Abstract

We report the observation of intense spontaneous emission of green light from LiF:F2:F3 + centers in active channel waveguides generated in lithium fluoride crystals by near-infrared femtosecond laser radiation. While irradiating the crystal at room temperature with 405 nm light from a laser diode, yellow and green emission was seen by the naked eye. Stripe waveguides were fabricated by translating the crystal along the irradiated laser pulse, and their guiding properties and fluorescence spectra at 540 nm demonstrated. This single-step process inducing a waveguide structure offers a good prospect for the development of a waveguide laser in bulk LiF crystals.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. M. Montereali, M. Piccinini, and E. Burattini, "Amplified spontaneous emission in active channel waveguides. produced by electron-beam lithography in LiF crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4082-4084 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. Mussi, F. Somma, P. Moretti, J. Mugnier, B. Jacquier, R. M. Montereali, and E. Nichelatti, "Mode analysis in He+-implanted lithium fluoride planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3886-3888 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Cremona, J. A. M. Pereira, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, "Optical waveguides produced in LiF by MeV ion beam bombardment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4103-4105 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. C. Diettrich, I. T. McKinnie, D. M. Warrington, and V. V. Ter-Mikirtychev, "Tunable, single axial mode LiF:F2− laser," Optics Commun. 204, 317-322 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. M. Montereali, A. Mancini, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, "Active stripe waveguides produced by electron beam lithography in LiF single crystals," Opt. Commun. 153, 223-225 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Faenov, and T. Pikuz, "High-contrast photoluminescent patterns in lithium fluoride crystals produced by soft x-rays from a laser-plasma source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4810-4812 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Cheng, Y. Wang, J. D. White, W. Zhao, and G. Chen, "Demonstration of high-density three-dimensional storage in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1304-1307 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Study of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in glasses," J Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2496-2504 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, S. De Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 µ m by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. 27, 1938-1940 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, "Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate)," Opt. Lett. 29, 1840-1842 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Kurobori, K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, "Simultaneous fabrication of laser-active colour centres and permanent microgratings in lithium fluoride by a single femtosecond pulse," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, L399-L405 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, T. Kurobori, D. Takamizu, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, "Femtosecond-laser-encoded distributed-feedback color center laser in lithium fluoride single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 311-313 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. C. Courrol, R. E. Samad, L. Gomes, I. M. Ranieri, S. L. Baldochi, A. Z. Freitas, N. D. V. Junior, "Color center production by femtosecond pulse laser irradiation in LiF crystals," Opt. Express 12, 288-293 (2004),
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. Baldacchinia, E. D Nicola, R. M. Montereali, A. Scacco, and V. Kalinov, J. Phys. and Chemistry of Solids 61, 21-26 (2000). H. E. Gu, L. Qi, L. and F. Wan, "Broadly tunable yellow-green laser using color centers in a LiF crystal at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1845-1846 (1988).
  15. L. Qi, H. E. Gu, S. Z. Guo, and L. F. Wan, "Observation and investigation of new spectra of LiF crystals," J. Synth. Cryst. 18, 237-240 (1989).
  16. G. Cheng, J. D. White, Q. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, and G. Chen, "Microstructure on surface of LiNbO3:Fe induced by a single ultra-short laser pulse," Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1283-1285 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. T. Basiev, A. Y. Karasik, V. A. Konyushkin, A. G. Papashvili, K. K. Pukhov, and I. V. Ermakow, Quantum Electron. 32, 659-662 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. F. Mollenauer, D. M. Bloom, and H. Guggenheim, "Simple two-step photoionization yields high density of laser-active F2 + centers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 506-509 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Nahum, "Optical properties and mechanism of formation of some F-aggregate centers in LiF," Phys. Rev. 158, 814-825 (1967).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (4)

T. Kurobori, K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, "Simultaneous fabrication of laser-active colour centres and permanent microgratings in lithium fluoride by a single femtosecond pulse," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, L399-L405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, J. D. White, Q. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, and G. Chen, "Microstructure on surface of LiNbO3:Fe induced by a single ultra-short laser pulse," Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1283-1285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Mussi, F. Somma, P. Moretti, J. Mugnier, B. Jacquier, R. M. Montereali, and E. Nichelatti, "Mode analysis in He+-implanted lithium fluoride planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3886-3888 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, Y. Wang, J. D. White, W. Zhao, and G. Chen, "Demonstration of high-density three-dimensional storage in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1304-1307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (6)

M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Study of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in glasses," J Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2496-2504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Faenov, and T. Pikuz, "High-contrast photoluminescent patterns in lithium fluoride crystals produced by soft x-rays from a laser-plasma source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4810-4812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Cremona, J. A. M. Pereira, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, "Optical waveguides produced in LiF by MeV ion beam bombardment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4103-4105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Diettrich, I. T. McKinnie, D. M. Warrington, and V. V. Ter-Mikirtychev, "Tunable, single axial mode LiF:F2− laser," Optics Commun. 204, 317-322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Basiev, A. Y. Karasik, V. A. Konyushkin, A. G. Papashvili, K. K. Pukhov, and I. V. Ermakow, Quantum Electron. 32, 659-662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, S. De Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 µ m by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. 27, 1938-1940 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. M. Montereali, M. Piccinini, and E. Burattini, "Amplified spontaneous emission in active channel waveguides. produced by electron-beam lithography in LiF crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4082-4084 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. M. Montereali, A. Mancini, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, "Active stripe waveguides produced by electron beam lithography in LiF single crystals," Opt. Commun. 153, 223-225 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

L. Qi, H. E. Gu, S. Z. Guo, and L. F. Wan, "Observation and investigation of new spectra of LiF crystals," J. Synth. Cryst. 18, 237-240 (1989).

1988 (1)

G. Baldacchinia, E. D Nicola, R. M. Montereali, A. Scacco, and V. Kalinov, J. Phys. and Chemistry of Solids 61, 21-26 (2000). H. E. Gu, L. Qi, L. and F. Wan, "Broadly tunable yellow-green laser using color centers in a LiF crystal at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1845-1846 (1988).

1978 (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, D. M. Bloom, and H. Guggenheim, "Simple two-step photoionization yields high density of laser-active F2 + centers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 506-509 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

J. Nahum, "Optical properties and mechanism of formation of some F-aggregate centers in LiF," Phys. Rev. 158, 814-825 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Baldacchini, G.

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Faenov, and T. Pikuz, "High-contrast photoluminescent patterns in lithium fluoride crystals produced by soft x-rays from a laser-plasma source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4810-4812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baldacchinia, G.

G. Baldacchinia, E. D Nicola, R. M. Montereali, A. Scacco, and V. Kalinov, J. Phys. and Chemistry of Solids 61, 21-26 (2000). H. E. Gu, L. Qi, L. and F. Wan, "Broadly tunable yellow-green laser using color centers in a LiF crystal at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1845-1846 (1988).

Baldochi, S. L.

Basiev, T. T.

T. T. Basiev, A. Y. Karasik, V. A. Konyushkin, A. G. Papashvili, K. K. Pukhov, and I. V. Ermakow, Quantum Electron. 32, 659-662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, D. M.

L. F. Mollenauer, D. M. Bloom, and H. Guggenheim, "Simple two-step photoionization yields high density of laser-active F2 + centers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 506-509 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bonfigli, F.

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Faenov, and T. Pikuz, "High-contrast photoluminescent patterns in lithium fluoride crystals produced by soft x-rays from a laser-plasma source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4810-4812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Study of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in glasses," J Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2496-2504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burattini, E.

R. M. Montereali, M. Piccinini, and E. Burattini, "Amplified spontaneous emission in active channel waveguides. produced by electron-beam lithography in LiF crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4082-4084 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

Chen, G.

G. Cheng, Y. Wang, J. D. White, W. Zhao, and G. Chen, "Demonstration of high-density three-dimensional storage in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1304-1307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, J. D. White, Q. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, and G. Chen, "Microstructure on surface of LiNbO3:Fe induced by a single ultra-short laser pulse," Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1283-1285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, G.

G. Cheng, J. D. White, Q. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, and G. Chen, "Microstructure on surface of LiNbO3:Fe induced by a single ultra-short laser pulse," Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1283-1285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, Y. Wang, J. D. White, W. Zhao, and G. Chen, "Demonstration of high-density three-dimensional storage in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1304-1307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Courrol, L. C.

Cremona, M.

M. Cremona, J. A. M. Pereira, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, "Optical waveguides produced in LiF by MeV ion beam bombardment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4103-4105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

Diettrich, J. C.

J. C. Diettrich, I. T. McKinnie, D. M. Warrington, and V. V. Ter-Mikirtychev, "Tunable, single axial mode LiF:F2− laser," Optics Commun. 204, 317-322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ermakow, I. V.

T. T. Basiev, A. Y. Karasik, V. A. Konyushkin, A. G. Papashvili, K. K. Pukhov, and I. V. Ermakow, Quantum Electron. 32, 659-662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Faenov, A.

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Faenov, and T. Pikuz, "High-contrast photoluminescent patterns in lithium fluoride crystals produced by soft x-rays from a laser-plasma source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4810-4812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flora, F.

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Faenov, and T. Pikuz, "High-contrast photoluminescent patterns in lithium fluoride crystals produced by soft x-rays from a laser-plasma source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4810-4812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Freitas, A. Z.

Gomes, L.

Gu, H. E.

L. Qi, H. E. Gu, S. Z. Guo, and L. F. Wan, "Observation and investigation of new spectra of LiF crystals," J. Synth. Cryst. 18, 237-240 (1989).

Guggenheim, H.

L. F. Mollenauer, D. M. Bloom, and H. Guggenheim, "Simple two-step photoionization yields high density of laser-active F2 + centers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 506-509 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Guo, S. Z.

L. Qi, H. E. Gu, S. Z. Guo, and L. F. Wan, "Observation and investigation of new spectra of LiF crystals," J. Synth. Cryst. 18, 237-240 (1989).

Hirano, M.

K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, T. Kurobori, D. Takamizu, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, "Femtosecond-laser-encoded distributed-feedback color center laser in lithium fluoride single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 311-313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurobori, K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, "Simultaneous fabrication of laser-active colour centres and permanent microgratings in lithium fluoride by a single femtosecond pulse," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, L399-L405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hosono, H.

K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, T. Kurobori, D. Takamizu, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, "Femtosecond-laser-encoded distributed-feedback color center laser in lithium fluoride single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 311-313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurobori, K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, "Simultaneous fabrication of laser-active colour centres and permanent microgratings in lithium fluoride by a single femtosecond pulse," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, L399-L405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jacquier, B.

V. Mussi, F. Somma, P. Moretti, J. Mugnier, B. Jacquier, R. M. Montereali, and E. Nichelatti, "Mode analysis in He+-implanted lithium fluoride planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3886-3888 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Junior, N. D. V.

Kalinov, V.

G. Baldacchinia, E. D Nicola, R. M. Montereali, A. Scacco, and V. Kalinov, J. Phys. and Chemistry of Solids 61, 21-26 (2000). H. E. Gu, L. Qi, L. and F. Wan, "Broadly tunable yellow-green laser using color centers in a LiF crystal at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1845-1846 (1988).

Kamiya, T.

K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, T. Kurobori, D. Takamizu, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, "Femtosecond-laser-encoded distributed-feedback color center laser in lithium fluoride single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 311-313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karasik, A. Y.

T. T. Basiev, A. Y. Karasik, V. A. Konyushkin, A. G. Papashvili, K. K. Pukhov, and I. V. Ermakow, Quantum Electron. 32, 659-662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, K.

K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, T. Kurobori, D. Takamizu, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, "Femtosecond-laser-encoded distributed-feedback color center laser in lithium fluoride single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 311-313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurobori, K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, "Simultaneous fabrication of laser-active colour centres and permanent microgratings in lithium fluoride by a single femtosecond pulse," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, L399-L405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Konyushkin, V. A.

T. T. Basiev, A. Y. Karasik, V. A. Konyushkin, A. G. Papashvili, K. K. Pukhov, and I. V. Ermakow, Quantum Electron. 32, 659-662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kurobori, T.

K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, T. Kurobori, D. Takamizu, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, "Femtosecond-laser-encoded distributed-feedback color center laser in lithium fluoride single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 311-313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurobori, K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, "Simultaneous fabrication of laser-active colour centres and permanent microgratings in lithium fluoride by a single femtosecond pulse," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, L399-L405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

Liu, Q.

G. Cheng, J. D. White, Q. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, and G. Chen, "Microstructure on surface of LiNbO3:Fe induced by a single ultra-short laser pulse," Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1283-1285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, C.

Mancini, A.

R. M. Montereali, A. Mancini, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, "Active stripe waveguides produced by electron beam lithography in LiF single crystals," Opt. Commun. 153, 223-225 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

McKinnie, I. T.

J. C. Diettrich, I. T. McKinnie, D. M. Warrington, and V. V. Ter-Mikirtychev, "Tunable, single axial mode LiF:F2− laser," Optics Commun. 204, 317-322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L. F.

L. F. Mollenauer, D. M. Bloom, and H. Guggenheim, "Simple two-step photoionization yields high density of laser-active F2 + centers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 506-509 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Montereali, R. M.

V. Mussi, F. Somma, P. Moretti, J. Mugnier, B. Jacquier, R. M. Montereali, and E. Nichelatti, "Mode analysis in He+-implanted lithium fluoride planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3886-3888 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Faenov, and T. Pikuz, "High-contrast photoluminescent patterns in lithium fluoride crystals produced by soft x-rays from a laser-plasma source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4810-4812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Montereali, M. Piccinini, and E. Burattini, "Amplified spontaneous emission in active channel waveguides. produced by electron-beam lithography in LiF crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4082-4084 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Montereali, A. Mancini, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, "Active stripe waveguides produced by electron beam lithography in LiF single crystals," Opt. Commun. 153, 223-225 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchinia, E. D Nicola, R. M. Montereali, A. Scacco, and V. Kalinov, J. Phys. and Chemistry of Solids 61, 21-26 (2000). H. E. Gu, L. Qi, L. and F. Wan, "Broadly tunable yellow-green laser using color centers in a LiF crystal at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1845-1846 (1988).

Moretti, P.

V. Mussi, F. Somma, P. Moretti, J. Mugnier, B. Jacquier, R. M. Montereali, and E. Nichelatti, "Mode analysis in He+-implanted lithium fluoride planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3886-3888 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mugnier, J.

V. Mussi, F. Somma, P. Moretti, J. Mugnier, B. Jacquier, R. M. Montereali, and E. Nichelatti, "Mode analysis in He+-implanted lithium fluoride planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3886-3888 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murra, D.

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Faenov, and T. Pikuz, "High-contrast photoluminescent patterns in lithium fluoride crystals produced by soft x-rays from a laser-plasma source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4810-4812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mussi, V.

V. Mussi, F. Somma, P. Moretti, J. Mugnier, B. Jacquier, R. M. Montereali, and E. Nichelatti, "Mode analysis in He+-implanted lithium fluoride planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3886-3888 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nahum, J.

J. Nahum, "Optical properties and mechanism of formation of some F-aggregate centers in LiF," Phys. Rev. 158, 814-825 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Nichelatti, E.

V. Mussi, F. Somma, P. Moretti, J. Mugnier, B. Jacquier, R. M. Montereali, and E. Nichelatti, "Mode analysis in He+-implanted lithium fluoride planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3886-3888 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Faenov, and T. Pikuz, "High-contrast photoluminescent patterns in lithium fluoride crystals produced by soft x-rays from a laser-plasma source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4810-4812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nicola, E. D

G. Baldacchinia, E. D Nicola, R. M. Montereali, A. Scacco, and V. Kalinov, J. Phys. and Chemistry of Solids 61, 21-26 (2000). H. E. Gu, L. Qi, L. and F. Wan, "Broadly tunable yellow-green laser using color centers in a LiF crystal at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1845-1846 (1988).

Osellame, R.

Papashvili, A. G.

T. T. Basiev, A. Y. Karasik, V. A. Konyushkin, A. G. Papashvili, K. K. Pukhov, and I. V. Ermakow, Quantum Electron. 32, 659-662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pelli, S.

M. Cremona, J. A. M. Pereira, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, "Optical waveguides produced in LiF by MeV ion beam bombardment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4103-4105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Montereali, A. Mancini, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, "Active stripe waveguides produced by electron beam lithography in LiF single crystals," Opt. Commun. 153, 223-225 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, J. A. M.

M. Cremona, J. A. M. Pereira, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, "Optical waveguides produced in LiF by MeV ion beam bombardment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4103-4105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Piccinini, M.

R. M. Montereali, M. Piccinini, and E. Burattini, "Amplified spontaneous emission in active channel waveguides. produced by electron-beam lithography in LiF crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4082-4084 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pikuz, T.

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Faenov, and T. Pikuz, "High-contrast photoluminescent patterns in lithium fluoride crystals produced by soft x-rays from a laser-plasma source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4810-4812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Polli, D.

Pukhov, K. K.

T. T. Basiev, A. Y. Karasik, V. A. Konyushkin, A. G. Papashvili, K. K. Pukhov, and I. V. Ermakow, Quantum Electron. 32, 659-662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qi, L.

L. Qi, H. E. Gu, S. Z. Guo, and L. F. Wan, "Observation and investigation of new spectra of LiF crystals," J. Synth. Cryst. 18, 237-240 (1989).

Ramponi, R.

Ranieri, I. M.

Richardson, K.

Richardson, M.

Righini, G. C.

M. Cremona, J. A. M. Pereira, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, "Optical waveguides produced in LiF by MeV ion beam bombardment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4103-4105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Montereali, A. Mancini, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, "Active stripe waveguides produced by electron beam lithography in LiF single crystals," Opt. Commun. 153, 223-225 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Samad, R. E.

Scacco, A.

G. Baldacchinia, E. D Nicola, R. M. Montereali, A. Scacco, and V. Kalinov, J. Phys. and Chemistry of Solids 61, 21-26 (2000). H. E. Gu, L. Qi, L. and F. Wan, "Broadly tunable yellow-green laser using color centers in a LiF crystal at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1845-1846 (1988).

Somma, F.

V. Mussi, F. Somma, P. Moretti, J. Mugnier, B. Jacquier, R. M. Montereali, and E. Nichelatti, "Mode analysis in He+-implanted lithium fluoride planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3886-3888 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Streltsov, M.

M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Study of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in glasses," J Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2496-2504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, S.

Takamizu, D.

K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, T. Kurobori, D. Takamizu, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, "Femtosecond-laser-encoded distributed-feedback color center laser in lithium fluoride single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 311-313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ter-Mikirtychev, V. V.

J. C. Diettrich, I. T. McKinnie, D. M. Warrington, and V. V. Ter-Mikirtychev, "Tunable, single axial mode LiF:F2− laser," Optics Commun. 204, 317-322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wan, L. F.

L. Qi, H. E. Gu, S. Z. Guo, and L. F. Wan, "Observation and investigation of new spectra of LiF crystals," J. Synth. Cryst. 18, 237-240 (1989).

Wang, Y.

G. Cheng, J. D. White, Q. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, and G. Chen, "Microstructure on surface of LiNbO3:Fe induced by a single ultra-short laser pulse," Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1283-1285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, Y. Wang, J. D. White, W. Zhao, and G. Chen, "Demonstration of high-density three-dimensional storage in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1304-1307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Warrington, D. M.

J. C. Diettrich, I. T. McKinnie, D. M. Warrington, and V. V. Ter-Mikirtychev, "Tunable, single axial mode LiF:F2− laser," Optics Commun. 204, 317-322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

White, J. D.

G. Cheng, J. D. White, Q. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, and G. Chen, "Microstructure on surface of LiNbO3:Fe induced by a single ultra-short laser pulse," Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1283-1285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, Y. Wang, J. D. White, W. Zhao, and G. Chen, "Demonstration of high-density three-dimensional storage in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1304-1307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

G. Cheng, Y. Wang, J. D. White, W. Zhao, and G. Chen, "Demonstration of high-density three-dimensional storage in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1304-1307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, J. D. White, Q. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, and G. Chen, "Microstructure on surface of LiNbO3:Fe induced by a single ultra-short laser pulse," Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1283-1285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zoubir, A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

R. M. Montereali, M. Piccinini, and E. Burattini, "Amplified spontaneous emission in active channel waveguides. produced by electron-beam lithography in LiF crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4082-4084 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Mussi, F. Somma, P. Moretti, J. Mugnier, B. Jacquier, R. M. Montereali, and E. Nichelatti, "Mode analysis in He+-implanted lithium fluoride planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3886-3888 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Cremona, J. A. M. Pereira, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, "Optical waveguides produced in LiF by MeV ion beam bombardment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4103-4105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Faenov, and T. Pikuz, "High-contrast photoluminescent patterns in lithium fluoride crystals produced by soft x-rays from a laser-plasma source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4810-4812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, T. Kurobori, D. Takamizu, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, "Femtosecond-laser-encoded distributed-feedback color center laser in lithium fluoride single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 311-313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchinia, E. D Nicola, R. M. Montereali, A. Scacco, and V. Kalinov, J. Phys. and Chemistry of Solids 61, 21-26 (2000). H. E. Gu, L. Qi, L. and F. Wan, "Broadly tunable yellow-green laser using color centers in a LiF crystal at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1845-1846 (1988).

L. F. Mollenauer, D. M. Bloom, and H. Guggenheim, "Simple two-step photoionization yields high density of laser-active F2 + centers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 506-509 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Cheng, J. D. White, Q. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, and G. Chen, "Microstructure on surface of LiNbO3:Fe induced by a single ultra-short laser pulse," Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1283-1285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Study of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in glasses," J Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2496-2504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Cheng, Y. Wang, J. D. White, W. Zhao, and G. Chen, "Demonstration of high-density three-dimensional storage in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1304-1307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

T. Kurobori, K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, "Simultaneous fabrication of laser-active colour centres and permanent microgratings in lithium fluoride by a single femtosecond pulse," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, L399-L405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Synth. Cryst. (1)

L. Qi, H. E. Gu, S. Z. Guo, and L. F. Wan, "Observation and investigation of new spectra of LiF crystals," J. Synth. Cryst. 18, 237-240 (1989).

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. M. Montereali, A. Mancini, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, "Active stripe waveguides produced by electron beam lithography in LiF single crystals," Opt. Commun. 153, 223-225 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optics Commun. (1)

J. C. Diettrich, I. T. McKinnie, D. M. Warrington, and V. V. Ter-Mikirtychev, "Tunable, single axial mode LiF:F2− laser," Optics Commun. 204, 317-322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. Nahum, "Optical properties and mechanism of formation of some F-aggregate centers in LiF," Phys. Rev. 158, 814-825 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

T. T. Basiev, A. Y. Karasik, V. A. Konyushkin, A. G. Papashvili, K. K. Pukhov, and I. V. Ermakow, Quantum Electron. 32, 659-662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental configuration. A dichroic mirror (DM) is used to combine the output from the high peak power Ti:Sapphire laser (used for writing) and a low power short wavelength laser diode (used to monitor waveguide formation). A lens (F) co-focuses the beams into the LiF crystal which is mounted on a three dimensional translation stage.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Images of the fluorescence generated by a 405nm laser coupled into structures written in LiF: F2 crystal by a femtosecond laser. Each 100fs, 0.1mJ laser pulse is focused into the crystal using a NA=0.55 objective lens (see Fig. 1). (left) waveguide, (right) splitter. The intensity of the 405nm laser coupled into the waveguides was <1mW, while that into the splitter was <20mW. During fabrication, the crystal was moved at a rate of 1mm/s away from the laser beam.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fluorescence spectra of the crystal before (thick gray curve) and after (thick black curve) irradiation by fs laser pulses. The dotted lines represent the results of fitting the after radiation spectrum to two peaks (one centered at 538nm and the other at 630nm).

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