Abstract

Experimental observation of Optical Bistability (OB) and nonlinear gain is reported in a 1550-nm Vertical Cavity Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (VCSOA) under parallel and orthogonal polarized optical injection into the two orthogonal polarizations of the fundamental mode. Different nonlinear switching mechanisms, including anticlockwise and clockwise nonlinear gain and bistability, have been found when the polarization of the externally injected signal matches that of the injected mode, whilst a linear response is measured when the polarization is orthogonal to that of the mode under injection. This diversity of behavior with input polarization offers promise for the potential use of VCSOAs for all-optical signal processing and all-optical switching/routing applications.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Kawaguchi, "Bistable laser diodes and their applications: state of the art," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1254-1270 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Otsuka and S. Kobayashi, "Optical bistability and nonlinear resonance in a resonant-type semiconductor laser amplifier," Electron. Lett. 19, 262-263 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. Pan, H. Lin, and M. Dagenais, "Switching power dependence on detuning and current in bistable diode laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 687-689 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. F. Mitchell, J. O’Gorman, J. Hegarty, and J. C. Connolly, "Optical bistability in asymmetric Fabry-Perot laser-diode amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 19, 269-271 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Pakdeevanich and M. J. Adams, "Measurements and modelling of reflective bistability in 1.55µm laser diode amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1894-1903 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. J. Adams and R. Wyatt, "Optical bistability in distributed-feedback semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron. 134, 35-40 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. N. Maywar and G. P. Agrawal, "Transfer-matrix analysis of optical bistability in DFB semiconductor laser amplifiers with nonuniform gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2029-2037 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. J. Bohn and J. G. McInerney, "Bistable output of an optically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3430-3436 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Wen, M. D. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, "Observation of bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA)," Opt. Express 10, 1273-1278 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  10. M. D. Sanchez, P. Wen, M. Gross, and S. Esener, "Nonlinear gain in vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 507-509 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, "Optical bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55µm VCSOA," Electron. Lett. 42, 483-484 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, and J. A. Martin-Pereda, "Modeling reflective bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 376-383 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. R. Marki, D. R. Jorgesen, H. J. Zhang, P. Y. Wen, and S. C. Esener, "Observation of counterclockwise, clockwise and butterfly bistability in 1550 nm VCSOAs," Opt. Express 15, 4953-4959 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Z. G. Pan, S. Jiang, and M. Dagenais, "Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2999-3001 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. F. Yu, "Theoretical analysis of polarization bistability in vertical cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1032-1041 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Hong, K. A. Shore, A. Larsson, M. Ghisoni, and J. Halonen, "Pure frequency-polarisation bistability in vertical surface-emitting semiconductor laser subject to optical injection," Electron. Lett. 36, 2019 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer and K. A. Shore, "Power and frequency dependence of hysteresis in optically bistable injection-locked VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 37, 569-570 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Hong, K. A. Shore, A. Larsson, M. Ghisoni and J. Halonen, "Polarisation switching in a vertical cavity surface emitting semiconductor laser by frequency detuning," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 31-34 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. S. Ryvkin, K. Panajotov, E. A. Avrutin, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Optical-injection-induced polarization switching in polarization-bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6002-6007 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Sciamanna and K. Panajatov, "Two-mode injection locking in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 2903-2905 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Sciamanna and K. Panajatov, "Route to polarization switching induced by optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 73, 023811 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, "Polarisation effects in optically-injected VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 42, 537-538 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, "Locking bandwidth and birefringence effects for polarized optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Commun. 269, 119-127 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, "Spin polarised properties of optically injected VCSELs," Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 604-606 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, "Frequency-induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection," Phys. Rev. A 75, 023804 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. I. Gatare, M. Sciamanna, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont and K. Panajotov, "Nonlinear dynamics accompanying polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. I. Gatare, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov and M. Sciamanna, "Polarization switching bistability and dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonal optical injection," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 429-443 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. B. Altés, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont and M. Sciamanna, "Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 198-207 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Valle, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov and M. Sciamanna, "Transverse mode switching and locking in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 322-333 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (5)

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, "Locking bandwidth and birefringence effects for polarized optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Commun. 269, 119-127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, "Spin polarised properties of optically injected VCSELs," Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 604-606 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, "Frequency-induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection," Phys. Rev. A 75, 023804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Valle, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov and M. Sciamanna, "Transverse mode switching and locking in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 322-333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Marki, D. R. Jorgesen, H. J. Zhang, P. Y. Wen, and S. C. Esener, "Observation of counterclockwise, clockwise and butterfly bistability in 1550 nm VCSOAs," Opt. Express 15, 4953-4959 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

I. Gatare, M. Sciamanna, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont and K. Panajotov, "Nonlinear dynamics accompanying polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov and M. Sciamanna, "Polarization switching bistability and dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonal optical injection," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 429-443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Altés, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont and M. Sciamanna, "Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 198-207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, "Optical bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55µm VCSOA," Electron. Lett. 42, 483-484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Sciamanna and K. Panajatov, "Route to polarization switching induced by optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 73, 023811 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, "Polarisation effects in optically-injected VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 42, 537-538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, and J. A. Martin-Pereda, "Modeling reflective bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 376-383 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Sciamanna and K. Panajatov, "Two-mode injection locking in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 2903-2905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

B. S. Ryvkin, K. Panajotov, E. A. Avrutin, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Optical-injection-induced polarization switching in polarization-bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6002-6007 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. D. Sanchez, P. Wen, M. Gross, and S. Esener, "Nonlinear gain in vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 507-509 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer and K. A. Shore, "Power and frequency dependence of hysteresis in optically bistable injection-locked VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 37, 569-570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, K. A. Shore, A. Larsson, M. Ghisoni and J. Halonen, "Polarisation switching in a vertical cavity surface emitting semiconductor laser by frequency detuning," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 31-34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Hong, K. A. Shore, A. Larsson, M. Ghisoni, and J. Halonen, "Pure frequency-polarisation bistability in vertical surface-emitting semiconductor laser subject to optical injection," Electron. Lett. 36, 2019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. Pakdeevanich and M. J. Adams, "Measurements and modelling of reflective bistability in 1.55µm laser diode amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1894-1903 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

H. Kawaguchi, "Bistable laser diodes and their applications: state of the art," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1254-1270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Maywar and G. P. Agrawal, "Transfer-matrix analysis of optical bistability in DFB semiconductor laser amplifiers with nonuniform gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2029-2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Yu, "Theoretical analysis of polarization bistability in vertical cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1032-1041 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Bohn and J. G. McInerney, "Bistable output of an optically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3430-3436 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

Z. G. Pan, S. Jiang, and M. Dagenais, "Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2999-3001 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Z. Pan, H. Lin, and M. Dagenais, "Switching power dependence on detuning and current in bistable diode laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 687-689 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. J. Adams and R. Wyatt, "Optical bistability in distributed-feedback semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron. 134, 35-40 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

K. Otsuka and S. Kobayashi, "Optical bistability and nonlinear resonance in a resonant-type semiconductor laser amplifier," Electron. Lett. 19, 262-263 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Adams, M. J.

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, "Spin polarised properties of optically injected VCSELs," Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 604-606 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, "Locking bandwidth and birefringence effects for polarized optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Commun. 269, 119-127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, "Polarisation effects in optically-injected VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 42, 537-538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, "Optical bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55µm VCSOA," Electron. Lett. 42, 483-484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Pakdeevanich and M. J. Adams, "Measurements and modelling of reflective bistability in 1.55µm laser diode amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1894-1903 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Adams and R. Wyatt, "Optical bistability in distributed-feedback semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron. 134, 35-40 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

D. N. Maywar and G. P. Agrawal, "Transfer-matrix analysis of optical bistability in DFB semiconductor laser amplifiers with nonuniform gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2029-2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Altés, J. B.

J. B. Altés, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont and M. Sciamanna, "Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 198-207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Avrutin, E. A.

B. S. Ryvkin, K. Panajotov, E. A. Avrutin, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Optical-injection-induced polarization switching in polarization-bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6002-6007 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bohn, M. J.

Buesa, J.

I. Gatare, M. Sciamanna, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont and K. Panajotov, "Nonlinear dynamics accompanying polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov and M. Sciamanna, "Polarization switching bistability and dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonal optical injection," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 429-443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Connolly, J. C.

Dagenais, M.

Z. G. Pan, S. Jiang, and M. Dagenais, "Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2999-3001 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, H. Lin, and M. Dagenais, "Switching power dependence on detuning and current in bistable diode laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 687-689 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Esener, S.

M. D. Sanchez, P. Wen, M. Gross, and S. Esener, "Nonlinear gain in vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 507-509 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Wen, M. D. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, "Observation of bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA)," Opt. Express 10, 1273-1278 (2002).
[PubMed]

Esener, S. C.

Gatare, I.

A. Valle, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov and M. Sciamanna, "Transverse mode switching and locking in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 322-333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, "Frequency-induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection," Phys. Rev. A 75, 023804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov and M. Sciamanna, "Polarization switching bistability and dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonal optical injection," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 429-443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Altés, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont and M. Sciamanna, "Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 198-207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, M. Sciamanna, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont and K. Panajotov, "Nonlinear dynamics accompanying polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ghisoni, M.

Y. Hong, K. A. Shore, A. Larsson, M. Ghisoni and J. Halonen, "Polarisation switching in a vertical cavity surface emitting semiconductor laser by frequency detuning," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 31-34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, K. A. Shore, A. Larsson, M. Ghisoni, and J. Halonen, "Pure frequency-polarisation bistability in vertical surface-emitting semiconductor laser subject to optical injection," Electron. Lett. 36, 2019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez-Marcos, A.

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, "Optical bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55µm VCSOA," Electron. Lett. 42, 483-484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, and J. A. Martin-Pereda, "Modeling reflective bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 376-383 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gross, M.

M. D. Sanchez, P. Wen, M. Gross, and S. Esener, "Nonlinear gain in vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 507-509 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Wen, M. D. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, "Observation of bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA)," Opt. Express 10, 1273-1278 (2002).
[PubMed]

Halonen, J.

Y. Hong, K. A. Shore, A. Larsson, M. Ghisoni and J. Halonen, "Polarisation switching in a vertical cavity surface emitting semiconductor laser by frequency detuning," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 31-34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, K. A. Shore, A. Larsson, M. Ghisoni, and J. Halonen, "Pure frequency-polarisation bistability in vertical surface-emitting semiconductor laser subject to optical injection," Electron. Lett. 36, 2019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hegarty, J.

Henning, I. D.

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, "Optical bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55µm VCSOA," Electron. Lett. 42, 483-484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Homayounfar, A.

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, "Locking bandwidth and birefringence effects for polarized optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Commun. 269, 119-127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, "Spin polarised properties of optically injected VCSELs," Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 604-606 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, "Polarisation effects in optically-injected VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 42, 537-538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y.

Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer and K. A. Shore, "Power and frequency dependence of hysteresis in optically bistable injection-locked VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 37, 569-570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, K. A. Shore, A. Larsson, M. Ghisoni and J. Halonen, "Polarisation switching in a vertical cavity surface emitting semiconductor laser by frequency detuning," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 31-34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, K. A. Shore, A. Larsson, M. Ghisoni, and J. Halonen, "Pure frequency-polarisation bistability in vertical surface-emitting semiconductor laser subject to optical injection," Electron. Lett. 36, 2019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hurtado, A.

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, "Optical bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55µm VCSOA," Electron. Lett. 42, 483-484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, and J. A. Martin-Pereda, "Modeling reflective bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 376-383 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

Z. G. Pan, S. Jiang, and M. Dagenais, "Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2999-3001 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jorgesen, D. R.

Kawaguchi, H.

H. Kawaguchi, "Bistable laser diodes and their applications: state of the art," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1254-1270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

K. Otsuka and S. Kobayashi, "Optical bistability and nonlinear resonance in a resonant-type semiconductor laser amplifier," Electron. Lett. 19, 262-263 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

Y. Hong, K. A. Shore, A. Larsson, M. Ghisoni and J. Halonen, "Polarisation switching in a vertical cavity surface emitting semiconductor laser by frequency detuning," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 31-34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, K. A. Shore, A. Larsson, M. Ghisoni, and J. Halonen, "Pure frequency-polarisation bistability in vertical surface-emitting semiconductor laser subject to optical injection," Electron. Lett. 36, 2019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

Z. Pan, H. Lin, and M. Dagenais, "Switching power dependence on detuning and current in bistable diode laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 687-689 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Marki, C. R.

Martin-Pereda, J. A.

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, and J. A. Martin-Pereda, "Modeling reflective bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 376-383 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maywar, D. N.

D. N. Maywar and G. P. Agrawal, "Transfer-matrix analysis of optical bistability in DFB semiconductor laser amplifiers with nonuniform gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2029-2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McInerney, J. G.

Mitchell, N. F.

O’Gorman, J.

Otsuka, K.

K. Otsuka and S. Kobayashi, "Optical bistability and nonlinear resonance in a resonant-type semiconductor laser amplifier," Electron. Lett. 19, 262-263 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pakdeevanich, P.

P. Pakdeevanich and M. J. Adams, "Measurements and modelling of reflective bistability in 1.55µm laser diode amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1894-1903 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, H. Lin, and M. Dagenais, "Switching power dependence on detuning and current in bistable diode laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 687-689 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z. G.

Z. G. Pan, S. Jiang, and M. Dagenais, "Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2999-3001 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Panajatov, K.

M. Sciamanna and K. Panajatov, "Route to polarization switching induced by optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 73, 023811 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Sciamanna and K. Panajatov, "Two-mode injection locking in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 2903-2905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panajotov, K.

A. Valle, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov and M. Sciamanna, "Transverse mode switching and locking in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 322-333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, "Frequency-induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection," Phys. Rev. A 75, 023804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov and M. Sciamanna, "Polarization switching bistability and dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonal optical injection," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 429-443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, M. Sciamanna, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont and K. Panajotov, "Nonlinear dynamics accompanying polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Altés, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont and M. Sciamanna, "Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 198-207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Ryvkin, K. Panajotov, E. A. Avrutin, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Optical-injection-induced polarization switching in polarization-bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6002-6007 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ryvkin, B. S.

B. S. Ryvkin, K. Panajotov, E. A. Avrutin, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Optical-injection-induced polarization switching in polarization-bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6002-6007 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, M. D.

M. D. Sanchez, P. Wen, M. Gross, and S. Esener, "Nonlinear gain in vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 507-509 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Wen, M. D. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, "Observation of bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA)," Opt. Express 10, 1273-1278 (2002).
[PubMed]

Sciamanna, M.

I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, "Frequency-induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection," Phys. Rev. A 75, 023804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Valle, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov and M. Sciamanna, "Transverse mode switching and locking in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 322-333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov and M. Sciamanna, "Polarization switching bistability and dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonal optical injection," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 429-443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Sciamanna and K. Panajatov, "Route to polarization switching induced by optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 73, 023811 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Altés, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont and M. Sciamanna, "Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 198-207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, M. Sciamanna, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont and K. Panajotov, "Nonlinear dynamics accompanying polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Sciamanna and K. Panajatov, "Two-mode injection locking in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 2903-2905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shore, K. A.

Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer and K. A. Shore, "Power and frequency dependence of hysteresis in optically bistable injection-locked VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 37, 569-570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, K. A. Shore, A. Larsson, M. Ghisoni and J. Halonen, "Polarisation switching in a vertical cavity surface emitting semiconductor laser by frequency detuning," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 31-34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, K. A. Shore, A. Larsson, M. Ghisoni, and J. Halonen, "Pure frequency-polarisation bistability in vertical surface-emitting semiconductor laser subject to optical injection," Electron. Lett. 36, 2019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, P. S.

Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer and K. A. Shore, "Power and frequency dependence of hysteresis in optically bistable injection-locked VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 37, 569-570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

I. Gatare, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov and M. Sciamanna, "Polarization switching bistability and dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonal optical injection," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 429-443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, M. Sciamanna, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont and K. Panajotov, "Nonlinear dynamics accompanying polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Altés, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont and M. Sciamanna, "Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 198-207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Ryvkin, K. Panajotov, E. A. Avrutin, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Optical-injection-induced polarization switching in polarization-bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6002-6007 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Valle, A.

A. Valle, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov and M. Sciamanna, "Transverse mode switching and locking in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 322-333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Veretennicoff, I.

B. S. Ryvkin, K. Panajotov, E. A. Avrutin, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Optical-injection-induced polarization switching in polarization-bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6002-6007 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wen, P.

M. D. Sanchez, P. Wen, M. Gross, and S. Esener, "Nonlinear gain in vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 507-509 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Wen, M. D. Sanchez, M. Gross, and S. Esener, "Observation of bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA)," Opt. Express 10, 1273-1278 (2002).
[PubMed]

Wen, P. Y.

Wyatt, R.

M. J. Adams and R. Wyatt, "Optical bistability in distributed-feedback semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron. 134, 35-40 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. F.

S. F. Yu, "Theoretical analysis of polarization bistability in vertical cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1032-1041 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. J.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Z. Pan, H. Lin, and M. Dagenais, "Switching power dependence on detuning and current in bistable diode laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 687-689 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Pan, S. Jiang, and M. Dagenais, "Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2999-3001 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, M. Sciamanna, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont and K. Panajotov, "Nonlinear dynamics accompanying polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (5)

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, "Polarisation effects in optically-injected VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 42, 537-538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, K. A. Shore, A. Larsson, M. Ghisoni, and J. Halonen, "Pure frequency-polarisation bistability in vertical surface-emitting semiconductor laser subject to optical injection," Electron. Lett. 36, 2019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer and K. A. Shore, "Power and frequency dependence of hysteresis in optically bistable injection-locked VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 37, 569-570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Otsuka and S. Kobayashi, "Optical bistability and nonlinear resonance in a resonant-type semiconductor laser amplifier," Electron. Lett. 19, 262-263 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, "Optical bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55µm VCSOA," Electron. Lett. 42, 483-484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron. (1)

M. J. Adams and R. Wyatt, "Optical bistability in distributed-feedback semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron. 134, 35-40 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

Y. Hong, K. A. Shore, A. Larsson, M. Ghisoni and J. Halonen, "Polarisation switching in a vertical cavity surface emitting semiconductor laser by frequency detuning," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 31-34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

D. N. Maywar and G. P. Agrawal, "Transfer-matrix analysis of optical bistability in DFB semiconductor laser amplifiers with nonuniform gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2029-2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, and J. A. Martin-Pereda, "Modeling reflective bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 376-383 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Pakdeevanich and M. J. Adams, "Measurements and modelling of reflective bistability in 1.55µm laser diode amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1894-1903 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Altés, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont and M. Sciamanna, "Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 198-207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Valle, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov and M. Sciamanna, "Transverse mode switching and locking in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 322-333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Kawaguchi, "Bistable laser diodes and their applications: state of the art," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1254-1270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. D. Sanchez, P. Wen, M. Gross, and S. Esener, "Nonlinear gain in vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 507-509 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. S. Ryvkin, K. Panajotov, E. A. Avrutin, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Optical-injection-induced polarization switching in polarization-bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6002-6007 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

S. F. Yu, "Theoretical analysis of polarization bistability in vertical cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1032-1041 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, "Locking bandwidth and birefringence effects for polarized optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Commun. 269, 119-127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. Gatare, J. Buesa, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov and M. Sciamanna, "Polarization switching bistability and dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonal optical injection," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 429-443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, "Frequency-induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection," Phys. Rev. A 75, 023804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Sciamanna and K. Panajatov, "Route to polarization switching induced by optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 73, 023811 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, "Spin polarised properties of optically injected VCSELs," Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 604-606 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). L-I curve and (b) spectrum of the 1550 nm VCSOA used in the experiments (IBias = 2mA).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reflected versus input power relationships under parallel and orthogonal polarized optical injection into the principal (a-c) and secondary mode (d-f) for different initial wavelength detunings as indicated. Applied bias current of 2 mA, below threshold.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Reflected versus input power relationships under parallel and orthogonal polarized optical injection into the principal (a-c) and secondary mode (d-f) for different initial wavelength detunings as indicated. Applied bias current of 2.1 mA, above threshold.

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