Abstract

A 10Gb/s NRZ burst-mode optical receiver suitable for receiving asynchronous bursts with power variations of up to 7 dB is presented. The digital burst mode receiver is based on a standard AC-coupled photodiode followed by asynchronous analogue to digital conversion at 20 GS/s. Symbol timing, amplitude and baseline wander corrections are implemented in digital signal processing without the need for additional linecoding, such as 8B10B, and special AC-coupling schemes. It is assumed that G.709 framing together with enhanced FEC is used therefore the receiver is characterized using a pre eFEC BER of 10-3 at an input OSNR of 10 dB. We show that the addition of an electronically controlled SOA for optical power equalization before the receiver extends the burst-to-burst dynamic range from the 7 dB provided by the digital receiver alone to 16.5 dB. The large dynamic range, low overhead, and burst length versatility make this type of receiver ideal for applications in both synchronous and asynchronous dynamic network architectures with burst timescales ranging from nanoseconds through to continuous data.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Bayvel and M. Düser, "Optical burst switching: research and applications," Optical Fiber Communications Conference, FO1, 22-27 (2004).
  2. Y. Ota and R. G. Swartz, "Burst-mode compatible optical receiver with a large dynamic range," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1897-1903 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. NRZ Bandwidth - LF Cutoff and Baseline Wander, Maxim inc. application note HFAN-09.0.4, http://pdfserv.maxim-ic.com/en/an/4hfan904.pdf
  4. C. Su, L-K. Chen and K-W. Cheung, "Theory of burst-mode receiver and its applications in optical multi-access networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 590-606 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Su, L. K. Chen, and K. W. Cheung, "BER performance of digital optical burst-mode receiver in TDMA all optical multiaccess network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 132-134 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Ossieur, "A 1.25-Gb/s burst mode receiver for GPON applications," IEEE, J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1180-1189 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Dupas, B. Lavigne, W. Lautenschlaeger, and S. Schabel, "10 Gbit/s RZ asynchronous packet mode receiver with high input power dynamic for future optical packet switching systems," Photonics in switching, Monterey USA, (2001).
  8. M. Duelk,  et al., "Fast packet routing in a 2.5Tb/s optical switch fabric with 40Gb/s duobinary signals at 0.8b/s/Hz spectral efficiency," Optical Fiber Communications Conference, PD8, (2003).
  9. F. M. Gardner, "Interpolation in digital modems - Part I: Fundamentals," IEEE Trans. Commun.  41, 501-507 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. C. Thomsen, B. J. Puttnam and P. Bayvel, "10 Gb/s AC-Coupled Digital Burst-Mode Optical Receiver," Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OThK5, (2007).
  11. H. Wessing, B. Sorensen, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol and O. Leclerc," Combining control electronics with SOA to equalize packet-to-packet power variations for optical 3R regeneration in optical networks at 10 Gbit/s," Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC04, WD2, (2004).
  12. S. J. Lee, "A new non-data-aided feedforward symbol timing estimator using two samples per symbol," IEEE Commun. Lett. 6, 205-207 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. H. Baek, J. H. Hong, M. H. Sunwoo and K. U. Kim, "Efficient digital baseline wander algorithm and its architecture for fast ethernet," IEEE SIPS, (2004).
  14. M. Kawai, H. Watanabe, T. Ohtsuka and K. Yamaguchi, "Smart optical receiver with automatic decision threshold setting and retiming phase alignment," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1634-1640 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. J. Mazurczyk, R. M. Kimball and S. M. Abbott, "Using optical noise loading to estimate margin in optical amplifier systems," Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC97, TuP5, 85, (1997).
  16. N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier system," Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 304-306 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. J. Winzer,  et al., "10-Gb/s upgrade of bidirectional CWDM systems using electronic equalization and FEC," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 203-210 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Eldering, "Theoretical determination of sensitivity penalty for burst mode fiber optic receivers," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2145-2149 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. T. Aw, T. Lin, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty and I. H. White, "Layered Control to Enable Large Scale SOA Switch Fabric," European Conference on Optical Communications, Th1.2.5, (2006).

2005

P. Ossieur, "A 1.25-Gb/s burst mode receiver for GPON applications," IEEE, J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1180-1189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer,  et al., "10-Gb/s upgrade of bidirectional CWDM systems using electronic equalization and FEC," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 203-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. J. Lee, "A new non-data-aided feedforward symbol timing estimator using two samples per symbol," IEEE Commun. Lett. 6, 205-207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

C. Su, L-K. Chen and K-W. Cheung, "Theory of burst-mode receiver and its applications in optical multi-access networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 590-606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. Su, L. K. Chen, and K. W. Cheung, "BER performance of digital optical burst-mode receiver in TDMA all optical multiaccess network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 132-134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

F. M. Gardner, "Interpolation in digital modems - Part I: Fundamentals," IEEE Trans. Commun.  41, 501-507 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier system," Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 304-306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Eldering, "Theoretical determination of sensitivity penalty for burst mode fiber optic receivers," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2145-2149 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

Y. Ota and R. G. Swartz, "Burst-mode compatible optical receiver with a large dynamic range," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1897-1903 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

M. Kawai, H. Watanabe, T. Ohtsuka and K. Yamaguchi, "Smart optical receiver with automatic decision threshold setting and retiming phase alignment," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1634-1640 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bergano, N. S.

N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier system," Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 304-306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. K.

C. Su, L. K. Chen, and K. W. Cheung, "BER performance of digital optical burst-mode receiver in TDMA all optical multiaccess network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 132-134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L-K.

C. Su, L-K. Chen and K-W. Cheung, "Theory of burst-mode receiver and its applications in optical multi-access networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 590-606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K. W.

C. Su, L. K. Chen, and K. W. Cheung, "BER performance of digital optical burst-mode receiver in TDMA all optical multiaccess network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 132-134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K-W.

C. Su, L-K. Chen and K-W. Cheung, "Theory of burst-mode receiver and its applications in optical multi-access networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 590-606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, C. R.

N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier system," Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 304-306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eldering, C.

C. Eldering, "Theoretical determination of sensitivity penalty for burst mode fiber optic receivers," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2145-2149 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, F. M.

F. M. Gardner, "Interpolation in digital modems - Part I: Fundamentals," IEEE Trans. Commun.  41, 501-507 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, M.

M. Kawai, H. Watanabe, T. Ohtsuka and K. Yamaguchi, "Smart optical receiver with automatic decision threshold setting and retiming phase alignment," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1634-1640 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kerfoot, F. W.

N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier system," Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 304-306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

S. J. Lee, "A new non-data-aided feedforward symbol timing estimator using two samples per symbol," IEEE Commun. Lett. 6, 205-207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, T.

M. Kawai, H. Watanabe, T. Ohtsuka and K. Yamaguchi, "Smart optical receiver with automatic decision threshold setting and retiming phase alignment," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1634-1640 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ossieur, P.

P. Ossieur, "A 1.25-Gb/s burst mode receiver for GPON applications," IEEE, J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1180-1189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ota, Y.

Y. Ota and R. G. Swartz, "Burst-mode compatible optical receiver with a large dynamic range," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1897-1903 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Su, C.

C. Su, L-K. Chen and K-W. Cheung, "Theory of burst-mode receiver and its applications in optical multi-access networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 590-606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Su, L. K. Chen, and K. W. Cheung, "BER performance of digital optical burst-mode receiver in TDMA all optical multiaccess network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 132-134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Swartz, R. G.

Y. Ota and R. G. Swartz, "Burst-mode compatible optical receiver with a large dynamic range," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1897-1903 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, H.

M. Kawai, H. Watanabe, T. Ohtsuka and K. Yamaguchi, "Smart optical receiver with automatic decision threshold setting and retiming phase alignment," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1634-1640 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

Yamaguchi, K.

M. Kawai, H. Watanabe, T. Ohtsuka and K. Yamaguchi, "Smart optical receiver with automatic decision threshold setting and retiming phase alignment," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1634-1640 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Commun. Lett.

S. J. Lee, "A new non-data-aided feedforward symbol timing estimator using two samples per symbol," IEEE Commun. Lett. 6, 205-207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. Su, L. K. Chen, and K. W. Cheung, "BER performance of digital optical burst-mode receiver in TDMA all optical multiaccess network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 132-134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun.

F. M. Gardner, "Interpolation in digital modems - Part I: Fundamentals," IEEE Trans. Commun.  41, 501-507 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

M. Kawai, H. Watanabe, T. Ohtsuka and K. Yamaguchi, "Smart optical receiver with automatic decision threshold setting and retiming phase alignment," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1634-1640 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer,  et al., "10-Gb/s upgrade of bidirectional CWDM systems using electronic equalization and FEC," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 203-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Eldering, "Theoretical determination of sensitivity penalty for burst mode fiber optic receivers," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2145-2149 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ota and R. G. Swartz, "Burst-mode compatible optical receiver with a large dynamic range," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1897-1903 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Su, L-K. Chen and K-W. Cheung, "Theory of burst-mode receiver and its applications in optical multi-access networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 590-606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Solid-State Circuits

P. Ossieur, "A 1.25-Gb/s burst mode receiver for GPON applications," IEEE, J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1180-1189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Technol. Lett.

N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier system," Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 304-306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Dupas, B. Lavigne, W. Lautenschlaeger, and S. Schabel, "10 Gbit/s RZ asynchronous packet mode receiver with high input power dynamic for future optical packet switching systems," Photonics in switching, Monterey USA, (2001).

M. Duelk,  et al., "Fast packet routing in a 2.5Tb/s optical switch fabric with 40Gb/s duobinary signals at 0.8b/s/Hz spectral efficiency," Optical Fiber Communications Conference, PD8, (2003).

P. Bayvel and M. Düser, "Optical burst switching: research and applications," Optical Fiber Communications Conference, FO1, 22-27 (2004).

NRZ Bandwidth - LF Cutoff and Baseline Wander, Maxim inc. application note HFAN-09.0.4, http://pdfserv.maxim-ic.com/en/an/4hfan904.pdf

E. T. Aw, T. Lin, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty and I. H. White, "Layered Control to Enable Large Scale SOA Switch Fabric," European Conference on Optical Communications, Th1.2.5, (2006).

V. J. Mazurczyk, R. M. Kimball and S. M. Abbott, "Using optical noise loading to estimate margin in optical amplifier systems," Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC97, TuP5, 85, (1997).

B. C. Thomsen, B. J. Puttnam and P. Bayvel, "10 Gb/s AC-Coupled Digital Burst-Mode Optical Receiver," Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OThK5, (2007).

H. Wessing, B. Sorensen, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol and O. Leclerc," Combining control electronics with SOA to equalize packet-to-packet power variations for optical 3R regeneration in optical networks at 10 Gbit/s," Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC04, WD2, (2004).

J. H. Baek, J. H. Hong, M. H. Sunwoo and K. U. Kim, "Efficient digital baseline wander algorithm and its architecture for fast ethernet," IEEE SIPS, (2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental burst transmitter, optical equaliser and digital burst-mode receiver. The burst structure is also shown.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Burst-mode receiver digital signal processing schematic.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The required OSNR for an error rate of 10-3 as a function of the received power.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

An illustration showing the clipping that occurs, in the ADC, at the start of the burst signals when (a) an AC-coupled photo receiver followed by (b) an AC-coupled variable gain amplifier are used before the ADC. Also shown for comparison are the outputs of (c) a DC coupled photo receiver followed by (d) variable gain amplifier where clipping is avoided.

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