Abstract

Optically controlled one-dimensional photonic crystal structures for the THz range are studied both theoretically and experimentally. A GaAs:Cr layer constitutes a defect in the photonic crystals studied; its photoexcitation by 800 nm optical femtosecond pulses leads to the modulation of the THz beam. Since the THz field can be localized in the photoexcited layer of the photonic crystal, the interaction between photocarriers and THz light is strengthened and yields an appreciable modulation of the THz output beam even for low optical pump fluences. Optimum resonant structures are found, constructed and experimentally studied. The dynamical response of these elements is shown to be controlled by the lifetime of THz photons in the resonator and by the free carrier lifetime. The time response of the structures studied is shorter than 330 ps.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nature materials 1, 26 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Koch, "Terahertz Technology: A land to be discovered," Opt. Photonics News 18, (2007).
  3. A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta and H. Ito, "120-GHz-band millimeterwave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Transactions Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 1937 (2006)
  4. P. Kužel and F. Kadlec, "Tunable structures and modulators for the THz light," Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences - Physique, (2007), in press.
  5. J. Bae, H. Mazaki, T. Fujii, and K. Mizuno, "An optically controlled modulator using a metal strip grating on a silicon plate for millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths," IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Symposium 3, 1239 (1996).
  6. T. Nozokido, H. Minamide, and K. Mizuno, "Modulation of sub-millimeter wave radiation by laser-produced free carriers in semiconductors," Electron. Commun. Jpn. II 80, 1 (1997).
  7. S. Lee, Y. Kuga, and R. A. Mullen, "Optically tunable millimeter-wave attenuator based on layered structures," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 27, 9 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Biber, D. Schneiderbanger, and L.-P. Schmidt, "Design of a controllable attenuator with high dynamic range for THz-frequencies based on optically stimulated free carriers in high-resistivity silicon," Frequenz 59, 141 (2005).
  9. L. Fekete, J. Y. Hlinka, F. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and P. Mounaix, "Active optical control of the terahertz reflectivity," Opt. Lett. 30, 1992 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Fekete, F. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and H. Němec, "Ultrafast opto-terahertz photonic crystal modulator," Opt. Lett. 32, 680 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, S. R. Bank, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Opt. Lett. 32,1620 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Kadow, S. B. Fleischer, J. P. Ibbetwon, J. E. Bowers, A. C. G. J. Dong, and C. J. Palmstrom, "Self-assembled ErAs islands in GaAs: Growth and subpicosecond carrier dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3548 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Nemec, L. Duvillaret, F. Quemeneur, and P. Kuzel, "Defect modes due to twinning in one-dimensional photonic crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 548 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. L. Pedrotti and L. S. Pedrotti, Introduction to Optics, 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1993).
  15. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed., (University Press, Cambridge, 2003).
  16. H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, "Methodology of an optical pump-terahertz probe experiment: An analytical frequency-domain approach," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 8454 (2002).
  17. P. Kužel, F. Kadlec, and H. Němec, "Propagation of terahertz pulses in photoexcited media: analytical theory for layered systems," J. Chem. Phys. 127, (2007), in press.
  18. H. Němec, F. Kadlec, S. Surendran, P. Kužel, and P. Jungwirth, "Ultrafast far-infrared dynamics probed by terahertz pulses: a frequency domain approach. I. Model systems," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 104503 (2005).
  19. H. Němec, F. Kadlec, C. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and P. Jungwirth, "Ultrafast far-infrared dynamics probed by terahertz pulses: a frequency domain approach. II. Applications," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 104504 (2005).

2007 (4)

M. Koch, "Terahertz Technology: A land to be discovered," Opt. Photonics News 18, (2007).

P. Kužel, F. Kadlec, and H. Němec, "Propagation of terahertz pulses in photoexcited media: analytical theory for layered systems," J. Chem. Phys. 127, (2007), in press.

L. Fekete, F. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and H. Němec, "Ultrafast opto-terahertz photonic crystal modulator," Opt. Lett. 32, 680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, S. R. Bank, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Opt. Lett. 32,1620 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta and H. Ito, "120-GHz-band millimeterwave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Transactions Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 1937 (2006)

2005 (4)

H. Němec, F. Kadlec, S. Surendran, P. Kužel, and P. Jungwirth, "Ultrafast far-infrared dynamics probed by terahertz pulses: a frequency domain approach. I. Model systems," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 104503 (2005).

H. Němec, F. Kadlec, C. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and P. Jungwirth, "Ultrafast far-infrared dynamics probed by terahertz pulses: a frequency domain approach. II. Applications," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 104504 (2005).

S. Biber, D. Schneiderbanger, and L.-P. Schmidt, "Design of a controllable attenuator with high dynamic range for THz-frequencies based on optically stimulated free carriers in high-resistivity silicon," Frequenz 59, 141 (2005).

L. Fekete, J. Y. Hlinka, F. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and P. Mounaix, "Active optical control of the terahertz reflectivity," Opt. Lett. 30, 1992 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (2)

H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, "Methodology of an optical pump-terahertz probe experiment: An analytical frequency-domain approach," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 8454 (2002).

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nature materials 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Lee, Y. Kuga, and R. A. Mullen, "Optically tunable millimeter-wave attenuator based on layered structures," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 27, 9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. Kadow, S. B. Fleischer, J. P. Ibbetwon, J. E. Bowers, A. C. G. J. Dong, and C. J. Palmstrom, "Self-assembled ErAs islands in GaAs: Growth and subpicosecond carrier dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3548 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Nozokido, H. Minamide, and K. Mizuno, "Modulation of sub-millimeter wave radiation by laser-produced free carriers in semiconductors," Electron. Commun. Jpn. II 80, 1 (1997).

Averitt, R. D.

Bank, S. R.

Biber, S.

S. Biber, D. Schneiderbanger, and L.-P. Schmidt, "Design of a controllable attenuator with high dynamic range for THz-frequencies based on optically stimulated free carriers in high-resistivity silicon," Frequenz 59, 141 (2005).

Bowers, J. E.

C. Kadow, S. B. Fleischer, J. P. Ibbetwon, J. E. Bowers, A. C. G. J. Dong, and C. J. Palmstrom, "Self-assembled ErAs islands in GaAs: Growth and subpicosecond carrier dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3548 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-T.

Dong, A. C. G. J.

C. Kadow, S. B. Fleischer, J. P. Ibbetwon, J. E. Bowers, A. C. G. J. Dong, and C. J. Palmstrom, "Self-assembled ErAs islands in GaAs: Growth and subpicosecond carrier dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3548 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duvillaret, L.

Fekete, L.

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nature materials 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, S. B.

C. Kadow, S. B. Fleischer, J. P. Ibbetwon, J. E. Bowers, A. C. G. J. Dong, and C. J. Palmstrom, "Self-assembled ErAs islands in GaAs: Growth and subpicosecond carrier dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3548 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Furuta, T.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta and H. Ito, "120-GHz-band millimeterwave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Transactions Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 1937 (2006)

Gossard, A. C.

Hirata, A.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta and H. Ito, "120-GHz-band millimeterwave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Transactions Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 1937 (2006)

Hlinka, J. Y.

Ibbetwon, J. P.

C. Kadow, S. B. Fleischer, J. P. Ibbetwon, J. E. Bowers, A. C. G. J. Dong, and C. J. Palmstrom, "Self-assembled ErAs islands in GaAs: Growth and subpicosecond carrier dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3548 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta and H. Ito, "120-GHz-band millimeterwave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Transactions Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 1937 (2006)

Jungwirth, P.

H. Němec, F. Kadlec, S. Surendran, P. Kužel, and P. Jungwirth, "Ultrafast far-infrared dynamics probed by terahertz pulses: a frequency domain approach. I. Model systems," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 104503 (2005).

H. Němec, F. Kadlec, C. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and P. Jungwirth, "Ultrafast far-infrared dynamics probed by terahertz pulses: a frequency domain approach. II. Applications," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 104504 (2005).

Kadlec, C.

H. Němec, F. Kadlec, C. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and P. Jungwirth, "Ultrafast far-infrared dynamics probed by terahertz pulses: a frequency domain approach. II. Applications," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 104504 (2005).

Kadlec, F.

P. Kužel, F. Kadlec, and H. Němec, "Propagation of terahertz pulses in photoexcited media: analytical theory for layered systems," J. Chem. Phys. 127, (2007), in press.

L. Fekete, F. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and H. Němec, "Ultrafast opto-terahertz photonic crystal modulator," Opt. Lett. 32, 680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Fekete, J. Y. Hlinka, F. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and P. Mounaix, "Active optical control of the terahertz reflectivity," Opt. Lett. 30, 1992 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Němec, F. Kadlec, S. Surendran, P. Kužel, and P. Jungwirth, "Ultrafast far-infrared dynamics probed by terahertz pulses: a frequency domain approach. I. Model systems," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 104503 (2005).

H. Němec, F. Kadlec, C. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and P. Jungwirth, "Ultrafast far-infrared dynamics probed by terahertz pulses: a frequency domain approach. II. Applications," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 104504 (2005).

H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, "Methodology of an optical pump-terahertz probe experiment: An analytical frequency-domain approach," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 8454 (2002).

Kadow, C.

C. Kadow, S. B. Fleischer, J. P. Ibbetwon, J. E. Bowers, A. C. G. J. Dong, and C. J. Palmstrom, "Self-assembled ErAs islands in GaAs: Growth and subpicosecond carrier dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3548 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

M. Koch, "Terahertz Technology: A land to be discovered," Opt. Photonics News 18, (2007).

Kosugi, T.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta and H. Ito, "120-GHz-band millimeterwave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Transactions Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 1937 (2006)

Kuga, Y.

S. Lee, Y. Kuga, and R. A. Mullen, "Optically tunable millimeter-wave attenuator based on layered structures," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 27, 9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuzel, P.

Kužel, P.

P. Kužel, F. Kadlec, and H. Němec, "Propagation of terahertz pulses in photoexcited media: analytical theory for layered systems," J. Chem. Phys. 127, (2007), in press.

L. Fekete, F. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and H. Němec, "Ultrafast opto-terahertz photonic crystal modulator," Opt. Lett. 32, 680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Fekete, J. Y. Hlinka, F. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and P. Mounaix, "Active optical control of the terahertz reflectivity," Opt. Lett. 30, 1992 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Němec, F. Kadlec, S. Surendran, P. Kužel, and P. Jungwirth, "Ultrafast far-infrared dynamics probed by terahertz pulses: a frequency domain approach. I. Model systems," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 104503 (2005).

H. Němec, F. Kadlec, C. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and P. Jungwirth, "Ultrafast far-infrared dynamics probed by terahertz pulses: a frequency domain approach. II. Applications," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 104504 (2005).

H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, "Methodology of an optical pump-terahertz probe experiment: An analytical frequency-domain approach," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 8454 (2002).

Lee, S.

S. Lee, Y. Kuga, and R. A. Mullen, "Optically tunable millimeter-wave attenuator based on layered structures," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 27, 9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Minamide, H.

T. Nozokido, H. Minamide, and K. Mizuno, "Modulation of sub-millimeter wave radiation by laser-produced free carriers in semiconductors," Electron. Commun. Jpn. II 80, 1 (1997).

Mizuno, K.

T. Nozokido, H. Minamide, and K. Mizuno, "Modulation of sub-millimeter wave radiation by laser-produced free carriers in semiconductors," Electron. Commun. Jpn. II 80, 1 (1997).

Mounaix, P.

Mullen, R. A.

S. Lee, Y. Kuga, and R. A. Mullen, "Optically tunable millimeter-wave attenuator based on layered structures," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 27, 9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N?emec, H.

Nakajima, F.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta and H. Ito, "120-GHz-band millimeterwave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Transactions Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 1937 (2006)

Nemec, H.

L. Fekete, F. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and H. Němec, "Ultrafast opto-terahertz photonic crystal modulator," Opt. Lett. 32, 680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Kužel, F. Kadlec, and H. Němec, "Propagation of terahertz pulses in photoexcited media: analytical theory for layered systems," J. Chem. Phys. 127, (2007), in press.

H. Němec, F. Kadlec, S. Surendran, P. Kužel, and P. Jungwirth, "Ultrafast far-infrared dynamics probed by terahertz pulses: a frequency domain approach. I. Model systems," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 104503 (2005).

H. Němec, F. Kadlec, C. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and P. Jungwirth, "Ultrafast far-infrared dynamics probed by terahertz pulses: a frequency domain approach. II. Applications," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 104504 (2005).

H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, "Methodology of an optical pump-terahertz probe experiment: An analytical frequency-domain approach," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 8454 (2002).

Nozokido, T.

T. Nozokido, H. Minamide, and K. Mizuno, "Modulation of sub-millimeter wave radiation by laser-produced free carriers in semiconductors," Electron. Commun. Jpn. II 80, 1 (1997).

Padilla, W. J.

Palmstrom, C. J.

C. Kadow, S. B. Fleischer, J. P. Ibbetwon, J. E. Bowers, A. C. G. J. Dong, and C. J. Palmstrom, "Self-assembled ErAs islands in GaAs: Growth and subpicosecond carrier dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3548 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quemeneur, F.

Schmidt, L.-P.

S. Biber, D. Schneiderbanger, and L.-P. Schmidt, "Design of a controllable attenuator with high dynamic range for THz-frequencies based on optically stimulated free carriers in high-resistivity silicon," Frequenz 59, 141 (2005).

Schneiderbanger, D.

S. Biber, D. Schneiderbanger, and L.-P. Schmidt, "Design of a controllable attenuator with high dynamic range for THz-frequencies based on optically stimulated free carriers in high-resistivity silicon," Frequenz 59, 141 (2005).

Surendran, S.

H. Němec, F. Kadlec, S. Surendran, P. Kužel, and P. Jungwirth, "Ultrafast far-infrared dynamics probed by terahertz pulses: a frequency domain approach. I. Model systems," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 104503 (2005).

Takahashi, H.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta and H. Ito, "120-GHz-band millimeterwave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Transactions Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 1937 (2006)

Taylor, A. J.

Yamaguchi, R.

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta and H. Ito, "120-GHz-band millimeterwave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Transactions Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 1937 (2006)

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nature materials 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zide, J. M. O.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Kadow, S. B. Fleischer, J. P. Ibbetwon, J. E. Bowers, A. C. G. J. Dong, and C. J. Palmstrom, "Self-assembled ErAs islands in GaAs: Growth and subpicosecond carrier dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3548 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Commun. Jpn. II (1)

T. Nozokido, H. Minamide, and K. Mizuno, "Modulation of sub-millimeter wave radiation by laser-produced free carriers in semiconductors," Electron. Commun. Jpn. II 80, 1 (1997).

Frequenz (1)

S. Biber, D. Schneiderbanger, and L.-P. Schmidt, "Design of a controllable attenuator with high dynamic range for THz-frequencies based on optically stimulated free carriers in high-resistivity silicon," Frequenz 59, 141 (2005).

IEEE Transactions Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta and H. Ito, "120-GHz-band millimeterwave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Transactions Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 1937 (2006)

J. Chem. Phys. (4)

H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, "Methodology of an optical pump-terahertz probe experiment: An analytical frequency-domain approach," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 8454 (2002).

P. Kužel, F. Kadlec, and H. Němec, "Propagation of terahertz pulses in photoexcited media: analytical theory for layered systems," J. Chem. Phys. 127, (2007), in press.

H. Němec, F. Kadlec, S. Surendran, P. Kužel, and P. Jungwirth, "Ultrafast far-infrared dynamics probed by terahertz pulses: a frequency domain approach. I. Model systems," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 104503 (2005).

H. Němec, F. Kadlec, C. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and P. Jungwirth, "Ultrafast far-infrared dynamics probed by terahertz pulses: a frequency domain approach. II. Applications," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 104504 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Lee, Y. Kuga, and R. A. Mullen, "Optically tunable millimeter-wave attenuator based on layered structures," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 27, 9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature materials (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nature materials 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

M. Koch, "Terahertz Technology: A land to be discovered," Opt. Photonics News 18, (2007).

Other (4)

P. Kužel and F. Kadlec, "Tunable structures and modulators for the THz light," Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences - Physique, (2007), in press.

J. Bae, H. Mazaki, T. Fujii, and K. Mizuno, "An optically controlled modulator using a metal strip grating on a silicon plate for millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths," IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Symposium 3, 1239 (1996).

F. L. Pedrotti and L. S. Pedrotti, Introduction to Optics, 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1993).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed., (University Press, Cambridge, 2003).

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