Abstract

We measure impairment of on-off-keyed and differential-phase-shift-keyed signals imposed by gain saturation in a fiber parametric amplifier. Phase modulation is observed to be more robust, particularly for deep (15 dB) saturation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, "Record performance of parametric amplifier constructed with highly nonlinear fibre," Electron. Lett. 39, 838-839 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 194-196 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Gallo and G. Assanto, "All-optical diode based on second-harmonic generation in an asymmetric waveguide," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 267-269 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. E. Myers and W. Bosenberg, "Periodically poled Lithium Niobate and quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1663-1672 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Karlsson, "Four-wave mixing in fibers with randomly varying zero-dispersion wavelength," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2269-2275 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," invited paper, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic and A. R. Chraplyvy, "Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 538-547 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Jiang and P. Ye, "Crosstalk in fiber Raman amplification for WDM systems," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1407-1411 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Devgan, R. Tang, V. S. Grigoryan and P. Kumar, "Highly efficient multichannel wavelength conversion of DPSK signals," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3677-3682 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. P. P. Kuo, P. C. Chui, and K. K. Y. Wong, " Suppression of WDM signal crosstalk in fiber optical parametric amplifier by using RZ-DPSK modulation format," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OWB3. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2007-OWB3>
  11. A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 113-130 (2005).
  12. P. L. Voss and P. Kumar, "Raman-noise-induced noise-figure limit for chi (3) parametric amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 29, 445-447(2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Radic, C. I. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump pammdc architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673 - 675 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Radic, R. M. Jopson, A. Gnauck, C. J. McKinstrie, J. C. Centanni, and A. R. Chraplyvy, " Stimulated-Brillouin-Scattering Suppression using a Single Modulator in Two-Pump Parametric Architectures," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OWN5. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2005-OWN5>
  15. L. G. Kazovsky, G. Kalogerakis, W.-T. Shaw, "Homodyne phase-shift-keying systems: past challenges and future opportunities," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4876 - 4884 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Kylemark, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "Semi-analytic saturation theory of fiber optical parametric amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3471 - 3479 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, P. Kylemark, and P. A. Andrekson, "Noise characteristics of dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2788 - 2795 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "Impact of phase modulation and filter characteristics on dual-pumped fiber-optical parametric amplification," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 79 - 81 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

S. Radic, C. I. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump pammdc architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673 - 675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, "Record performance of parametric amplifier constructed with highly nonlinear fibre," Electron. Lett. 39, 838-839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," invited paper, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic and A. R. Chraplyvy, "Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 538-547 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 194-196 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

L. E. Myers and W. Bosenberg, "Periodically poled Lithium Niobate and quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1663-1672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

W. Jiang and P. Ye, "Crosstalk in fiber Raman amplification for WDM systems," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1407-1411 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, "Record performance of parametric amplifier constructed with highly nonlinear fibre," Electron. Lett. 39, 838-839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

P. Kylemark, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "Semi-analytic saturation theory of fiber optical parametric amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3471 - 3479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "Impact of phase modulation and filter characteristics on dual-pumped fiber-optical parametric amplification," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 79 - 81 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, P. Kylemark, and P. A. Andrekson, "Noise characteristics of dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2788 - 2795 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," invited paper, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 194-196 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

Bogris, A.

Bosenberg, W.

L. E. Myers and W. Bosenberg, "Periodically poled Lithium Niobate and quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1663-1672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brar, K.

S. Radic, C. I. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump pammdc architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673 - 675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Centanni, J. C.

S. Radic, C. I. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump pammdc architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673 - 675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, "Record performance of parametric amplifier constructed with highly nonlinear fibre," Electron. Lett. 39, 838-839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, A. R

S. Radic, C. I. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump pammdc architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673 - 675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, A. R.

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic and A. R. Chraplyvy, "Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 538-547 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Devgan, P.

Gallo, K.

Gnauck, A. H.

A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 113-130 (2005).

Grigoryan, V. S.

Hansryd, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," invited paper, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 194-196 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Headley, C.

S. Radic, C. I. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump pammdc architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673 - 675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hedekvist, P.-O.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," invited paper, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

W. Jiang and P. Ye, "Crosstalk in fiber Raman amplification for WDM systems," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1407-1411 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jopson, R. M.

S. Radic, C. I. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump pammdc architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673 - 675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, "Record performance of parametric amplifier constructed with highly nonlinear fibre," Electron. Lett. 39, 838-839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, C. G.

S. Radic, C. I. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump pammdc architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673 - 675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kalogerakis, G.

Karlsson, M.

Kazovsky, L. G.

Kumar, P.

Kylemark, P.

Li, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," invited paper, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, "Record performance of parametric amplifier constructed with highly nonlinear fibre," Electron. Lett. 39, 838-839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McKinstrie, C. I.

S. Radic, C. I. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump pammdc architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673 - 675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McKinstrie, C. J.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, "Record performance of parametric amplifier constructed with highly nonlinear fibre," Electron. Lett. 39, 838-839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic and A. R. Chraplyvy, "Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 538-547 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Myers, L. E.

L. E. Myers and W. Bosenberg, "Periodically poled Lithium Niobate and quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1663-1672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Radic, S.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, "Record performance of parametric amplifier constructed with highly nonlinear fibre," Electron. Lett. 39, 838-839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Radic, C. I. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump pammdc architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673 - 675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic and A. R. Chraplyvy, "Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 538-547 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, W.-T.

Sunnerud, H.

Syvridis, D.

Tang, R.

Voss, P. L.

Westlund, M.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," invited paper, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 113-130 (2005).

Ye, P.

W. Jiang and P. Ye, "Crosstalk in fiber Raman amplification for WDM systems," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1407-1411 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, "Record performance of parametric amplifier constructed with highly nonlinear fibre," Electron. Lett. 39, 838-839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

W. Jiang and P. Ye, "Crosstalk in fiber Raman amplification for WDM systems," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1407-1411 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. E. Myers and W. Bosenberg, "Periodically poled Lithium Niobate and quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1663-1672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," invited paper, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic and A. R. Chraplyvy, "Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 538-547 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 194-196 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Radic, C. I. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump pammdc architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673 - 675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "Impact of phase modulation and filter characteristics on dual-pumped fiber-optical parametric amplification," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 79 - 81 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

S. Radic, R. M. Jopson, A. Gnauck, C. J. McKinstrie, J. C. Centanni, and A. R. Chraplyvy, " Stimulated-Brillouin-Scattering Suppression using a Single Modulator in Two-Pump Parametric Architectures," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OWN5. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2005-OWN5>

B. P. P. Kuo, P. C. Chui, and K. K. Y. Wong, " Suppression of WDM signal crosstalk in fiber optical parametric amplifier by using RZ-DPSK modulation format," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OWB3. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2007-OWB3>

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Apparatus used to study pump depletion containing external-cavity lasers (ECL), wavelength multiplexers and demultiplexers (WDMC), a phase modulator (PM), an optical delay (τ), optical amplifiers (A), optical filters (F), an isolator (I), an amplitude or phase modulator (AM/PM), variable optical attenuators (VOA), an optical noise source (ASE), a bit-error-rate test set (BERT), and optical spectrum analyzers (OSA). The frequencies, f1, f2, and f3, were used in the suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Heterodyne spectrum of 1586.7-nm idler showing influence of counter-phased pump modulation. The signal was unmodulated for this measurement.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Evolution of optical spectrum at output of highly-nonlinear fiber with changing signal power for average input powers of a)-27.8 dBm, b) -8.5 dBm, c) +3.3 dBm and d) +12.2 dBm. The NRZ-modulated signal shown here had a wavelength of 1575.7 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Idler power, conversion efficiency and pump depletion.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured 2-pump FPA input-output power characteristic.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

NRZ performance for different levels of input power.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

DPSK performance for different input power levels.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

OSNR penalty in achieving the 10-9 error rate for NRZ and DPSK modulation formats.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Evolution of eye diagram with changes in signal input power.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Waveform distortion.

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