Abstract

A prediction of the limit of detection of an optical resonant reflection biosensor is presented. An optical resonant reflection biosensor using a guided-mode resonance filter is one of the most promising label-free optical immunosensors due to a sharp reflectance peak and a high sensitivity to the changes of optical path length. We have simulated this type of biosensor using rigorous coupled wave theory to calculate the limit of detection of the thickness of the target protein layer. Theoretically, our biosensor has an estimated ability to detect thickness change approximately the size of typical antigen proteins. We have also investigated the effects of the absorption and divergence of the incident light on the detection ability of the biosensor.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Schlensog, T. Gronewold, M. Tewesa, M. Famulok, and E. Quandt, "A love-wave biosensor using nucleic acids as ligands," Sens. Actuators B 101, 308-315 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Schasfoort, R. Kooyman, P. Bergveld, and J. Greve, "A new approach to immunoFET operation," Biosens. Bioelectron. 5, 103-124 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Saarinen, S. Weiss, P. Fauchet, and J. Sipe, "Optical sensor based on resonant porous silicon structures," Opt. Express 13, 3754-3764 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Arwin, M. Poksinski, and K. Johansen, "Total internal reflection ellipsometry: principles and applications," Appl. Opt. 43, 3028-3036 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Nabok, A. Tsargorodskaya, A. Holloway, N. Starodub, A. Demchenko, and O. Gojster, "Registration of low molecular weight environmental toxins with total internal reflection ellipsometry," Sensors 3, 1195-1198 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lunderström, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started," Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 653-742 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Luff, J. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, and N. Fabricius, "Integrated Optical Mach-Zehnder Biosensor," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 583-592 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Wang and R. Magnusson, "Theory and applications of guided-mode resonance filters," Appl. Opt. 32, 2606-2613 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Mateus, M. Huang, C. Chang-Hasnain, J. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Lin, J. Qiu, J. Gerstenmeier, P. Li, H. Pien, J. Pepper, and B. Cunningham, "A label-free optical technique for detecting small molecule interactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 827-834 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Wang, R. Magnusson, J. Bagby, and M. Moharam, "Guided-mode resonances in planar dielectric-layer diffraction gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1470-1474 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

H. Arwin, M. Poksinski, and K. Johansen, "Total internal reflection ellipsometry: principles and applications," Appl. Opt. 43, 3028-3036 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schlensog, T. Gronewold, M. Tewesa, M. Famulok, and E. Quandt, "A love-wave biosensor using nucleic acids as ligands," Sens. Actuators B 101, 308-315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Nabok, A. Tsargorodskaya, A. Holloway, N. Starodub, A. Demchenko, and O. Gojster, "Registration of low molecular weight environmental toxins with total internal reflection ellipsometry," Sensors 3, 1195-1198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Mateus, M. Huang, C. Chang-Hasnain, J. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. Lin, J. Qiu, J. Gerstenmeier, P. Li, H. Pien, J. Pepper, and B. Cunningham, "A label-free optical technique for detecting small molecule interactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 827-834 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lunderström, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started," Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 653-742 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1990 (2)

S. Wang, R. Magnusson, J. Bagby, and M. Moharam, "Guided-mode resonances in planar dielectric-layer diffraction gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1470-1474 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Schasfoort, R. Kooyman, P. Bergveld, and J. Greve, "A new approach to immunoFET operation," Biosens. Bioelectron. 5, 103-124 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arwin, H.

Bagby, J.

S. Wang, R. Magnusson, J. Bagby, and M. Moharam, "Guided-mode resonances in planar dielectric-layer diffraction gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1470-1474 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Beatty, R.

C. Mateus, M. Huang, C. Chang-Hasnain, J. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bergveld, P.

R. Schasfoort, R. Kooyman, P. Bergveld, and J. Greve, "A new approach to immunoFET operation," Biosens. Bioelectron. 5, 103-124 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang-Hasnain, C.

C. Mateus, M. Huang, C. Chang-Hasnain, J. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B.

C. Mateus, M. Huang, C. Chang-Hasnain, J. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Lin, J. Qiu, J. Gerstenmeier, P. Li, H. Pien, J. Pepper, and B. Cunningham, "A label-free optical technique for detecting small molecule interactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 827-834 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demchenko, A.

A. Nabok, A. Tsargorodskaya, A. Holloway, N. Starodub, A. Demchenko, and O. Gojster, "Registration of low molecular weight environmental toxins with total internal reflection ellipsometry," Sensors 3, 1195-1198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fabricius, N.

Famulok, M.

M. Schlensog, T. Gronewold, M. Tewesa, M. Famulok, and E. Quandt, "A love-wave biosensor using nucleic acids as ligands," Sens. Actuators B 101, 308-315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P.

Foley, J.

C. Mateus, M. Huang, C. Chang-Hasnain, J. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gerstenmeier, J.

B. Lin, J. Qiu, J. Gerstenmeier, P. Li, H. Pien, J. Pepper, and B. Cunningham, "A label-free optical technique for detecting small molecule interactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 827-834 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gojster, O.

A. Nabok, A. Tsargorodskaya, A. Holloway, N. Starodub, A. Demchenko, and O. Gojster, "Registration of low molecular weight environmental toxins with total internal reflection ellipsometry," Sensors 3, 1195-1198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

R. Schasfoort, R. Kooyman, P. Bergveld, and J. Greve, "A new approach to immunoFET operation," Biosens. Bioelectron. 5, 103-124 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gronewold, T.

M. Schlensog, T. Gronewold, M. Tewesa, M. Famulok, and E. Quandt, "A love-wave biosensor using nucleic acids as ligands," Sens. Actuators B 101, 308-315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hollenbach, U.

Holloway, A.

A. Nabok, A. Tsargorodskaya, A. Holloway, N. Starodub, A. Demchenko, and O. Gojster, "Registration of low molecular weight environmental toxins with total internal reflection ellipsometry," Sensors 3, 1195-1198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

C. Mateus, M. Huang, C. Chang-Hasnain, J. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ingenhoff, J.

Johansen, K.

Kooyman, R.

R. Schasfoort, R. Kooyman, P. Bergveld, and J. Greve, "A new approach to immunoFET operation," Biosens. Bioelectron. 5, 103-124 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, P.

C. Mateus, M. Huang, C. Chang-Hasnain, J. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Lin, J. Qiu, J. Gerstenmeier, P. Li, H. Pien, J. Pepper, and B. Cunningham, "A label-free optical technique for detecting small molecule interactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 827-834 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liedberg, B.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lunderström, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started," Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 653-742 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

B. Lin, J. Qiu, J. Gerstenmeier, P. Li, H. Pien, J. Pepper, and B. Cunningham, "A label-free optical technique for detecting small molecule interactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 827-834 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luff, B.

Lunderström, I.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lunderström, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started," Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 653-742 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Magnusson, R.

S. Wang and R. Magnusson, "Theory and applications of guided-mode resonance filters," Appl. Opt. 32, 2606-2613 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wang, R. Magnusson, J. Bagby, and M. Moharam, "Guided-mode resonances in planar dielectric-layer diffraction gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1470-1474 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mateus, C.

C. Mateus, M. Huang, C. Chang-Hasnain, J. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M.

S. Wang, R. Magnusson, J. Bagby, and M. Moharam, "Guided-mode resonances in planar dielectric-layer diffraction gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1470-1474 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nabok, A.

A. Nabok, A. Tsargorodskaya, A. Holloway, N. Starodub, A. Demchenko, and O. Gojster, "Registration of low molecular weight environmental toxins with total internal reflection ellipsometry," Sensors 3, 1195-1198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nylander, C.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lunderström, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started," Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 653-742 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, J.

B. Lin, J. Qiu, J. Gerstenmeier, P. Li, H. Pien, J. Pepper, and B. Cunningham, "A label-free optical technique for detecting small molecule interactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 827-834 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piehler, J.

Pien, H.

B. Lin, J. Qiu, J. Gerstenmeier, P. Li, H. Pien, J. Pepper, and B. Cunningham, "A label-free optical technique for detecting small molecule interactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 827-834 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poksinski, M.

Qiu, J.

B. Lin, J. Qiu, J. Gerstenmeier, P. Li, H. Pien, J. Pepper, and B. Cunningham, "A label-free optical technique for detecting small molecule interactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 827-834 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quandt, E.

M. Schlensog, T. Gronewold, M. Tewesa, M. Famulok, and E. Quandt, "A love-wave biosensor using nucleic acids as ligands," Sens. Actuators B 101, 308-315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saarinen, J.

Schasfoort, R.

R. Schasfoort, R. Kooyman, P. Bergveld, and J. Greve, "A new approach to immunoFET operation," Biosens. Bioelectron. 5, 103-124 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlensog, M.

M. Schlensog, T. Gronewold, M. Tewesa, M. Famulok, and E. Quandt, "A love-wave biosensor using nucleic acids as ligands," Sens. Actuators B 101, 308-315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J.

Starodub, N.

A. Nabok, A. Tsargorodskaya, A. Holloway, N. Starodub, A. Demchenko, and O. Gojster, "Registration of low molecular weight environmental toxins with total internal reflection ellipsometry," Sensors 3, 1195-1198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tewesa, M.

M. Schlensog, T. Gronewold, M. Tewesa, M. Famulok, and E. Quandt, "A love-wave biosensor using nucleic acids as ligands," Sens. Actuators B 101, 308-315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsargorodskaya, A.

A. Nabok, A. Tsargorodskaya, A. Holloway, N. Starodub, A. Demchenko, and O. Gojster, "Registration of low molecular weight environmental toxins with total internal reflection ellipsometry," Sensors 3, 1195-1198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang and R. Magnusson, "Theory and applications of guided-mode resonance filters," Appl. Opt. 32, 2606-2613 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wang, R. Magnusson, J. Bagby, and M. Moharam, "Guided-mode resonances in planar dielectric-layer diffraction gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1470-1474 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, S.

Wilkinson, J.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biosens. Bioelectron. (3)

B. Lin, J. Qiu, J. Gerstenmeier, P. Li, H. Pien, J. Pepper, and B. Cunningham, "A label-free optical technique for detecting small molecule interactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 827-834 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schasfoort, R. Kooyman, P. Bergveld, and J. Greve, "A new approach to immunoFET operation," Biosens. Bioelectron. 5, 103-124 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lunderström, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started," Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 653-742 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. Mateus, M. Huang, C. Chang-Hasnain, J. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

S. Wang, R. Magnusson, J. Bagby, and M. Moharam, "Guided-mode resonances in planar dielectric-layer diffraction gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1470-1474 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Sens. Actuators B (1)

M. Schlensog, T. Gronewold, M. Tewesa, M. Famulok, and E. Quandt, "A love-wave biosensor using nucleic acids as ligands," Sens. Actuators B 101, 308-315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sensors, (1)

A. Nabok, A. Tsargorodskaya, A. Holloway, N. Starodub, A. Demchenko, and O. Gojster, "Registration of low molecular weight environmental toxins with total internal reflection ellipsometry," Sensors 3, 1195-1198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) The layered structure of a single period of our guided mode resonance filter (b) The physical dimensions are in nm unit for the guided mode resonance filter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The shift of the reflection spectrum from the guided mode resonance filter due to the thickness changes of the protein layer when the refractive index of the layer is 1.38. (b) The amounts of the spectrum shift with different refractive index of the protein layer

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The effect of the absorption in the guided mode resonance filter. kresin and kSiNx are the imaginary refractive index of the resin and high refractive index material, respectively. (b) The FWHM effected by the absorption of the grating.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The effect of the thickness of high refractive coating on the FWHM of the guided mode resonance filter.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The effect of angle of incidence on the reflection spectrum of the bare GMRF (without protein layer). The line is a 2nd order polynomial fitting curve to the peak value points.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The limit of detection of our optical resonant reflection biosensor on the size of the target protein.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E y , i = n = + S ̂ n , i ( z ) exp ( j nKx ) .
d 2 S ̂ n , i d z 2 + ( k 2 ε g n 2 K 2 ) S ̂ n , i + k 2 m = + ε m , i S ̂ n m , i = 0 .
E y , sup = exp ( j n sup k z ) + n R n exp ( j nKx + j ε sup k 2 n 2 K 2 z )
E y , sub = n T n exp ( j nKx j ε sub k 2 n 2 K 2 ( z d ) )
LOD = Δ λ det ectable ( Δ λ spectrum Δ t protein ) = 10 % × FWHM ( Δ λ spectrum Δ t protein )
θ λ π w 0

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