Abstract

We designed and constructed a single-fiber-optic confocal microscope (SFCM) with a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scanner and a miniature objective lens. Axial and lateral resolution values for the system were experimentally measured to be 9.55 µm and 0.83 µm respectively, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Reflectance images were acquired at a rate of 8 frames per second, over a 140 µm×70 µm field-of-view. In anticipation of future applications in oral cancer detection, we imaged ex vivo and in vivo human oral tissue with the SFCM, demonstrating the ability of the system to resolve cellular detail.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007

2006

2005

C. Boudoux, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, W. M. White, N. V. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Rapid wavelength-swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy," Opt. Express 13, 8214-8221 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging," Nat. Methods 2, 941-950 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Polglase, W. McLaren, S. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. Neurath, and P. Delaney, "A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and lower-GI tract," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 686-695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J-F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, "Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (Cell-viZio™) facilitates extended imaging in the field of microcirculation," J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400-411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Miyajima, K. Murakami, and M. Katashiro, "MEMS Optical Scanners for Microscopes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 10, 514-527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kwon and L. P. Lee, "Micromachined transmissive scanning confocal microscope," Opt. Lett. 29, 706-708 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Rouse, A. Kano, J. A. Udovich, S. M. Kroto, and A. F. Gmitro, "Design and demonstration of a miniature catheter for a confocal microendoscope," Appl. Opt. 43, 5763-5771 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

K. B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, A. Malpica, C. Liang, and M. Descour, "Fiber optic confocal reflectance microscopy: a new real-time technique to view nuclear morphology in cervical squamous epithelium in vivo," Opt. Express 11, 3171-3181 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Clark, A. M. Gillenwater, T. G. Collier, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards Kortum, "Confocal microscopy for real-time detection of oral cavity neoplasia," Clin. Cancer Res. 9, 4714-4721 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Near real time in vivo fibre optic confocal microscopy: sub-cellular structure resolved," J. Microsc. 207, 137-145 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, "Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 177-183 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liang, K. B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Descour, "Design of a high-numerical-aperture miniature microscope objective for an endoscopic fiber confocal microscope," Appl. Opt. 41, 4603-4610 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1999

1996

1993

1991

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, and X. Gan, "Image formation in a fiber-optical confocal scanning microscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1755-1761 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, "In vivo imaging of human teeth and skin using real-time confocal microscopy," Scanning 13, 369-372 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Giniunas, R. Juskaitis, and S. V. Shatalin, "Scanning fiber-optic microscope," Electron. Lett. 27, 724-726 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

1984

Alizadeh-Naderi, R.

A. L. Clark, A. M. Gillenwater, T. G. Collier, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards Kortum, "Confocal microscopy for real-time detection of oral cavity neoplasia," Clin. Cancer Res. 9, 4714-4721 (2003).
[PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, "Video-rate confocal scanning laser microscope for imaging human tissues in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 2105-2115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. M. White, M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, R. L. Fabian, and R. R. Anderson, "Non-invasive imaging of human oral mucosa in vivo by confocal reflectance microscopy," Laryngoscope 109, 1709-1717 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aziz, D.

Bancu, M. G.

J. J. Bernstein, T. W. Lee, F. J. Rogomentich, M. G. Bancu, K. H. Kim, G. Maguluri, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Scanning OCT endoscope with 2-axis magnetic micromirror," Proc. SPIE 6432, 64320L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barretto, R. P. J.

Bernstein, J. J.

J. J. Bernstein, T. W. Lee, F. J. Rogomentich, M. G. Bancu, K. H. Kim, G. Maguluri, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Scanning OCT endoscope with 2-axis magnetic micromirror," Proc. SPIE 6432, 64320L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

Boyde, A.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, "In vivo imaging of human teeth and skin using real-time confocal microscopy," Scanning 13, 369-372 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Carlini, A. R.

Cavanagh, H. D.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, "In vivo imaging of human teeth and skin using real-time confocal microscopy," Scanning 13, 369-372 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. Chen, "Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, E. L. M.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging," Nat. Methods 2, 941-950 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christenson, T.

Clark, A. L.

A. L. Clark, A. M. Gillenwater, T. G. Collier, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards Kortum, "Confocal microscopy for real-time detection of oral cavity neoplasia," Clin. Cancer Res. 9, 4714-4721 (2003).
[PubMed]

Cocker, E. D.

Collier, T.

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Near real time in vivo fibre optic confocal microscopy: sub-cellular structure resolved," J. Microsc. 207, 137-145 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collier, T. G.

A. L. Clark, A. M. Gillenwater, T. G. Collier, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards Kortum, "Confocal microscopy for real-time detection of oral cavity neoplasia," Clin. Cancer Res. 9, 4714-4721 (2003).
[PubMed]

Contag, C. H.

Corcuff, P.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, "In vivo imaging of human teeth and skin using real-time confocal microscopy," Scanning 13, 369-372 (1991).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J. F.

J. J. Bernstein, T. W. Lee, F. J. Rogomentich, M. G. Bancu, K. H. Kim, G. Maguluri, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Scanning OCT endoscope with 2-axis magnetic micromirror," Proc. SPIE 6432, 64320L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delaney, P.

A. L. Polglase, W. McLaren, S. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. Neurath, and P. Delaney, "A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and lower-GI tract," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 686-695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

Descour, M.

Descour, M. R.

Dickensheets, D. L.

DiMarzio, C. A.

Dlugan, A. L. P.

Donaldson, L.

Dwyer, P. J.

El-Naggar, A. K.

A. L. Clark, A. M. Gillenwater, T. G. Collier, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards Kortum, "Confocal microscopy for real-time detection of oral cavity neoplasia," Clin. Cancer Res. 9, 4714-4721 (2003).
[PubMed]

Fabian, R. L.

W. M. White, M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, R. L. Fabian, and R. R. Anderson, "Non-invasive imaging of human oral mucosa in vivo by confocal reflectance microscopy," Laryngoscope 109, 1709-1717 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flusberg, B. A.

Follen, M.

K. B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, A. Malpica, C. Liang, and M. Descour, "Fiber optic confocal reflectance microscopy: a new real-time technique to view nuclear morphology in cervical squamous epithelium in vivo," Opt. Express 11, 3171-3181 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Near real time in vivo fibre optic confocal microscopy: sub-cellular structure resolved," J. Microsc. 207, 137-145 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fox, W. J.

Gan, X.

Genet, M.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J-F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, "Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (Cell-viZio™) facilitates extended imaging in the field of microcirculation," J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400-411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A. M.

A. L. Clark, A. M. Gillenwater, T. G. Collier, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards Kortum, "Confocal microscopy for real-time detection of oral cavity neoplasia," Clin. Cancer Res. 9, 4714-4721 (2003).
[PubMed]

Giniunas, L.

L. Giniunas, R. Juskaitis, and S. V. Shatalin, "Scanning fiber-optic microscope," Electron. Lett. 27, 724-726 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gmitro, A. F.

Gonzalez, S.

W. M. White, M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, R. L. Fabian, and R. R. Anderson, "Non-invasive imaging of human oral mucosa in vivo by confocal reflectance microscopy," Laryngoscope 109, 1709-1717 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

Hopkins, M. F.

Hughes, G. W.

Iftimia, N. V.

Jester, J. V.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, "In vivo imaging of human teeth and skin using real-time confocal microscopy," Scanning 13, 369-372 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J. C.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging," Nat. Methods 2, 941-950 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, W.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. Chen, "Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Juskaitis, R.

L. Giniunas, R. Juskaitis, and S. V. Shatalin, "Scanning fiber-optic microscope," Electron. Lett. 27, 724-726 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kano, A.

Katashiro, M.

H. Miyajima, K. Murakami, and M. Katashiro, "MEMS Optical Scanners for Microscopes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 10, 514-527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kester, R. T.

Kiesslich, R.

A. L. Polglase, W. McLaren, S. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. Neurath, and P. Delaney, "A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and lower-GI tract," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 686-695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. H.

J. J. Bernstein, T. W. Lee, F. J. Rogomentich, M. G. Bancu, K. H. Kim, G. Maguluri, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Scanning OCT endoscope with 2-axis magnetic micromirror," Proc. SPIE 6432, 64320L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

Ko, T. H.

Kroto, S. M.

Kwon, S.

Laemmel, E.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J-F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, "Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (Cell-viZio™) facilitates extended imaging in the field of microcirculation," J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400-411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lane, P. M.

Le Gargasson, J-F.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J-F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, "Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (Cell-viZio™) facilitates extended imaging in the field of microcirculation," J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400-411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Goualher, G.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J-F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, "Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (Cell-viZio™) facilitates extended imaging in the field of microcirculation," J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400-411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, D.

Lee, L. P.

Lee, T. W.

J. J. Bernstein, T. W. Lee, F. J. Rogomentich, M. G. Bancu, K. H. Kim, G. Maguluri, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Scanning OCT endoscope with 2-axis magnetic micromirror," Proc. SPIE 6432, 64320L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lemp, M. A.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, "In vivo imaging of human teeth and skin using real-time confocal microscopy," Scanning 13, 369-372 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leveque, J. L.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, "In vivo imaging of human teeth and skin using real-time confocal microscopy," Scanning 13, 369-372 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liang, C.

Liu, J. T. C.

MacAulay, C. E.

Maguluri, G.

J. J. Bernstein, T. W. Lee, F. J. Rogomentich, M. G. Bancu, K. H. Kim, G. Maguluri, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Scanning OCT endoscope with 2-axis magnetic micromirror," Proc. SPIE 6432, 64320L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maitland, K. C.

Malpica, A.

K. B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, A. Malpica, C. Liang, and M. Descour, "Fiber optic confocal reflectance microscopy: a new real-time technique to view nuclear morphology in cervical squamous epithelium in vivo," Opt. Express 11, 3171-3181 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Near real time in vivo fibre optic confocal microscopy: sub-cellular structure resolved," J. Microsc. 207, 137-145 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandella, M. J.

Martin, L.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, "In vivo imaging of human teeth and skin using real-time confocal microscopy," Scanning 13, 369-372 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, D. T.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. Chen, "Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McLaren, W.

A. L. Polglase, W. McLaren, S. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. Neurath, and P. Delaney, "A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and lower-GI tract," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 686-695 (2005).
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Miyajima, H.

H. Miyajima, K. Murakami, and M. Katashiro, "MEMS Optical Scanners for Microscopes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 10, 514-527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, K.

H. Miyajima, K. Murakami, and M. Katashiro, "MEMS Optical Scanners for Microscopes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 10, 514-527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neurath, M.

A. L. Polglase, W. McLaren, S. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. Neurath, and P. Delaney, "A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and lower-GI tract," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 686-695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New, K. C.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, "In vivo imaging of human teeth and skin using real-time confocal microscopy," Scanning 13, 369-372 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Oh, W. Y.

Perchant, A.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J-F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, "Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (Cell-viZio™) facilitates extended imaging in the field of microcirculation," J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400-411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petroll, W. M.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, "In vivo imaging of human teeth and skin using real-time confocal microscopy," Scanning 13, 369-372 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Piyawattanametha, W.

Polglase, A. L.

A. L. Polglase, W. McLaren, S. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. Neurath, and P. Delaney, "A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and lower-GI tract," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 686-695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ra, H.

Rajadhyaksha, M.

Richards Kortum, R.

A. L. Clark, A. M. Gillenwater, T. G. Collier, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards Kortum, "Confocal microscopy for real-time detection of oral cavity neoplasia," Clin. Cancer Res. 9, 4714-4721 (2003).
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J. J. Bernstein, T. W. Lee, F. J. Rogomentich, M. G. Bancu, K. H. Kim, G. Maguluri, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Scanning OCT endoscope with 2-axis magnetic micromirror," Proc. SPIE 6432, 64320L (2007).
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E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, "Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 177-183 (2002).
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Shin, H. J.

Shishkov, M.

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A. L. Polglase, W. McLaren, S. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. Neurath, and P. Delaney, "A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and lower-GI tract," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 686-695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smithwick, Q. Y. J.

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, "Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 177-183 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solgaard, O.

Sung, K. B.

Tearney, G. J.

Tien, N. C.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. Chen, "Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tkaczyk, T. S.

Udovich, J. A.

Vicaut, E.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J-F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, "Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (Cell-viZio™) facilitates extended imaging in the field of microcirculation," J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400-411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. Chen, "Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 163901 (2006).
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W. M. White, M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, R. L. Fabian, and R. R. Anderson, "Non-invasive imaging of human oral mucosa in vivo by confocal reflectance microscopy," Laryngoscope 109, 1709-1717 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Wong, L. K.

Yelin, D.

Yun, S. H.

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Zhang, J.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. Chen, "Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. Chen, "Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Cancer Res.

A. L. Clark, A. M. Gillenwater, T. G. Collier, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards Kortum, "Confocal microscopy for real-time detection of oral cavity neoplasia," Clin. Cancer Res. 9, 4714-4721 (2003).
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L. Giniunas, R. Juskaitis, and S. V. Shatalin, "Scanning fiber-optic microscope," Electron. Lett. 27, 724-726 (1991).
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A. L. Polglase, W. McLaren, S. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. Neurath, and P. Delaney, "A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and lower-GI tract," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 686-695 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron.

H. Miyajima, K. Murakami, and M. Katashiro, "MEMS Optical Scanners for Microscopes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 10, 514-527 (2004).
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J. Microsc.

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Near real time in vivo fibre optic confocal microscopy: sub-cellular structure resolved," J. Microsc. 207, 137-145 (2002).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Vasc. Res.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laryngoscope

W. M. White, M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, R. L. Fabian, and R. R. Anderson, "Non-invasive imaging of human oral mucosa in vivo by confocal reflectance microscopy," Laryngoscope 109, 1709-1717 (1999).
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B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging," Nat. Methods 2, 941-950 (2005).
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H. Ra, W. Piyawattanametha, Y. Taguchi, and O. Solgaard, "Dual-axes confocal fluorescence microscopy with a two-dimensional MEMS scanner," Proc. IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and their applications, 166-167 (2006).
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Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: AVI (2519 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (2519 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (9605 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of the single-fiber confocal microscope system. PBS: polarizing beamsplitter, QWP: quarter-wave plate, APD: avalanche photodiode. (b) Photograph of the miniature objective lens module alongside a US dime. The beam from the MEMS scanner enters at the bottom.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical design of the miniature objective lens. Each lens is 3 mm in diameter, and the total distance between the scanner and sample plane is 39.3 mm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spot diagram (a) and modulation transfer function (b) computed for the three-element miniature objective. The plots shown in (b) correspond to the three field positions indicated in (a), alongside the diffraction-limited case.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Axial and lateral resolution measurements. (a) Normalized intensity measured as a mirror was translated axially through the focus, FWHM=9.55 µm. (b) Normalized intensity measured as a reflective edge was translated laterally across the focus, 90%-10% transition =0.83 µm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Reflectance image of a USAF resolution target, group 7 elements 1-6, acquired with the MEMS confocal microscope. The field-of-view is 140 µm×70 µm and the smallest bars are 2.19 µm wide.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Confocal reflectance images of ex vivo human oral tissue, (left) acquired with the MEMS confocal microscope and miniature objective. (Movie size 2.5 MB, 3 seconds at 8 fps). (Right) Image of the same tissue slice, acquired with the Lucid Vivascope 2500 confocal microscope. [Media 1]

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Images of normal in vivo human oral mucosa acquired with the MEMS confocal microscope and miniature objective. (Movie size 2.5 MB, 3 seconds at 8 fps. (9.6 MB version, 15 seconds at 8 fps). (b) Image of the same tissue from the same volunteer, acquired with the Lucid Vivascope 1500 confocal microscope. [Media 2, Media 3]

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