Abstract

Chalcogenide glasses offer large ultrafast third-order nonlinearities, low two-photon absorption and the absence of free carrier absorption in a photosensitive medium. This unique combination of properties is nearly ideal for all-optical signal processing devices. In this paper we review the key properties of these materials, outline progress in the field and focus on several recent highlights: high quality gratings, signal regeneration, pulse compression and wavelength conversion.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006

V. G. Ta'eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. B. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. L. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta'eed, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, "All optical wavelength conversion via cross phase modulation in chalcogenide glass rib waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 11242-11247 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Ta'eed, L. B. Fu, M. Pelusi, M. Rochette, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Error free all optical wavelength conversion in highly nonlinear As-Se chalcogenide glass fiber," Opt. Express 14, 10371-10376 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Abedin, "Single-frequency Brillouin lasing using singlemode As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber," Opt. Express 14, 4037-4042 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Fu, A. Fuerbach, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Efficient optical pulse compression using chalcogenide single-mode fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Song, K. S. Abedin, K. Hotate, M. G. Herraez, and L. Thevenaz, "Highly efficient Brillouin slow and fast light using As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber," Opt. Express 14, 5860-5865 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Brilland, F. Smektala, G. Renversez, T. Chartier, J. Troles, T. N. Nguyen, N. Traynor, and A. Monteville, "Fabrication of complex structures of Holey Fibers in chalcogenide glass," Optics Express 14, 1280-1285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357-4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, M. Vlcek, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, "Spin-coated As33S67-xSex thin films: the effect of annealing on structure and optical properties," J. Non-Cryst Solids 352, 1563-1566 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Shokooh-Saremi, V. G. Ta'eed, N. J. Baker, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, Y. L. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "High-performance Bragg gratings in chalcogenide rib waveguides written with a modified Sagnac interferometer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1323-1331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Finsterbusch, N. Baker, V. G. Ta'eed, B. J. Eggleton, D. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davis, "Long-period gratings in chalcogenide (As2S3) rib waveguides," Electronics Letters 42, 1094-1095 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Pudo, E. C. Magi, and B. J. Eggleton, "Long-period gratings in chalcogenide fibers," Opt. Express 14, 3763-3766 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. M. Littler, L. B. Fu, E. C. Magi, D. Pudo, and B. J. Eggleton, "Widely tunable, acousto-optic resonances in Chalcogenide As2Se3 fiber," Opt. Express 14, 8088-8095 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Baker, H. W. Lee, I. C. Littler, C. M. d. Sterke, B. J. Eggleton, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, "Sampled Bragg gratings in chalcogenide (As2S3) rib-waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 9451-9459 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Nguyen, K. Finsterbusch, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion in nonlinear figure of merit of As2Se3 chalcogenide fibre," Electron. Lett. 42, 571-572 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Rochette, L. B. Fu, V. Ta'eed, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "2R optical regeneration: An all-optical solution for BER improvement," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 736-744 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. R. E. Lamont, L. B. Fu, M. Rochette, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "2R optical regenerator in AS(2)Se(3) chalcogenide fiber characterized by a frequency-resolved optical gating analysis," Appl. Opt. 45, 7904-7907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kulkarni, C. Xia, D. J. Lee, M. Kumar, A. Kuditcher, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, B. G. Aitken, S. C. Currie, J. E. McCarthy, M. L. Powley, and D. A. Nolan, "Third order cascaded Raman wavelength shifting in chalcogenide fibers and determination of Raman gain coefficient," Opt. Express 14, 7924-7930 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersionless slow light using gap solitons," Nature Physics 2, 775-780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Grillet, C. Smith, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davis, E. C. Magi, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Efficient coupling to chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguides via silica optical fiber nanowires," Opt. Express 14, 1070-1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1146-1155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Ruan, W. T. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, "Fabrication and characterization of low loss rib chalcogenide waveguides made by dry etching," Opt. Express 12, 5140-5145 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Gonzalez-Leal, R. Prieto-Alcon, M. Stuchlik, M. Vlcek, S. R. Elliott, and E. Marquez, "Determination of the surface roughness and refractive index of amorphous As40S60 films deposited by spin coating," Opt. Mater. 27, 147-154 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Mairaj, R. J. Curry, and D. W. Hewak, "Chalcogenide glass thin films through inverted deposition and high velocity spinning," Electron. Lett. 40, 421-422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Ho, and R. Vallee, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Vallee, S. Frederick, K. Asatryan, M. Fischer, and T. Galstian, "Real-time observation of Bragg grating formation in As2S3 chalcogenide ridge waveguides," Opt. Commun. 230, 301-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Ponnampalam, R. G. DeCorby, H. T. Nguyen, P. K. Dwivedi, C. J. Haugen, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Small core rib waveguides with embedded gratings in As2Se3 glass," Opt. Express 12, 6270-6277 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Liang, and H. K. Tsang, "Nonlinear Absorption and Raman Scattering in Silicon-on-Insulator Optical Waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1149-1153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogusu, H. P. Li, and M. Kitao, "Brillouin-gain coefficients of chalcogenide glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1302-1304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Wagner, T. Kohoutek, M. Vlcek, M. Vlcek, M. Munzar, and M. Frumar, "Spin-coated Ag-x(As0.33S0.67)(100-x) films: preparation and structure," J. Non-Cryst Solids 326, 165-169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Zakery, and S. R. Elliott, "Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review," J. Non-Cryst Solids 330, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, "Development and applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL," J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 4, 665-678 (2002).

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers," Comptes Rendus Chimie 5, 873-883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R. B. Charters, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications," Appl. Surf. Sci. 197, 481-485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. M. Song, and S. Y. Choi, "Spin-coated Ge-Se-Te-Si3N4-CdS chalconitride thin film," J. Non-Cryst Solids 291, 50-55 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, "Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 251-274 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, Y. D. West, D. W. Hewak, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Chalcogenide holey fibres," Electron. Lett. 36, 1998-2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Olsson, P. Ohlen, L. Rau, and D. J. Blumenthal, "A simple and robust 40-Gb/s wavelength converter using fiber cross-phase modulation and optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 846-848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. LaRochelle, P.-Y. Cortes, H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, and H. B. Jaafar, "Writing and applications of fiber Bragg grating arrays," SPIE Proceedings 4087, 140-149 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Lenz, J. Zimmermann, T. Katsufuji, M. E. Lines, H. Y. Hwang, S. Spalter, R. E. Slusher, S. W. Cheong, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Large Kerr effect in bulk Se-based chalcogenide glasses," Opt. Lett. 25, 254-256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

N. Sugimoto, H. Kanbara, S. Fujiwara, K. Tanaka, Y. Shimizugawa, and K. Hirao, "Third-order optical nonlinearities and their ultrafast response in Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1904-1908 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Saliminia, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstyan, S. LaRochelle, and K. Richardson, "First- and second-order Bragg gratings in single-mode planar waveguides of chalcogenide glasses," Journal of Lightwave Technology 17, 837-842 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

P. Y. Cortes, F. Ouellette, and S. LaRochelle, "Intrinsic apodisation of Bragg gratings written using UV-pulse interferometry," Electron. Lett. 34, 396-397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Frohlich, and R. Kashyap, "Two methods of apodisation of fibre-Bragg-gratings," Opt. Commun. 157, 273-281 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Hubner, D. Zauner, and M. Kristensen, "Strong sampled Bragg gratings for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 552-554 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Asobe, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glass fibers and their application to all-optical switching," Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 142-148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Development of chalcogenide glass fiber optics at NRL," J. Non-Cryst Solids 213, 63-67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, "Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses," Journal of Lightwave Technology 15, 1343-1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, "Fabrication of Bragg grating in chalcogenide glass fibre using the transverse holographic method," Electron. Lett. 32, 1611-1613 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, "Low power all-optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop mirror using chalcogenide glass fibre," Electron. Lett. 32, 1396-1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. deSterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, "Bragg grating solitons," Physical Review Letters 76, 1627-1630 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

K. Tanaka, N. Toyosawa, and H. Hisakuni, "Photoinduced Bragg Gratings in As2s3 Optical Fibers," Opt. Lett. 20, 1976-1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Seddon, "Chalcogenide Glasses - a Review of Their Preparation, Properties and Applications," J. Non-Cryst Solids 184, 44-50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long Periodic Superstructure Bragg Gratings in Optical Fibers," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, "Pulsed-Laser Deposition of Ga-La-S Chalcogenide Glass Thin-Film Optical Wave-Guides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1601-1603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, and D. C. Johnson, "Photosensitivity in Optical Fibers," Annual Review of Materials Science 23, 125-157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, H. Itoh, T. Miyazawa, and T. Kanamori, "Efficient and Ultrafast All-Optical Switching Using High Delta-N, Small Core Chalcogenide Glass-Fiber," Electron. Lett. 29, 1966-1968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, "Nonlinear Spectroscopy near Half-Gap in Bulk and Quantum-Well Gaas/Algaas Wave-Guides," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927-1935 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

E. M. Vogel, M. J. Weber, and D. M. Krol, "Nonlinear Optical Phenomena in Glass," Physics and Chemistry of Glasses 32, 231-254 (1991).

M. E. Lines, "Oxide Glasses for Fast Photonic Switching - a Comparative-Study," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 6876-6884 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

1986

S. R. Elliott, "A Unified Model for Reversible Photostructural Effects in Chalcogenide Glasses," J. Non-Cryst Solids 81, 71-98 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. A. Savage, "Optical-Properties of Chalcogenide Glasses," J. Non-Cryst Solids 47, 101-116 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chern, and I. Lauks, "Spin-Coated Amorphous-Chalcogenide Films," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 6979-6982 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1970

A. R. Hilton, "Optical properties of chalcogenide glass," J. Non-Cryst Solids 2, 28-39 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Abedin, K. S.

Aggarwal, I. D.

R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1146-1155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, "Development and applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL," J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 4, 665-678 (2002).

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers," Comptes Rendus Chimie 5, 873-883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, "Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 251-274 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Lenz, J. Zimmermann, T. Katsufuji, M. E. Lines, H. Y. Hwang, S. Spalter, R. E. Slusher, S. W. Cheong, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Large Kerr effect in bulk Se-based chalcogenide glasses," Opt. Lett. 25, 254-256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Development of chalcogenide glass fiber optics at NRL," J. Non-Cryst Solids 213, 63-67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aitken, B. G.

Andrejco, M. J.

Asatryan, K.

R. Vallee, S. Frederick, K. Asatryan, M. Fischer, and T. Galstian, "Real-time observation of Bragg grating formation in As2S3 chalcogenide ridge waveguides," Opt. Commun. 230, 301-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glass fibers and their application to all-optical switching," Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 142-148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, "Low power all-optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop mirror using chalcogenide glass fibre," Electron. Lett. 32, 1396-1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, "Fabrication of Bragg grating in chalcogenide glass fibre using the transverse holographic method," Electron. Lett. 32, 1611-1613 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, H. Itoh, T. Miyazawa, and T. Kanamori, "Efficient and Ultrafast All-Optical Switching Using High Delta-N, Small Core Chalcogenide Glass-Fiber," Electron. Lett. 29, 1966-1968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baker, N.

K. Finsterbusch, N. Baker, V. G. Ta'eed, B. J. Eggleton, D. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davis, "Long-period gratings in chalcogenide (As2S3) rib waveguides," Electronics Letters 42, 1094-1095 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baker, N. J.

Bilodeau, F.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, and D. C. Johnson, "Photosensitivity in Optical Fibers," Annual Review of Materials Science 23, 125-157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, D. J.

B. E. Olsson, P. Ohlen, L. Rau, and D. J. Blumenthal, "A simple and robust 40-Gb/s wavelength converter using fiber cross-phase modulation and optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 846-848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brilland, L.

L. Brilland, F. Smektala, G. Renversez, T. Chartier, J. Troles, T. N. Nguyen, N. Traynor, and A. Monteville, "Fabrication of complex structures of Holey Fibers in chalcogenide glass," Optics Express 14, 1280-1285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broderick, N. G. R.

T. M. Monro, Y. D. West, D. W. Hewak, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Chalcogenide holey fibres," Electron. Lett. 36, 1998-2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Busse, L. E.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, "Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 251-274 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Charters, R. B.

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R. B. Charters, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications," Appl. Surf. Sci. 197, 481-485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, T.

L. Brilland, F. Smektala, G. Renversez, T. Chartier, J. Troles, T. N. Nguyen, N. Traynor, and A. Monteville, "Fabrication of complex structures of Holey Fibers in chalcogenide glass," Optics Express 14, 1280-1285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, S. W.

Chern, G. C.

G. C. Chern, and I. Lauks, "Spin-Coated Amorphous-Chalcogenide Films," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 6979-6982 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D.

K. Finsterbusch, N. Baker, V. G. Ta'eed, B. J. Eggleton, D. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davis, "Long-period gratings in chalcogenide (As2S3) rib waveguides," Electronics Letters 42, 1094-1095 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. Y.

Choi, S. Y.

S. M. Song, and S. Y. Choi, "Spin-coated Ge-Se-Te-Si3N4-CdS chalconitride thin film," J. Non-Cryst Solids 291, 50-55 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clement, T. J.

R. G. DeCorby, N. Ponnampalam, M. M. Pai, H. T. Nguyen, P. K. Dwivedi, T. J. Clement, C. J. Haugen, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "High index contrast waveguides in chalcogenide glass and polymer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 539-546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

Cole, B. C.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, "Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 251-274 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cortes, P. Y.

P. Y. Cortes, F. Ouellette, and S. LaRochelle, "Intrinsic apodisation of Bragg gratings written using UV-pulse interferometry," Electron. Lett. 34, 396-397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cortes, P.-Y.

S. LaRochelle, P.-Y. Cortes, H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, and H. B. Jaafar, "Writing and applications of fiber Bragg grating arrays," SPIE Proceedings 4087, 140-149 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Currie, S. C.

Curry, R. J.

A. K. Mairaj, R. J. Curry, and D. W. Hewak, "Chalcogenide glass thin films through inverted deposition and high velocity spinning," Electron. Lett. 40, 421-422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Day, I. E.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersionless slow light using gap solitons," Nature Physics 2, 775-780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DeCorby, R. G.

R. G. DeCorby, N. Ponnampalam, M. M. Pai, H. T. Nguyen, P. K. Dwivedi, T. J. Clement, C. J. Haugen, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "High index contrast waveguides in chalcogenide glass and polymer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 539-546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Ponnampalam, R. G. DeCorby, H. T. Nguyen, P. K. Dwivedi, C. J. Haugen, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Small core rib waveguides with embedded gratings in As2Se3 glass," Opt. Express 12, 6270-6277 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delong, K. W.

Deol, R. S.

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, "Pulsed-Laser Deposition of Ga-La-S Chalcogenide Glass Thin-Film Optical Wave-Guides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1601-1603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

deSterke, C. M.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. deSterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, "Bragg grating solitons," Physical Review Letters 76, 1627-1630 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drake, J.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, "Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses," Journal of Lightwave Technology 15, 1343-1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dwivedi, P. K.

R. G. DeCorby, N. Ponnampalam, M. M. Pai, H. T. Nguyen, P. K. Dwivedi, T. J. Clement, C. J. Haugen, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "High index contrast waveguides in chalcogenide glass and polymer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 539-546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Ponnampalam, R. G. DeCorby, H. T. Nguyen, P. K. Dwivedi, C. J. Haugen, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Small core rib waveguides with embedded gratings in As2Se3 glass," Opt. Express 12, 6270-6277 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eason, R. W.

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, "Pulsed-Laser Deposition of Ga-La-S Chalcogenide Glass Thin-Film Optical Wave-Guides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1601-1603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

V. G. Ta'eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. B. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. L. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).
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L. B. Fu, M. Rochette, V. G. Ta'eed, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Investigation of self-phase modulation based optical regeneration in single mode As2Se3 chalcogenide glass fiber," Opt. Express 13, 7637-7644 (2005).
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K. Finsterbusch, N. Baker, V. G. Ta'eed, B. J. Eggleton, D. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davis, "Long-period gratings in chalcogenide (As2S3) rib waveguides," Electronics Letters 42, 1094-1095 (2006).
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T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, M. Vlcek, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, "Spin-coated As33S67-xSex thin films: the effect of annealing on structure and optical properties," J. Non-Cryst Solids 352, 1563-1566 (2006).
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V. G. Ta'eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. B. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. L. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).
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M. Rochette, L. B. Fu, V. Ta'eed, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "2R optical regeneration: An all-optical solution for BER improvement," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 736-744 (2006).
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L. B. Fu, A. Fuerbach, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Efficient optical pulse compression using chalcogenide single-mode fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081116 (2006).
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N. Ponnampalam, R. G. DeCorby, H. T. Nguyen, P. K. Dwivedi, C. J. Haugen, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, "Small core rib waveguides with embedded gratings in As2Se3 glass," Opt. Express 12, 6270-6277 (2004).
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V. G. Ta'eed, L. B. Fu, M. Pelusi, M. Rochette, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Error free all optical wavelength conversion in highly nonlinear As-Se chalcogenide glass fiber," Opt. Express 14, 10371-10376 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta'eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. B. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. L. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Refractive index (n) and dispersion parameter (D) for arsenic tri-sulfide (As2S3) chalcogenide glass. [24]

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Infrared transmission for several bulk glass samples (after reference [2]). Silicon, not shown in this figure, has a long wavelength cut-off at around 7 µm [24].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Scanning electron micrograph cross-section of an As2S3 rib waveguide.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Modified Sagnac grating writing interferometer. CW light from a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is split into two beams by a phase mask and reflected twice off two mirrors before interfering at the sample surface to create a photo-induced index change.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured spectrum from an As2S3 sampled Bragg grating [50].

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Numerical simulation of TPA induced transmission loss for varying nonlinear FOM. For no TPA (FOM=∞), the total nonlinear phase shift is 2π. (b) Nonlinear transmission versus FOM for π phase shift. [54]

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Numerical simulation of self phase modulation spectral broadening of pulses. (a) Without two-photon absorption (FOM=∞), and (b) with two-photon absorption (FOM=0.5).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Dispersion of (a) n 2 and β, (b) the nonlinear figure of merit for As2Se3.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Calculated power transfer curves for 2R regenerator for different FOM with fixed n2, including experimental data for a device with an FOM of ~2.0 (black diamonds). (b) Q-factor at the output of the 2R optical regenerator as a function of FOM (optimal input power use at each FOM). The dashed horizontal solid line is the input Q-factor while the solid horizontal line represents the output Q-factor for a device with no TPA (infinite FOM).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Evolution of pulse spectra versus power through a bare waveguide with no grating filter, showing spectral broadening due to SPM. (b) Transmission spectrum of the band-pass filter (formed by two sequential offset gratings) for TE polarized light, showing a pass band of 2.8 nm near 1555.0 nm, offset by 3 nm from the carrier wavelength. (c) Sliced SPM broadened output spectra after the filter. (d) Resulting nonlinear power transfer curve for the integrated regenerator.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Spectral intensity and phase of the laser pulses after the chalcogenide fiber. Solid line: retrieved from the FROG measurements. Dashed line: Numerical simulations. Dotted: Simulations excluding GVD showing high spectral modulation. Dash-dot: input spectrum.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Experimentally generated temporal intensity and phase of the compressed pulses, together with a Gaussian fit to the intensity (dotted line). The inset shows the temporal intensity of the compressed pulse without high GVD in the fiber leading to a considerable pulse pedestal and high temporal sidelobes.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Principle of XPM wavelength conversion. Amplified pulsed pump signal (at λ1) imposes a nonlinear frequency chirp onto a co-propagating wavelength tunable CW probe (at λ2) through the nonlinear refractive index. Filtering one of the XPM generated sidebands results in wavelength conversion (to λ2+Δ).

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

System setup for demonstrating wavelength conversion. CLK: 10 GHz actively mode locked, fiber laser, FBG notch: fiber Bragg grating notch filter, MZ: Mach-Zehnder modulator, PC: polarization controlled, PRBS: pseudo-random bit sequence, TBF: tunable band pass filter.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

(a) Unfiltered output spectra of signal from waveguide showing both pulsed pump and three different CW probes with XPM sidebands imprinted on them. (b) Experimental filtered output spectra of device leaving behind only a single sideband.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of several third-order nonlinear materials at λ=1.5 µm. [25, 58, 60]

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