Abstract

Energy transfer (ET) and heat generation processes in Yb3+/Tm3+-co-doped low-silica calcium-aluminosilicate glasses were investigated using thermal lens and photoluminescence measurements. Stepwise ET processes from Yb3+ to Tm3+, with excitation at 0.976µm, produced efficient emission in the mid-infrared range at around 1.8µm, with high fluorescence quantum efficiency (~0.50) and relatively low thermal loading (≤0.42). An equation was deduced for the description of the thermal lens results which provided the absolute value of the ET efficiency and optimal Tm3+ concentration that result in population of the 1.8µm Tm3+ emitting level. These results suggest that the studied co-doped system would be a promising candidate for the construction of high-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers in the mid-infrared range, which are especially important for the purpose of medical procedures.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. E. Batay, A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, A. N. Titov, M. Mond, and S. Kuck, "Efficient tunable laser operation of diode-pumped Yb,Tm:KY(WO4)2 around 1.9 μm," Appl. Phys. B 75, 457-461 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, "High-power widely tunable Tm:fibre lasers pumped by an Er,Yb co-doped fibre laser at 1.6 μm," Opt. Express 14, 6084 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. F. Wu, S. B. Jiang, T. Qua, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and N. Peyghambarian, "2 μm lasing from highly thulium doped tellurite glass microsphere," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211118 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Galzerano, F. Cornacchia, D. Parisi, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, "Widely tunable 1.94 μm Tm: BaY2F8 laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 854-856 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. L. Oliveira, S. M. Lima, T. Catunda, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, and M. L. Baesso, "High fluorescence quantum efficiency of 1.8 μm emission in Tm-doped low silica calcium aluminate glass determined by thermal lens spectrometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 359-361 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, "Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses - A review," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3582-3597 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. F. de Sousa, L. F. C. Zonetti, M. J. V. Bell, J. A. Sampaio, L. A. O. Nunes, M. L. Baesso, A. C. Bento, and L. C. M. Miranda, "On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+- and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 908-910 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. F. De Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, and M. L. Baesso, "Laser emission at 1077 nm in Nd3+-doped calcium aluminosilicate glass," Appl. Phys. B 77, 59-63 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. J. da Silva, M. T. de Araujo, E. A. Gouveia, and A. S. Gouveia-Neto, "Fourfold output power enhancement and threshold reduction through thermal effects in an Er3+/Yb3+-codoped optical fiber laser excited at 1.064 μm," Opt. Lett. 24, 1287-1289 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Scheps, "Upconversion laser processes," Prog. Quantum Electron. 20, 271-358 (1996), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Jeong, P. Dupriez, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, D. Y. Shen, W. A. Clarkson, and S. D. Jackson, "Power scaling of 2 μm ytterbium-sensitized thulium-doped silica fibre laser diode-pumped at 975 nm," Electron. Lett. 41, 173-174 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, "Normalized lifetimes thermal lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum efficiency and thermo-optical coefficients: Application to Nd3+-doped glasses," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and M. J. V. Bell, "Thermal lens study of the OH- influence on the fluorescence efficiency of Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071911 (2005), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, A. A. Andrade, J. D. Myers, and M. J. Myers, "Upconversion effect on fluorescence quantum efficiency and heat generation in Nd3+-doped materials," Opt. Express 13, 2040-2046 (2005), and references therein.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. A. Sampaio, S. Gama, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, "Fluorescence quantum efficiency of Er3+ in low silica calcium aluminate glasses determined by mode-mismatched thermal lens spectrometry," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1594-1602 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, R. G. Smart, and A. C. Tropper, "Efficient and Tunable Operation of a Tm-Doped Fiber Laser," Opt. Commun. 75, 283-286 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (3)

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, "Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses - A review," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3582-3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, "Normalized lifetimes thermal lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum efficiency and thermo-optical coefficients: Application to Nd3+-doped glasses," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, "High-power widely tunable Tm:fibre lasers pumped by an Er,Yb co-doped fibre laser at 1.6 μm," Opt. Express 14, 6084 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, A. A. Andrade, J. D. Myers, and M. J. Myers, "Upconversion effect on fluorescence quantum efficiency and heat generation in Nd3+-doped materials," Opt. Express 13, 2040-2046 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Galzerano, F. Cornacchia, D. Parisi, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, "Widely tunable 1.94 μm Tm: BaY2F8 laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 854-856 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and M. J. V. Bell, "Thermal lens study of the OH- influence on the fluorescence efficiency of Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071911 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sampaio, S. Gama, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, "Fluorescence quantum efficiency of Er3+ in low silica calcium aluminate glasses determined by mode-mismatched thermal lens spectrometry," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1594-1602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Wu, S. B. Jiang, T. Qua, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and N. Peyghambarian, "2 μm lasing from highly thulium doped tellurite glass microsphere," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, P. Dupriez, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, D. Y. Shen, W. A. Clarkson, and S. D. Jackson, "Power scaling of 2 μm ytterbium-sensitized thulium-doped silica fibre laser diode-pumped at 975 nm," Electron. Lett. 41, 173-174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. L. Oliveira, S. M. Lima, T. Catunda, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, and M. L. Baesso, "High fluorescence quantum efficiency of 1.8 μm emission in Tm-doped low silica calcium aluminate glass determined by thermal lens spectrometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 359-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. F. De Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, and M. L. Baesso, "Laser emission at 1077 nm in Nd3+-doped calcium aluminosilicate glass," Appl. Phys. B 77, 59-63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

L. E. Batay, A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, A. N. Titov, M. Mond, and S. Kuck, "Efficient tunable laser operation of diode-pumped Yb,Tm:KY(WO4)2 around 1.9 μm," Appl. Phys. B 75, 457-461 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

D. F. de Sousa, L. F. C. Zonetti, M. J. V. Bell, J. A. Sampaio, L. A. O. Nunes, M. L. Baesso, A. C. Bento, and L. C. M. Miranda, "On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+- and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 908-910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. J. da Silva, M. T. de Araujo, E. A. Gouveia, and A. S. Gouveia-Neto, "Fourfold output power enhancement and threshold reduction through thermal effects in an Er3+/Yb3+-codoped optical fiber laser excited at 1.064 μm," Opt. Lett. 24, 1287-1289 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. Scheps, "Upconversion laser processes," Prog. Quantum Electron. 20, 271-358 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, R. G. Smart, and A. C. Tropper, "Efficient and Tunable Operation of a Tm-Doped Fiber Laser," Opt. Commun. 75, 283-286 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Andrade, A. A.

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, "Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses - A review," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3582-3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, A. A. Andrade, J. D. Myers, and M. J. Myers, "Upconversion effect on fluorescence quantum efficiency and heat generation in Nd3+-doped materials," Opt. Express 13, 2040-2046 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baesso, M. L.

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, "Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses - A review," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3582-3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sampaio, S. Gama, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, "Fluorescence quantum efficiency of Er3+ in low silica calcium aluminate glasses determined by mode-mismatched thermal lens spectrometry," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1594-1602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Oliveira, S. M. Lima, T. Catunda, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, and M. L. Baesso, "High fluorescence quantum efficiency of 1.8 μm emission in Tm-doped low silica calcium aluminate glass determined by thermal lens spectrometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 359-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. F. De Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, and M. L. Baesso, "Laser emission at 1077 nm in Nd3+-doped calcium aluminosilicate glass," Appl. Phys. B 77, 59-63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. F. de Sousa, L. F. C. Zonetti, M. J. V. Bell, J. A. Sampaio, L. A. O. Nunes, M. L. Baesso, A. C. Bento, and L. C. M. Miranda, "On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+- and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 908-910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Batay, L. E.

L. E. Batay, A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, A. N. Titov, M. Mond, and S. Kuck, "Efficient tunable laser operation of diode-pumped Yb,Tm:KY(WO4)2 around 1.9 μm," Appl. Phys. B 75, 457-461 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bell, M. J. V.

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and M. J. V. Bell, "Thermal lens study of the OH- influence on the fluorescence efficiency of Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071911 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

D. F. de Sousa, L. F. C. Zonetti, M. J. V. Bell, J. A. Sampaio, L. A. O. Nunes, M. L. Baesso, A. C. Bento, and L. C. M. Miranda, "On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+- and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 908-910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bento, A. C.

S. L. Oliveira, S. M. Lima, T. Catunda, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, and M. L. Baesso, "High fluorescence quantum efficiency of 1.8 μm emission in Tm-doped low silica calcium aluminate glass determined by thermal lens spectrometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 359-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. F. de Sousa, L. F. C. Zonetti, M. J. V. Bell, J. A. Sampaio, L. A. O. Nunes, M. L. Baesso, A. C. Bento, and L. C. M. Miranda, "On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+- and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 908-910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Catunda, T.

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, "Normalized lifetimes thermal lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum efficiency and thermo-optical coefficients: Application to Nd3+-doped glasses," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, "Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses - A review," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3582-3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, A. A. Andrade, J. D. Myers, and M. J. Myers, "Upconversion effect on fluorescence quantum efficiency and heat generation in Nd3+-doped materials," Opt. Express 13, 2040-2046 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Sampaio, S. Gama, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, "Fluorescence quantum efficiency of Er3+ in low silica calcium aluminate glasses determined by mode-mismatched thermal lens spectrometry," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1594-1602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and M. J. V. Bell, "Thermal lens study of the OH- influence on the fluorescence efficiency of Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071911 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Oliveira, S. M. Lima, T. Catunda, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, and M. L. Baesso, "High fluorescence quantum efficiency of 1.8 μm emission in Tm-doped low silica calcium aluminate glass determined by thermal lens spectrometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 359-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, "High-power widely tunable Tm:fibre lasers pumped by an Er,Yb co-doped fibre laser at 1.6 μm," Opt. Express 14, 6084 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jeong, P. Dupriez, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, D. Y. Shen, W. A. Clarkson, and S. D. Jackson, "Power scaling of 2 μm ytterbium-sensitized thulium-doped silica fibre laser diode-pumped at 975 nm," Electron. Lett. 41, 173-174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cornacchia, F.

da Silva, C. J.

de Araujo, M. T.

De Sousa, D. F.

D. F. De Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, and M. L. Baesso, "Laser emission at 1077 nm in Nd3+-doped calcium aluminosilicate glass," Appl. Phys. B 77, 59-63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. F. de Sousa, L. F. C. Zonetti, M. J. V. Bell, J. A. Sampaio, L. A. O. Nunes, M. L. Baesso, A. C. Bento, and L. C. M. Miranda, "On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+- and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 908-910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Demidovich, A. A.

L. E. Batay, A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, A. N. Titov, M. Mond, and S. Kuck, "Efficient tunable laser operation of diode-pumped Yb,Tm:KY(WO4)2 around 1.9 μm," Appl. Phys. B 75, 457-461 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dupriez, P.

Y. Jeong, P. Dupriez, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, D. Y. Shen, W. A. Clarkson, and S. D. Jackson, "Power scaling of 2 μm ytterbium-sensitized thulium-doped silica fibre laser diode-pumped at 975 nm," Electron. Lett. 41, 173-174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Galzerano, G.

Gama, S.

J. A. Sampaio, S. Gama, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, "Fluorescence quantum efficiency of Er3+ in low silica calcium aluminate glasses determined by mode-mismatched thermal lens spectrometry," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1594-1602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gouveia, E. A.

Gouveia-Neto, A. S.

Hanna, D. C.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, R. G. Smart, and A. C. Tropper, "Efficient and Tunable Operation of a Tm-Doped Fiber Laser," Opt. Commun. 75, 283-286 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jacinto, C.

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, "Normalized lifetimes thermal lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum efficiency and thermo-optical coefficients: Application to Nd3+-doped glasses," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, "Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses - A review," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3582-3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, A. A. Andrade, J. D. Myers, and M. J. Myers, "Upconversion effect on fluorescence quantum efficiency and heat generation in Nd3+-doped materials," Opt. Express 13, 2040-2046 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and M. J. V. Bell, "Thermal lens study of the OH- influence on the fluorescence efficiency of Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071911 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

Y. Jeong, P. Dupriez, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, D. Y. Shen, W. A. Clarkson, and S. D. Jackson, "Power scaling of 2 μm ytterbium-sensitized thulium-doped silica fibre laser diode-pumped at 975 nm," Electron. Lett. 41, 173-174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y.

Y. Jeong, P. Dupriez, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, D. Y. Shen, W. A. Clarkson, and S. D. Jackson, "Power scaling of 2 μm ytterbium-sensitized thulium-doped silica fibre laser diode-pumped at 975 nm," Electron. Lett. 41, 173-174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S. B.

J. F. Wu, S. B. Jiang, T. Qua, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and N. Peyghambarian, "2 μm lasing from highly thulium doped tellurite glass microsphere," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuck, S.

L. E. Batay, A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, A. N. Titov, M. Mond, and S. Kuck, "Efficient tunable laser operation of diode-pumped Yb,Tm:KY(WO4)2 around 1.9 μm," Appl. Phys. B 75, 457-461 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

J. F. Wu, S. B. Jiang, T. Qua, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and N. Peyghambarian, "2 μm lasing from highly thulium doped tellurite glass microsphere," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmin, A. N.

L. E. Batay, A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, A. N. Titov, M. Mond, and S. Kuck, "Efficient tunable laser operation of diode-pumped Yb,Tm:KY(WO4)2 around 1.9 μm," Appl. Phys. B 75, 457-461 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lima, S. M.

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, "Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses - A review," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3582-3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Oliveira, S. M. Lima, T. Catunda, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, and M. L. Baesso, "High fluorescence quantum efficiency of 1.8 μm emission in Tm-doped low silica calcium aluminate glass determined by thermal lens spectrometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 359-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Messias, D. N.

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, "Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses - A review," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3582-3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miranda, L. C. M.

D. F. de Sousa, L. F. C. Zonetti, M. J. V. Bell, J. A. Sampaio, L. A. O. Nunes, M. L. Baesso, A. C. Bento, and L. C. M. Miranda, "On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+- and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 908-910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mond, M.

L. E. Batay, A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, A. N. Titov, M. Mond, and S. Kuck, "Efficient tunable laser operation of diode-pumped Yb,Tm:KY(WO4)2 around 1.9 μm," Appl. Phys. B 75, 457-461 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Myers, J. D.

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, "Normalized lifetimes thermal lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum efficiency and thermo-optical coefficients: Application to Nd3+-doped glasses," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, A. A. Andrade, J. D. Myers, and M. J. Myers, "Upconversion effect on fluorescence quantum efficiency and heat generation in Nd3+-doped materials," Opt. Express 13, 2040-2046 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myers, M. J.

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, "Normalized lifetimes thermal lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum efficiency and thermo-optical coefficients: Application to Nd3+-doped glasses," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, A. A. Andrade, J. D. Myers, and M. J. Myers, "Upconversion effect on fluorescence quantum efficiency and heat generation in Nd3+-doped materials," Opt. Express 13, 2040-2046 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, J.

Y. Jeong, P. Dupriez, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, D. Y. Shen, W. A. Clarkson, and S. D. Jackson, "Power scaling of 2 μm ytterbium-sensitized thulium-doped silica fibre laser diode-pumped at 975 nm," Electron. Lett. 41, 173-174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nunes, L. A. O.

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, "Normalized lifetimes thermal lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum efficiency and thermo-optical coefficients: Application to Nd3+-doped glasses," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and M. J. V. Bell, "Thermal lens study of the OH- influence on the fluorescence efficiency of Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071911 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Oliveira, S. M. Lima, T. Catunda, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, and M. L. Baesso, "High fluorescence quantum efficiency of 1.8 μm emission in Tm-doped low silica calcium aluminate glass determined by thermal lens spectrometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 359-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. F. De Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, and M. L. Baesso, "Laser emission at 1077 nm in Nd3+-doped calcium aluminosilicate glass," Appl. Phys. B 77, 59-63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. F. de Sousa, L. F. C. Zonetti, M. J. V. Bell, J. A. Sampaio, L. A. O. Nunes, M. L. Baesso, A. C. Bento, and L. C. M. Miranda, "On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+- and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 908-910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, S. L.

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, "Normalized lifetimes thermal lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum efficiency and thermo-optical coefficients: Application to Nd3+-doped glasses," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and M. J. V. Bell, "Thermal lens study of the OH- influence on the fluorescence efficiency of Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071911 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, A. A. Andrade, J. D. Myers, and M. J. Myers, "Upconversion effect on fluorescence quantum efficiency and heat generation in Nd3+-doped materials," Opt. Express 13, 2040-2046 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Oliveira, S. M. Lima, T. Catunda, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, and M. L. Baesso, "High fluorescence quantum efficiency of 1.8 μm emission in Tm-doped low silica calcium aluminate glass determined by thermal lens spectrometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 359-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parisi, D.

Percival, R. M.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, R. G. Smart, and A. C. Tropper, "Efficient and Tunable Operation of a Tm-Doped Fiber Laser," Opt. Commun. 75, 283-286 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

J. F. Wu, S. B. Jiang, T. Qua, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and N. Peyghambarian, "2 μm lasing from highly thulium doped tellurite glass microsphere," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qua, T.

J. F. Wu, S. B. Jiang, T. Qua, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and N. Peyghambarian, "2 μm lasing from highly thulium doped tellurite glass microsphere," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rohling, J. H.

S. L. Oliveira, S. M. Lima, T. Catunda, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, and M. L. Baesso, "High fluorescence quantum efficiency of 1.8 μm emission in Tm-doped low silica calcium aluminate glass determined by thermal lens spectrometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 359-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. F. De Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, and M. L. Baesso, "Laser emission at 1077 nm in Nd3+-doped calcium aluminosilicate glass," Appl. Phys. B 77, 59-63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J. K.

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, "High-power widely tunable Tm:fibre lasers pumped by an Er,Yb co-doped fibre laser at 1.6 μm," Opt. Express 14, 6084 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jeong, P. Dupriez, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, D. Y. Shen, W. A. Clarkson, and S. D. Jackson, "Power scaling of 2 μm ytterbium-sensitized thulium-doped silica fibre laser diode-pumped at 975 nm," Electron. Lett. 41, 173-174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sampaio, J. A.

J. A. Sampaio, S. Gama, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, "Fluorescence quantum efficiency of Er3+ in low silica calcium aluminate glasses determined by mode-mismatched thermal lens spectrometry," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1594-1602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. F. de Sousa, L. F. C. Zonetti, M. J. V. Bell, J. A. Sampaio, L. A. O. Nunes, M. L. Baesso, A. C. Bento, and L. C. M. Miranda, "On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+- and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 908-910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scheps, R.

R. Scheps, "Upconversion laser processes," Prog. Quantum Electron. 20, 271-358 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Y.

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, "High-power widely tunable Tm:fibre lasers pumped by an Er,Yb co-doped fibre laser at 1.6 μm," Opt. Express 14, 6084 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jeong, P. Dupriez, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, D. Y. Shen, W. A. Clarkson, and S. D. Jackson, "Power scaling of 2 μm ytterbium-sensitized thulium-doped silica fibre laser diode-pumped at 975 nm," Electron. Lett. 41, 173-174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smart, R. G.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, R. G. Smart, and A. C. Tropper, "Efficient and Tunable Operation of a Tm-Doped Fiber Laser," Opt. Commun. 75, 283-286 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Titov, A. N.

L. E. Batay, A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, A. N. Titov, M. Mond, and S. Kuck, "Efficient tunable laser operation of diode-pumped Yb,Tm:KY(WO4)2 around 1.9 μm," Appl. Phys. B 75, 457-461 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Toncelli, A.

Tonelli, M.

Tropper, A. C.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, R. G. Smart, and A. C. Tropper, "Efficient and Tunable Operation of a Tm-Doped Fiber Laser," Opt. Commun. 75, 283-286 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. F.

J. F. Wu, S. B. Jiang, T. Qua, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and N. Peyghambarian, "2 μm lasing from highly thulium doped tellurite glass microsphere," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zonetti, L. F. C.

D. F. de Sousa, L. F. C. Zonetti, M. J. V. Bell, J. A. Sampaio, L. A. O. Nunes, M. L. Baesso, A. C. Bento, and L. C. M. Miranda, "On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+- and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 908-910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

L. E. Batay, A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, A. N. Titov, M. Mond, and S. Kuck, "Efficient tunable laser operation of diode-pumped Yb,Tm:KY(WO4)2 around 1.9 μm," Appl. Phys. B 75, 457-461 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. F. De Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, and M. L. Baesso, "Laser emission at 1077 nm in Nd3+-doped calcium aluminosilicate glass," Appl. Phys. B 77, 59-63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. F. Wu, S. B. Jiang, T. Qua, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and N. Peyghambarian, "2 μm lasing from highly thulium doped tellurite glass microsphere," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Oliveira, S. M. Lima, T. Catunda, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, and M. L. Baesso, "High fluorescence quantum efficiency of 1.8 μm emission in Tm-doped low silica calcium aluminate glass determined by thermal lens spectrometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 359-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and M. J. V. Bell, "Thermal lens study of the OH- influence on the fluorescence efficiency of Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071911 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

D. F. de Sousa, L. F. C. Zonetti, M. J. V. Bell, J. A. Sampaio, L. A. O. Nunes, M. L. Baesso, A. C. Bento, and L. C. M. Miranda, "On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+- and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 908-910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Jeong, P. Dupriez, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, D. Y. Shen, W. A. Clarkson, and S. D. Jackson, "Power scaling of 2 μm ytterbium-sensitized thulium-doped silica fibre laser diode-pumped at 975 nm," Electron. Lett. 41, 173-174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, "Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses - A review," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3582-3597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sampaio, S. Gama, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, "Fluorescence quantum efficiency of Er3+ in low silica calcium aluminate glasses determined by mode-mismatched thermal lens spectrometry," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1594-1602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, R. G. Smart, and A. C. Tropper, "Efficient and Tunable Operation of a Tm-Doped Fiber Laser," Opt. Commun. 75, 283-286 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, "Normalized lifetimes thermal lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum efficiency and thermo-optical coefficients: Application to Nd3+-doped glasses," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Scheps, "Upconversion laser processes," Prog. Quantum Electron. 20, 271-358 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Photoluminescence spectra of the co-doped LSCAS glasses with 2.0 wt. % Yb2O3 and 0.5 wt. % (solid line) or 2.5 wt. % (dotted line) Tm2O3. Inset in (a): Integrated area of the 1.8 µm emission versus Tm2O3 concentration. (The line is a guide for the reader). (b). Simplified energy level diagram and typical optical absorption spectrum for Yb3+/Tm3+-codoped LSCAS glass under excitation at 0.976 µm. The excitation and emission wavelengths (λij) and relaxation processes are also indicated.

Fig. 2.(a)
Fig. 2.(a)

Experimental (squares) and theoretical (filled circles + line) thermal loading (φ) and Θ=-θ/Pabs=13φ versus Tm2O3 concentration. (b) First step energy transfer quantum efficiency (ηET1) versus Tm2O3 concentration. λexc=0.976 µm. The lines are guides for the reader.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Experimental and theoretical (using the Judd-Ofelt theory) fluorescence lifetime values.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Θ = θ P abs = ( 1 λ p K ds dT ) φ
n ˙ e = R p n g n e τ e
n ˙ 1 = k 1 n e k 2 n e + 2 n 2 k CR + W 21 mp n 2 n 1 τ 1
n ˙ 2 = k 2 n e n 2 τ 2
Q = R p n g ( E exc E eg ) + k 1 n e ( E eg E 1 o ) + k 2 n e ( E eg E 21 ) + W 21 mp E 21 n 2 + W 1 o mp E 1 o n 1 + W eg mg E eg n e + k CR n 2 ( E 21 E 1 o )
φ = ( 1 η e λ exc λ eg ) λ exc λ 10 { η ET 1 [ ( 1 η 1 ) ( η CR η 2 ) + η 1 ] + η ET ( 1 η 1 ) ( η 2 η CR ) + η CR ( η ET η ET 1 ) } λ exc λ 21 η 2 ( η ET η ET 1 )

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