615-016625 (2005).
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G. Labeyrie, C. A. Muller, D. S. Wiersma, C. Miniatura, and R. Kaiser, "Observation of coherent backscattering of light by cold atoms," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, 672-685 (2000).
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J. V. Sanders and M. J. Murray, "Ordered arrangements of spheres of two different sizes in opal," Nature 275, 201-203 (1978).
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R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, J. McOrist, A. A. Asatryan, C. M. de Sterke, and N. A. Nicorovici, "Density of states functions for photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 16609-16624 (2004).
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Yu. A. Vlasov, M. A. Kaliteevski, and V. V. Nikolaev, "Different regimes of light localization in a disordered photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 60, 1555-1562 (1999).
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D. W. Oxtoby, "Crystallization: Diversity suppresses growth," Nature 413, 694-695 (2001).
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A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, J. M. Jethmalani, and W. T. Ford, "Diffraction of visible light by ordered monodisperse silica-poly(methyl acrylate) composite films," Chem. Mater.  8, 2138-2146 (1996).
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O. L. J. Pursiainen, J. J. Baumberg, H. Winkler, B. Viel, and T. Ruhl, "Compact strain-sensitive flexible photonic crystals for sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 101902-101904 (2005).
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V. N. Astratov, A. M. Adawi, S. Fricker, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, and P. N. Pusey "Interplay of order and disorder in the optical properties of opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 165215-165227 (2002).
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A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, Z. Iqbal, C. Cui, I. Khayrullin, S. O. Dantas, J. Marti, and V. G. Ralchenko, "Carbon structures with three-dimensional periodicity at optical wavelengths," Science 282, 897-901 (1998).
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R. Rengarajan, D. Mittleman, C. Rich, and V. Colvin, "Effect of disorder on the optical properties of colloidal crystals," Phys. Rev. E 71, 016615-016625 (2005).
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R. Rengarajan, D. Mittleman, C. Rich, and V. Colvin, "Effect of disorder on the optical properties of colloidal crystals," Phys. Rev. E 71, 016615-016625 (2005).
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Ruhl, T.

O. L. J. Pursiainen, J. J. Baumberg, H. Winkler, B. Viel, and T. Ruhl, "Compact strain-sensitive flexible photonic crystals for sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 101902-101904 (2005).
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T. Ruhl, P. Spahn, and G. P. Hellmann, "Artificial opals prepared by melt compression," Polymer 44, 7625-7634 (2003).
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T. Ruhl and G. P. Hellmann, "Colloidal crystals in latex films: rubbery opals," Macromol. Chem. Phys. 202, 3502-3505 (2001).
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P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, "Photonic structures in biology," Nature 424, 852-855 (2003).
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A. V. Baryshev, V. A. Kosobukin, K. B. Samusev, D. E. Usvyat, and M. F. Limonov, "Light diffraction from opal-based photonic crystals with growth-induced disorder: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. E 73, 205118 (2006).

Sanders, J. V.

J. V. Sanders and M. J. Murray, "Ordered arrangements of spheres of two different sizes in opal," Nature 275, 201-203 (1978).
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P. J. Darragh, A. J. Gaskin, B. C. Terrell, and J. V. Sanders, "Origin of precious opal," Nature 209, 13-16 (1966).
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A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, J. M. Jethmalani, and W. T. Ford, "Diffraction of visible light by ordered monodisperse silica-poly(methyl acrylate) composite films," Chem. Mater.  8, 2138-2146 (1996).
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Sigalas, M. M.

G. Subramania, K. Constant, R. Biswas, M. M. Sigalas, and K. -M. Ho, "Inverse face-centered cubic thin film photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 13, 443-446 (2001).
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H. Ghiradella, D. Aneshansley, T. Eisner, R. E. Silberglied, and H. E. Hinton, "Ultraviolet reflection of a male butterfly: Interference color caused by thin-layer elaboration of wing scales," Science 178, 1214-1217 (1972).
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V. N. Astratov, A. M. Adawi, S. Fricker, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, and P. N. Pusey "Interplay of order and disorder in the optical properties of opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 165215-165227 (2002).
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S. H. Foulger, P. Jiang, A. Lattam, D. W. SmithJr., J. Ballato, D. E. Dausch, S. Grego, and B. R. Stoner, "Photonic crystal composites with reversible high-frequency stop band shifts," Adv. Mater. 15, 685-689 (2003).
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T. Ruhl, P. Spahn, and G. P. Hellmann, "Artificial opals prepared by melt compression," Polymer 44, 7625-7634 (2003).
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Stoner, B. R.

S. H. Foulger, P. Jiang, A. Lattam, D. W. SmithJr., J. Ballato, D. E. Dausch, S. Grego, and B. R. Stoner, "Photonic crystal composites with reversible high-frequency stop band shifts," Adv. Mater. 15, 685-689 (2003).
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G. Subramania, K. Constant, R. Biswas, M. M. Sigalas, and K. -M. Ho, "Inverse face-centered cubic thin film photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 13, 443-446 (2001).
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P. J. Darragh, A. J. Gaskin, B. C. Terrell, and J. V. Sanders, "Origin of precious opal," Nature 209, 13-16 (1966).
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S. A. Asher, J. M. Weissman, A. Tikhonov, R. D. Coalson, and R. Kesavamoorthy, "Diffraction in crystalline colloidal-array photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 69, 066619 (2004).
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A. V. Baryshev, V. A. Kosobukin, K. B. Samusev, D. E. Usvyat, and M. F. Limonov, "Light diffraction from opal-based photonic crystals with growth-induced disorder: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. E 73, 205118 (2006).

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A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, J. M. Jethmalani, and W. T. Ford, "Diffraction of visible light by ordered monodisperse silica-poly(methyl acrylate) composite films," Chem. Mater.  8, 2138-2146 (1996).
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Viel, B.

O. L. J. Pursiainen, J. J. Baumberg, H. Winkler, B. Viel, and T. Ruhl, "Compact strain-sensitive flexible photonic crystals for sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 101902-101904 (2005).
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Yu. A. Vlasov, M. A. Kaliteevski, and V. V. Nikolaev, "Different regimes of light localization in a disordered photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 60, 1555-1562 (1999).
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A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, J. M. Jethmalani, and W. T. Ford, "Diffraction of visible light by ordered monodisperse silica-poly(methyl acrylate) composite films," Chem. Mater.  8, 2138-2146 (1996).
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P. Vukusic and I. Hooper, "Directionally controlled fluorescence emission in butterflies," Science 18, 1151 (2005).
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P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, "Photonic structures in biology," Nature 424, 852-855 (2003).
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A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, J. M. Jethmalani, and W. T. Ford, "Diffraction of visible light by ordered monodisperse silica-poly(methyl acrylate) composite films," Chem. Mater.  8, 2138-2146 (1996).
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S. A. Asher, J. M. Weissman, A. Tikhonov, R. D. Coalson, and R. Kesavamoorthy, "Diffraction in crystalline colloidal-array photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 69, 066619 (2004).
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V. N. Astratov, A. M. Adawi, S. Fricker, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, and P. N. Pusey "Interplay of order and disorder in the optical properties of opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 165215-165227 (2002).
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A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, J. M. Jethmalani, and W. T. Ford, "Diffraction of visible light by ordered monodisperse silica-poly(methyl acrylate) composite films," Chem. Mater.  8, 2138-2146 (1996).
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Wiersma, D. S.

G. Labeyrie, C. A. Muller, D. S. Wiersma, C. Miniatura, and R. Kaiser, "Observation of coherent backscattering of light by cold atoms," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, 672-685 (2000).
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J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven and W. L. Vos, "Preparation of photonic crystals made of air spheres in titania," Science 281, 802-804 (1998).
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P. V. Braun and P. Wiltzius, "Electrochemically grown photonic crystals," Nature 402, 603-604 (1999).
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O. L. J. Pursiainen, J. J. Baumberg, H. Winkler, B. Viel, and T. Ruhl, "Compact strain-sensitive flexible photonic crystals for sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 101902-101904 (2005).
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A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, J. M. Jethmalani, and W. T. Ford, "Diffraction of visible light by ordered monodisperse silica-poly(methyl acrylate) composite films," Chem. Mater.  8, 2138-2146 (1996).
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A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, Z. Iqbal, C. Cui, I. Khayrullin, S. O. Dantas, J. Marti, and V. G. Ralchenko, "Carbon structures with three-dimensional periodicity at optical wavelengths," Science 282, 897-901 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

G. Subramania, K. Constant, R. Biswas, M. M. Sigalas, and K. -M. Ho, "Inverse face-centered cubic thin film photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 13, 443-446 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Foulger, P. Jiang, A. Lattam, D. W. SmithJr., J. Ballato, D. E. Dausch, S. Grego, and B. R. Stoner, "Photonic crystal composites with reversible high-frequency stop band shifts," Adv. Mater. 15, 685-689 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

O. L. J. Pursiainen, J. J. Baumberg, H. Winkler, B. Viel, and T. Ruhl, "Compact strain-sensitive flexible photonic crystals for sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 101902-101904 (2005).
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Chem. Mater. (1)

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, J. M. Jethmalani, and W. T. Ford, "Diffraction of visible light by ordered monodisperse silica-poly(methyl acrylate) composite films," Chem. Mater.  8, 2138-2146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. (1)

G. Labeyrie, C. A. Muller, D. S. Wiersma, C. Miniatura, and R. Kaiser, "Observation of coherent backscattering of light by cold atoms," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, 672-685 (2000).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Macromol. Chem. Phys. (1)

T. Ruhl and G. P. Hellmann, "Colloidal crystals in latex films: rubbery opals," Macromol. Chem. Phys. 202, 3502-3505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (8)

J. H. Holtz and S. A. Asher, "Polymerized colloidal crystal hydrogel films as intelligent chemical sensing materials," Nature 389, 829-832 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Braun and P. Wiltzius, "Electrochemically grown photonic crystals," Nature 402, 603-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Iler, "Formation of precious opal," Nature 207, 472-473 (1965).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Darragh, A. J. Gaskin, B. C. Terrell, and J. V. Sanders, "Origin of precious opal," Nature 209, 13-16 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Sanders and M. J. Murray, "Ordered arrangements of spheres of two different sizes in opal," Nature 275, 201-203 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Oxtoby, "Crystallization: Diversity suppresses growth," Nature 413, 694-695 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, "Photonic structures in biology," Nature 424, 852-855 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jenkins, "Photonics: Wingèd light," Nature 438, 436 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Mater. (1)

R. de la Rue, "Photonic crystals: Microassembly in 3D," Nature Mater. 2, 74-76 (2003).
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Phys. Rev. B (3)

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Other (1)

Using conventional spectro-photometers thus yields erroneous measurements as some significant fraction of S is also collected.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Compression shear-assembly of polymer opal. (b-c) Optical images under natural lighting of 10cm diameter polymer opal films, which are (b) undoped (S3) and (c) doped (S4) with 0.05% by weight carbon nanoparticles.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a).–(b). TEM images of the (111) lattice plane of sample S4, where the polymer in (b) has been stained with ruthenium tetroxide for better contrast of the polystyrene/polyacrylate system. Inset of (b): surface diffraction pattern of sample S2 under normal incidence UV illumination. (c) Digital images of a sedimented and a polymer opal S1. (d) Miniature automobile with moulded polymer opal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setups used for (a,b) angle-dependent reflectivity and scattering measurements, (c) coherent backscattering mean free path measurements.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). Scattering geometry employed. (b). Optical image of the front surface scattering of the polymer opal S1 revealing the structural color content, light incident and reflected at 40°. (c) Scattering cone of S1 for three different color components at, and on the red and blue sides of the bandgap at 580nm for 40° incidence. Specular reflected spot at intersection of lines.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Evolution of the (111) bandgap for different sphere sizes at 5° incidence. (b) Scattering (S) and reflection (R) spectra for 40° incident angle. (c) Extracted R,S at different angles of incidence from 20° to 60° (in 10° steps), inset: fit to Bragg law. (d) Scattering with angle in the plane of incidence [horizontal cross-sections of Fig. 4(c)] around the specular reflected direction (at 40°) for selected colors around the bandgap. Inset: On-resonant scattering cross-section in orthogonal plane. (b-d) are taken for sample S1.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). Effect of carbon loading on the scattering mean free path (lmfp ) and the absorption length (lα ), measured for samples S3–6. (b)–(c) Structural color formation schematically shown for (111) planes with black points representing scattering events (not nanoparticles). In an inverse opal (b), light incident at the Bragg angle (green) is directly reflected, while off-resonant light (red) that is scattered into this angle inside the structure cannot escape. In a polymer opal (c), all colors penetrate, and Bragg angle light is resonantly scattered. (d) Scattering cross-sections with angle for carbon nanoparticle doped (thick lines) and un-doped (thin lines) polymer opals at, and either side of, the bandgap at 570nm (samples S3 & S4). (e) Scattered optical energy emerging in a 1° annulus around each angle for doped & undoped opals. Reflection (R) and scattering (S) domains indicated, resonant Bragg scattering shaded.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Structural and doping parameters for several polymer opal films used in this work.

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