Abstract

Optical radiation propagating in a fiber is used to deposit commercially available, single-walled carbon nanotubes on cleaved optical fiber end faces and fiber connectors. Thermophoresis caused by heating due to optical absorption is considered to be a likely candidate responsible for the deposition process. Single-walled carbon nanotubes have a fast saturable absorption over a broad wavelength range, and the demonstrated technique is an extremely simple and inexpensive method for making fiber-integrated, saturable absorbers for passive modelocking of fiber lasers. Pulse widths of 247 fs are demonstrated from an erbium-doped fiber laser operating at 1560 nm, and 137 fs pulses are demonstrated from an amplified Yb-doped fiber laser at 1070 nm.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (3)

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

2003 (2)

Y. Sakakibara, S. Tatsuura, H. Kataura, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Achiba, "Near-infrared saturable absorption of single-wall carbon nanotubes prepared by laser ablation method," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 494-496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Shiundu, S. M. Munguti, and S. K. R. Williams, "Retention behavior of metal particle dispersions in Aqueous and Nonaqueous carriers in thermal field-flow Fractionation," J. Chrom. A 983, 163-176 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raraviker, Y. P. Zhao, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 81, 975-977 (2002).

1999 (1)

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synth. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. C. Giddings, P. M. Shiundu, and S. N. Semenov, "Thermophoresis of metal particles in a liquid," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 176, 454-458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1988 (1)

A. F. Andreev, "Thermophoresis in Liquids," Sov. Phys. JETP 67, 117-120 (1988).

1986 (1)

1982 (1)

1981 (2)

P. W. Smith, A. Ashkin, and W. J. Tomlinson, "Four-wave mixing in an artificial Kerr Medium," Opt. Lett. 6, 284-286 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ruckenstein, "Can Phoretic motions be treated as Interfacial Tension Gradient Driven Phenomena," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 83, 77-81 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

G. S. McNab and A. Meisen, "Thermophoresis in Liquids," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 44, 339-346 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Achiba, Y.

Y. Sakakibara, S. Tatsuura, H. Kataura, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Achiba, "Near-infrared saturable absorption of single-wall carbon nanotubes prepared by laser ablation method," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 494-496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synth. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ajayan, P. M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raraviker, Y. P. Zhao, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 81, 975-977 (2002).

Andreev, A. F.

A. F. Andreev, "Thermophoresis in Liquids," Sov. Phys. JETP 67, 117-120 (1988).

Ashkin, A.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Chen, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raraviker, Y. P. Zhao, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 81, 975-977 (2002).

Chu, S.

Constable, A.

Dimarcello, F. V.

Dziedzic, J. M.

Einarsson, E.

Ghalmi, S.

Giddings, J. C.

J. C. Giddings, P. M. Shiundu, and S. N. Semenov, "Thermophoresis of metal particles in a liquid," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 176, 454-458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goh, C. S.

Grier, D. G.

Guo, C.

Z. Liu, C. Guo, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, "Tapered Fiber Optical Tweezers for Microscopic particle trapping: Fabrication and Application," Opt. Express 14, 12510-12516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirooka, T.

Hu, Z.

Inoue, Y.

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, "Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly syntehsized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers," Opt Lett. 29, 1581-1583 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoga, E.

Jablonski, M.

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, "Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly syntehsized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers," Opt Lett. 29, 1581-1583 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaino, T.

Kataura, H.

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, "Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes," Opt. Express 13, 8025-8030 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sakakibara, S. Tatsuura, H. Kataura, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Achiba, "Near-infrared saturable absorption of single-wall carbon nanotubes prepared by laser ablation method," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 494-496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synth. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kazaoui, S.

Kim, J.

Komatsu, K.

Kumazawa, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synth. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, C. Guo, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, "Tapered Fiber Optical Tweezers for Microscopic particle trapping: Fabrication and Application," Opt. Express 14, 12510-12516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raraviker, Y. P. Zhao, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 81, 975-977 (2002).

Maniwa, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synth. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, S.

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, E. Einarsson, and S. Maruyama, "All-fiber pulsed lasers passively mode locked by transferable vertically aligned carbon nanotube film," Opt. Lett. 32, 1399-1401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, "Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly syntehsized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers," Opt Lett. 29, 1581-1583 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNab, G. S.

G. S. McNab and A. Meisen, "Thermophoresis in Liquids," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 44, 339-346 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Meisen, A.

G. S. McNab and A. Meisen, "Thermophoresis in Liquids," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 44, 339-346 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Mervis, J.

Minami, N.

Minoshima, K.

Miyashita, K.

Monberg, E.

Mueth, D. M.

Munguti, S. M.

P. M. Shiundu, S. M. Munguti, and S. K. R. Williams, "Retention behavior of metal particle dispersions in Aqueous and Nonaqueous carriers in thermal field-flow Fractionation," J. Chrom. A 983, 163-176 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, Y.

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, "Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly syntehsized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers," Opt Lett. 29, 1581-1583 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakahara, S.

Nakazawa, M.

Nicholson, J. W.

Ohtsuka, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synth. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Plewa, J.

Prentiss, M.

Ramachandran, S.

Raraviker, N. R.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raraviker, Y. P. Zhao, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 81, 975-977 (2002).

Ruckenstein, E.

E. Ruckenstein, "Can Phoretic motions be treated as Interfacial Tension Gradient Driven Phenomena," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 83, 77-81 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sakakibara, Y.

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, "Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes," Opt. Express 13, 8025-8030 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sakakibara, S. Tatsuura, H. Kataura, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Achiba, "Near-infrared saturable absorption of single-wall carbon nanotubes prepared by laser ablation method," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 494-496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schadler, L. S.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raraviker, Y. P. Zhao, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 81, 975-977 (2002).

Schibli, T. R.

Semenov, S. N.

J. C. Giddings, P. M. Shiundu, and S. N. Semenov, "Thermophoresis of metal particles in a liquid," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 176, 454-458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Set, S. Y.

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, "Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 148-150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, "Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly syntehsized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers," Opt Lett. 29, 1581-1583 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, andM. Jablonski, "Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 51-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shiundu, P. M.

P. M. Shiundu, S. M. Munguti, and S. K. R. Williams, "Retention behavior of metal particle dispersions in Aqueous and Nonaqueous carriers in thermal field-flow Fractionation," J. Chrom. A 983, 163-176 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Giddings, P. M. Shiundu, and S. N. Semenov, "Thermophoresis of metal particles in a liquid," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 176, 454-458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W.

Song, Y.-W.

Suzuki, S.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synth. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

Tanner, E.

Tatsuura, S.

Y. Sakakibara, S. Tatsuura, H. Kataura, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Achiba, "Near-infrared saturable absorption of single-wall carbon nanotubes prepared by laser ablation method," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 494-496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tokumoto, M.

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, "Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes," Opt. Express 13, 8025-8030 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sakakibara, S. Tatsuura, H. Kataura, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Achiba, "Near-infrared saturable absorption of single-wall carbon nanotubes prepared by laser ablation method," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 494-496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

Umezu, I.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synth. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raraviker, Y. P. Zhao, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 81, 975-977 (2002).

Wang, J.

Williams, S. K. R.

P. M. Shiundu, S. M. Munguti, and S. K. R. Williams, "Retention behavior of metal particle dispersions in Aqueous and Nonaqueous carriers in thermal field-flow Fractionation," J. Chrom. A 983, 163-176 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wisk, P.

Yaguchi, H.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, andM. Jablonski, "Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 51-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, "Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly syntehsized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers," Opt Lett. 29, 1581-1583 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamashita, S.

Yan, M. F.

Yang, J.

Z. Liu, C. Guo, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, "Tapered Fiber Optical Tweezers for Microscopic particle trapping: Fabrication and Application," Opt. Express 14, 12510-12516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

Yuan, L.

Z. Liu, C. Guo, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, "Tapered Fiber Optical Tweezers for Microscopic particle trapping: Fabrication and Application," Opt. Express 14, 12510-12516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zarinetchi, F.

Zhang, X. C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raraviker, Y. P. Zhao, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 81, 975-977 (2002).

Zhao, Y. P.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raraviker, Y. P. Zhao, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 81, 975-977 (2002).

J. Chrom. A (1)

P. M. Shiundu, S. M. Munguti, and S. K. R. Williams, "Retention behavior of metal particle dispersions in Aqueous and Nonaqueous carriers in thermal field-flow Fractionation," J. Chrom. A 983, 163-176 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (3)

J. C. Giddings, P. M. Shiundu, and S. N. Semenov, "Thermophoresis of metal particles in a liquid," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 176, 454-458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. McNab and A. Meisen, "Thermophoresis in Liquids," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 44, 339-346 (1973).
[CrossRef]

E. Ruckenstein, "Can Phoretic motions be treated as Interfacial Tension Gradient Driven Phenomena," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 83, 77-81 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

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Carbon Nanotechnologies, Inc, http://www.cnanotech.com/

Southwest Nanotechnologies, http://www.swnano.com/

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (2535 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2814 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup for depositing carbon nanotubes on the ends of cleaved optical fibers using optical radiation. Forces due to optical radiation are also shown.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Images of SMF end-faces after nanotubes have been deposited. (a) No optical radiation propagating in the fiber. Fiber was left in solution for 30 minutes. (b) Power=10 mW; λ=1560 nm; left in solution for 1 min. (c) Power=10 mW; λ=1560 nm; left in solution for 4 min. (d) Power=30 mW; λ=1560 nm; left in solution for 5 min. (e) Ring structure observed for deposition conditions similar to (c).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Images of fiber end-faces after nanotubes have been deposited (a) Control experiment with no radiation propagating in the 980 single-mode fiber. (b) Power=6 mW; λ=980 nm; left in solution for 15 min.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Movies of the movement of nanotubes suspended in liquid due to 980 nm light. The 980 nm light is scattered by the liquid and viewed from the side through an infrared viewer. The length of the visible light region is approximately 2 cm. (a) (2.54 MB) when the fiber was vertical [Media 1], and (b) (2.81 MB) when the fiber was angled with respect to the vertical [Media 2].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Photo of the fiber-integrated carbon-nanotube saturable absorber. (b) Schematic of the modelocked erbium-doped fiber ring laser.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Spectrum, (b) correlation, and (c) pulse train measured from the an erbium fiber laser modelocked with the carbon nanotube saturable absorber. The pulses had a time-bandwidth product of 0.312.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Spectrum from the Yb oscillator modelocked by carbon nanotubes as well as after an Yb amplifier. (b) Correlation measured after the amplifier.

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