Abstract

Retrieval of biogeochemical parameters from remotely sensed data in optically complex waters such as those found in coastal zones is a challenging task due to the effects of various water constituents (biogenic, nonalgal and inorganic particles, dissolved matter) on the radiation exiting the ocean. Since scattering by molecules, aerosols, hydrosols and reflection at the sea surface introduce and modify the polarization state of light, the polarized upward radiation contains embedded information about the intrinsic nature of aerosols and suspended matter in the ocean. In this study, shipborne above water angularly resolved visible/near infrared multi-band measurements of the degree of polarization are analysed against their corresponding in-situ biogeochemically characterized water samples for the first time. Water samples and radiometric data were collected in the English Channel along an inshore-offshore transect. Angular variations in the degree of polarization P are found to be consistent with theory. Maximum values of P are observed near the Brewster viewing angle in the specular direction. Variations in the degree of polarization at the Brewster angle (PB) with water content revealed that the suspended particulate matter, which is mainly composed of inorganic particles during the experiment, contributes to depolarise the skylight reflection, thus reducing PB. An empirical polarization-based approach is proposed to determine biogeochemical properties of the particles. The concentration of inorganic particles can be estimated using PB to within ±13% based on the dataset used. Larger sets of polarized measurements are recommended to corroborate the tendency observed in this study.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. Chami, and M. Defoin-Platel, "Sensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations and the polarization of the reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C05037, doi:10.1029/2006JC003758 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, "Importance of the polarization in the retrieval of oceanic constituents from the remote sensing reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C05026, doi:10.1029/2006JC003843 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chang, C. C. Liu. and C. G. Wen, "Integrating semianalytical and genetic algorithms to retrieve the constituents of water bodies from remote sensing of ocean color," Opt. Express 15, 252-264 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

H. Schiller and R. Doerffer, "Improved determination of coastal water constituent concentrations from MERIS data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 585-591 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. Doxaran, R. C. N. Cherukuru, and S. J. Lavender, "Surface reflection effects on upwelling radiance field measurements in turbid waters," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.  6, 690-697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: A multi- band quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 755-772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, and P. Castaing, "A reflectance band ratio used to estimate suspended matter concentrations in coastal sediment-dominated waters," Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 5079-5085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Adams, E. Aas, N. K. Hojerslev, and B. Lundgren, "Comparison of radiance and polarization observed in the Mediterranean Sea and simulated in a Monte Carlo model," Appl. Opt. 41, 2724-2729 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami and D. Robilliard, "Inversion of oceanic constituents in case I and II waters with genetic programming algorithms," Appl. Opt. 41, 6260-6274 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

1999 (2)

1998 (5)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, C13, 31033-31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami and R. Santer, "Aerosol remote sensing using ground based measurements and POLDER airborne sensor above coastal waters," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 203-221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kondratyev, D. V. Pozdnyakov, and L. H. Pettersson, "Water quality remote sensing in the visible spectrum," Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 957-979 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom., F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. A. Garver and D. Siegel, "Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 607-625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

F. E. Hoge and P. E. Lyon, "Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 631-648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters, III, Implications of bi-directionality for the remote sensing problem," Appl. Opt. 35, 4850-4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

Z. Jin and K. Stamnes, "Radiative transfer in nonuniformly refractive layered media such as the atmosphere-ocean system," Appl. Opt. 33, 431-443 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Doerffer and J. Fischer, "Concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter and gelbstoff in case II waters derived from satellite coastal zone color scanner data with inverse modelling methods," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7457-7466 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. M. Brylinski, Y. Lagadeuc, and V. Gentilhomme, "Le fleuve côtier: un phénomène hydrologique important en Manche Orientale. Exemple du Pas de Calais," Oceanol. Acta 11, 197-203 (1991).

1989 (1)

C. D. Mobley, "A numerical model for the computation of radiance distributions in natural waters with wind roughened surfaces," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1473-1483 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 937-953 (1988).

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. D. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. Bentley, "Caractéristiques physico-chimiques des eaux du Détroit du Pas de Calais," J. Rech. Oceanogr. 10, 69-71 (1985).

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

J. P. Dupont, D. Bentley and A. Richard, "Suivi du détroit du Pas de Calais," J. Rech. Oceanogr. 6, 1-16 (1981).

1976 (1)

1971 (1)

K. L. Carder, G. F. Beardsley, and H. Pak, "Particle size distribution in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5070-5077 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

H. Bader, "The hyperbolic distribution of particles sizes," J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822-2830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

1966 (1)

Unesco, "Determination of photosynthetic pigments in sea water," Monographs Oceanogr.Method, UNESCO I: pp. 62 (1966)

1958 (1)

A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, "Factors, mainly depth and wavelength, affecting the degree of underwater light polarization," J. Mar. Res. 16, 283-307 (1958).

1955 (1)

T. H. Waterman, "Polarization of scattered sunlight in deep waters," Papers in Marie Biology and Oceanography, Deep Sea Res. 3, 426-434 (1955).

1954 (1)

T. H. Waterman, "Polarization patterns in submarine illumination," Science 120, 927-932 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aas, E.

Adams, J. T.

Ahmed, S.

Allali, K.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, C13, 31033-31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: A multi- band quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 755-772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, C13, 31033-31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bader, H.

H. Bader, "The hyperbolic distribution of particles sizes," J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822-2830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. D. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Beardsley, G. F.

K. L. Carder, G. F. Beardsley, and H. Pak, "Particle size distribution in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5070-5077 (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Beardsley, "Mueller scattering matrix of sea water," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 52-57 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bentley, D.

D. Bentley, "Caractéristiques physico-chimiques des eaux du Détroit du Pas de Calais," J. Rech. Oceanogr. 10, 69-71 (1985).

J. P. Dupont, D. Bentley and A. Richard, "Suivi du détroit du Pas de Calais," J. Rech. Oceanogr. 6, 1-16 (1981).

Boss, E.

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, C13, 31033-31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. D. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. D. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brylinski, J. M.

J. M. Brylinski, Y. Lagadeuc, and V. Gentilhomme, "Le fleuve côtier: un phénomène hydrologique important en Manche Orientale. Exemple du Pas de Calais," Oceanol. Acta 11, 197-203 (1991).

Cairns, B.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns and L. Travis, "Contribution of water leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral, polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters," Appl. Opt. 45, 5542-5567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishenko, and D. L. Travis, "Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243-246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: A multi- band quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 755-772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 937-953 (1988).

K. L. Carder, G. F. Beardsley, and H. Pak, "Particle size distribution in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5070-5077 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Castaing, P.

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, and P. Castaing, "A reflectance band ratio used to estimate suspended matter concentrations in coastal sediment-dominated waters," Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 5079-5085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chami, M.

M. Chami, "Importance of the polarization in the retrieval of oceanic constituents from the remote sensing reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C05026, doi:10.1029/2006JC003843 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, and M. Defoin-Platel, "Sensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations and the polarization of the reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C05037, doi:10.1029/2006JC003758 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami and D. Robilliard, "Inversion of oceanic constituents in case I and II waters with genetic programming algorithms," Appl. Opt. 41, 6260-6274 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, "Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmopshere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 40, 2398-2416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami and R. Santer, "Aerosol remote sensing using ground based measurements and POLDER airborne sensor above coastal waters," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 203-221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

Cherukuru, R. C. N.

D. Doxaran, R. C. N. Cherukuru, and S. J. Lavender, "Surface reflection effects on upwelling radiance field measurements in turbid waters," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.  6, 690-697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhary, J.

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. D. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, C13, 31033-31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

De Haan, J. F.

H. Volten, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom., F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Defoin-Platel, M.

M. Chami, and M. Defoin-Platel, "Sensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations and the polarization of the reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C05037, doi:10.1029/2006JC003758 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, A. G.

H. Volten, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom., F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P. Y.

Dilligeard, E.

Doerffer, R.

H. Schiller and R. Doerffer, "Improved determination of coastal water constituent concentrations from MERIS data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 585-591 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Doerffer and J. Fischer, "Concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter and gelbstoff in case II waters derived from satellite coastal zone color scanner data with inverse modelling methods," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7457-7466 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Doxaran, D.

D. Doxaran, R. C. N. Cherukuru, and S. J. Lavender, "Surface reflection effects on upwelling radiance field measurements in turbid waters," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.  6, 690-697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, and P. Castaing, "A reflectance band ratio used to estimate suspended matter concentrations in coastal sediment-dominated waters," Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 5079-5085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dupont, J. P.

J. P. Dupont, D. Bentley and A. Richard, "Suivi du détroit du Pas de Calais," J. Rech. Oceanogr. 6, 1-16 (1981).

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. D. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, J.

R. Doerffer and J. Fischer, "Concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter and gelbstoff in case II waters derived from satellite coastal zone color scanner data with inverse modelling methods," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7457-7466 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fougnie, B.

Froidefond, J. M.

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, and P. Castaing, "A reflectance band ratio used to estimate suspended matter concentrations in coastal sediment-dominated waters," Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 5079-5085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

Fry, E. S.

Garver, S. A.

S. A. Garver and D. Siegel, "Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 607-625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 937-953 (1988).

Gentilhomme, V.

J. M. Brylinski, Y. Lagadeuc, and V. Gentilhomme, "Le fleuve côtier: un phénomène hydrologique important en Manche Orientale. Exemple du Pas de Calais," Oceanol. Acta 11, 197-203 (1991).

Gentili, B.

Gilerson, A.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. D. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gross, B.

Hitzfelder, S. J.

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge and P. E. Lyon, "Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 631-648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hojerslev, N. K.

Hoogenboom, H. J.

H. Volten, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom., F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. W.

H. Volten, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom., F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ivanoff, A.

A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, "Factors, mainly depth and wavelength, affecting the degree of underwater light polarization," J. Mar. Res. 16, 283-307 (1958).

Jin, Z.

Kahru, M.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 937-953 (1988).

Kattawar, G. W.

Kondratyev, K. Y.

K. Y. Kondratyev, D. V. Pozdnyakov, and L. H. Pettersson, "Water quality remote sensing in the visible spectrum," Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 957-979 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lagadeuc, Y.

J. M. Brylinski, Y. Lagadeuc, and V. Gentilhomme, "Le fleuve côtier: un phénomène hydrologique important en Manche Orientale. Exemple du Pas de Calais," Oceanol. Acta 11, 197-203 (1991).

Lavender, S. J.

D. Doxaran, R. C. N. Cherukuru, and S. J. Lavender, "Surface reflection effects on upwelling radiance field measurements in turbid waters," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.  6, 690-697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lecomte, P.

Lee, Z. P.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: A multi- band quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 755-772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. C.

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lundgren, B.

Lyon, P. E.

F. E. Hoge and P. E. Lyon, "Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 631-648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 937-953 (1988).

McClain, C.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 937-953 (1988).

Mishenko, M. I.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishenko, and D. L. Travis, "Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243-246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 937-953 (1988).

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, "Estimation of the remote sensing reflectance from above surface measurements," Appl. Opt. 38, 7442-7454 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, "A numerical model for the computation of radiance distributions in natural waters with wind roughened surfaces," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1473-1483 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, C13, 31033-31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters, III, Implications of bi-directionality for the remote sensing problem," Appl. Opt. 35, 4850-4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moshary, F.

Oo, M.

O'Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 937-953 (1988).

Pak, H.

K. L. Carder, G. F. Beardsley, and H. Pak, "Particle size distribution in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5070-5077 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

Pettersson, L. H.

K. Y. Kondratyev, D. V. Pozdnyakov, and L. H. Pettersson, "Water quality remote sensing in the visible spectrum," Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 957-979 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Plass, G. N.

Pozdnyakov, D. V.

K. Y. Kondratyev, D. V. Pozdnyakov, and L. H. Pettersson, "Water quality remote sensing in the visible spectrum," Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 957-979 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richard, A.

J. P. Dupont, D. Bentley and A. Richard, "Suivi du détroit du Pas de Calais," J. Rech. Oceanogr. 6, 1-16 (1981).

Robilliard, D.

Santer, R.

Schiller, H.

H. Schiller and R. Doerffer, "Improved determination of coastal water constituent concentrations from MERIS data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 585-591 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schreurs, R.

H. Volten, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom., F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D.

S. A. Garver and D. Siegel, "Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 607-625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 937-953 (1988).

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. D. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

Travis, D. L.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishenko, and D. L. Travis, "Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243-246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L.

Vassen, W.

H. Volten, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom., F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volten, H.

H. Volten, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom., F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

Waterman, T. H.

A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, "Factors, mainly depth and wavelength, affecting the degree of underwater light polarization," J. Mar. Res. 16, 283-307 (1958).

T. H. Waterman, "Polarization of scattered sunlight in deep waters," Papers in Marie Biology and Oceanography, Deep Sea Res. 3, 426-434 (1955).

T. H. Waterman, "Polarization patterns in submarine illumination," Science 120, 927-932 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, C. G.

Zhou, J.

Appl. Opt. (13)

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: A multi- band quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 755-772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, and S. J. Hitzfelder, "Multiple scattered radiation emerging from Rayleigh and continental haze layer. 1: Radiance, polarization and neutral points," Appl. Opt. 15, 632-647 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, "Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water," Appl. Opt. 23, 4427-4439 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jin and K. Stamnes, "Radiative transfer in nonuniformly refractive layered media such as the atmosphere-ocean system," Appl. Opt. 33, 431-443 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, "Estimation of the remote sensing reflectance from above surface measurements," Appl. Opt. 38, 7442-7454 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters, III, Implications of bi-directionality for the remote sensing problem," Appl. Opt. 35, 4850-4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P. Lecomte, and P. Y. Deschamps, "Reduction of skylight reflections effects in the above water measurement of diffuse marine reflectance," Appl. Opt. 38, 3844-3856 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, "Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmopshere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 40, 2398-2416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, "Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient," Appl. Opt. 40, 5503-5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Adams, E. Aas, N. K. Hojerslev, and B. Lundgren, "Comparison of radiance and polarization observed in the Mediterranean Sea and simulated in a Monte Carlo model," Appl. Opt. 41, 2724-2729 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami and D. Robilliard, "Inversion of oceanic constituents in case I and II waters with genetic programming algorithms," Appl. Opt. 41, 6260-6274 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns and L. Travis, "Contribution of water leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral, polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters," Appl. Opt. 45, 5542-5567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gilerson, J. Zhou, M. Oo, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Retrieval of chlorophyll fluorescence from reflectance spectra through polarization discrimination: modeling and experiments," Appl. Opt. 45, 5568-5581 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deep Sea Res. (1)

T. H. Waterman, "Polarization of scattered sunlight in deep waters," Papers in Marie Biology and Oceanography, Deep Sea Res. 3, 426-434 (1955).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. I. Mishenko, and D. L. Travis, "Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243-246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

H. Schiller and R. Doerffer, "Improved determination of coastal water constituent concentrations from MERIS data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 585-591 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (2)

K. Y. Kondratyev, D. V. Pozdnyakov, and L. H. Pettersson, "Water quality remote sensing in the visible spectrum," Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 957-979 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, and P. Castaing, "A reflectance band ratio used to estimate suspended matter concentrations in coastal sediment-dominated waters," Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 5079-5085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (9)

R. Doerffer and J. Fischer, "Concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter and gelbstoff in case II waters derived from satellite coastal zone color scanner data with inverse modelling methods," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7457-7466 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 937-953 (1988).

F. E. Hoge and P. E. Lyon, "Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 631-648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver and D. Siegel, "Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 607-625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, and M. Defoin-Platel, "Sensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations and the polarization of the reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C05037, doi:10.1029/2006JC003758 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, "Importance of the polarization in the retrieval of oceanic constituents from the remote sensing reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C05026, doi:10.1029/2006JC003843 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, C13, 31033-31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Bader, "The hyperbolic distribution of particles sizes," J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822-2830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, G. F. Beardsley, and H. Pak, "Particle size distribution in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5070-5077 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. D. (1)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. D. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res. (1)

A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, "Factors, mainly depth and wavelength, affecting the degree of underwater light polarization," J. Mar. Res. 16, 283-307 (1958).

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

D. Doxaran, R. C. N. Cherukuru, and S. J. Lavender, "Surface reflection effects on upwelling radiance field measurements in turbid waters," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.  6, 690-697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Rech. Oceanogr. (2)

J. P. Dupont, D. Bentley and A. Richard, "Suivi du détroit du Pas de Calais," J. Rech. Oceanogr. 6, 1-16 (1981).

D. Bentley, "Caractéristiques physico-chimiques des eaux du Détroit du Pas de Calais," J. Rech. Oceanogr. 10, 69-71 (1985).

Limnol. Oceanogr. (3)

C. D. Mobley, "A numerical model for the computation of radiance distributions in natural waters with wind roughened surfaces," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1473-1483 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom., F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Method, UNESCO (1)

Unesco, "Determination of photosynthetic pigments in sea water," Monographs Oceanogr.Method, UNESCO I: pp. 62 (1966)

Oceanol. Acta (1)

J. M. Brylinski, Y. Lagadeuc, and V. Gentilhomme, "Le fleuve côtier: un phénomène hydrologique important en Manche Orientale. Exemple du Pas de Calais," Oceanol. Acta 11, 197-203 (1991).

Opt. Express (1)

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

M. Chami and R. Santer, "Aerosol remote sensing using ground based measurements and POLDER airborne sensor above coastal waters," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 203-221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

T. H. Waterman, "Polarization patterns in submarine illumination," Science 120, 927-932 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

A. Cunningham, P. Wood and D. McKee, "Brewster-angle measurements of sea-surface reflectance using a high resolution spectroradiometer," J Opt. A. 4, S29-S33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, "Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications," Appl. Opt. 41, 05-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly,  et al., "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892 11, 9-27 (2000).

H. C. Van de Hulst, Light scattering by small particles, (Dover, New York 1981) pp. 470.

E. P. Shettle, and R. W. Fenn, "Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effect of humidity variations on their optical properties," Environmental research papers 676, 31 (1979).

B. Lundgren, and N.K. Hojerslev, "Daylight measurements in the Sargasso Sea. Results from the "DANA" expedition January-April 1966, Rep. 14, Department of physical oceanography," University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark (1971).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Geometry of observation of the REFPOL instrument in the principal plane.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Variations in the suspended matter (organic, inorganic and total suspended matter) and Chla concentrations along the transect.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Variations of the portion of inorganic particles (i.e., IPM/SPM) along the transect.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Angular variations in the degree of polarization measured at 650 nm at 0 + for various stations along the transect : station 3, 5 and 9. Note that the half-plane where θv >0 is the specular direction and the half-plane where θv <0 is the anti-specular direction.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Angular variations in the degree of polarization measured at 0 + at 650 nm at the offshore station 9. The measurements are compared with radiative transfer simulations. The inputs of the radiative model are outlined in the text.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Angular variation of the degree of polarization (a) at 450 nm and (b) 850 nm. Radiative transfer computations are also added (see text for the description of the model inputs).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Spectral variation of the degree of polarization PB measured at the Brewster viewing angle at various stations, namely station 1, 5 and 9.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Relationship between the degree of polarization measured at the Brewster angle PB at 650 nm and (a) total suspended matter concentration SPM and (b) inorganic suspended matter concentration IPM. The best fits and the coefficient of determination r2 have been added in the figures.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a). Relationship between the inorganic particulate concentration IPM and the degree of polarization measured at Brewster angle at 650 nm PB , (b) comparison between IPM retrieved from the empirical algorithm [Eq. (2)] and the measurements.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 : Coordinates of the sampling stations

Tables Icon

Table 2. Time (in UTC), solar zenith angle θs (in degrees) and aerosol optical depth τ a measured at 550 nm during the transect on June 14 1994.

Equations (3)

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P = I I II I + I II
I P M = 1.469 Ln ( P B 44.498 ) + 5.957
RRMSE = 1 n i = 1 n ( IPM iestimated IPM imeasured IPM imeasured ) 2

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