Abstract

Micro-channels were fabricated in hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBGF) and suspended-core holey fiber (SC-HF) by femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser irradiation. Gaseous access was demonstrated via these engineered ports to the core of HC-PBGF and the hollow cladding of SC-HF. Femtosecond laser micro-machining caused no additional transmission loss in HC-PBGFs. This allowed a novel gas cell to be produced, in which gaseous access was provided solely through two micro-channels. Acetylene diffusion was also confirmed through a micro-channel leading to a single cladding airhole in SC-HF. This further highlighted the fabrication technique’s precision, selectivity, and potential for developing fiber-based micro-fluidic devices.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. N. Petrovich, A. van Brakel, F. Poletti, K. Mukasa, E. Austin, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, E. O'Driscoll, M. Watson, T. DelMonte, T. M. Monro, J. P. Dakin, and D. J. Richardson, "Microstructured fibers for sensing applications," Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050E (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sorensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 4080-4087 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, "Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor," Appl. Opt. 42, 3509-3515 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, J. Ju, and D. N. Wang, "Gas diffusion measurement using hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Sens. Actuators B 105, 183-186 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. StJ. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Thapa, K. Knabe, K. L. Corwin, and B. R. Washburn, "Arc fusion splicing of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers for gas-filled fiber cells," Opt. Express 14, 9576-9583 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Smolka, M. Barth, and O. Benson, "Selectively coated photonic crystal fiber for highly sensitive fluorescence detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. M. B. Cordeiro, E. M. dos Santos, C. H. B. Cruz, C. J. S. de Matos, and D. S. Ferreira, "Lateral access to the holes of photonic crystal fibers - selective filling and sensing applications," Opt. Express 14, 8403-8412 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, "Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors," Proc. SPIE 5855, 419-422 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, "Micromachining structured optical fibers using focused ion beam milling," Opt. Lett. 32, 1575-1577 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. G. K. Malek, "Laser processing for bio-microfluidics applications (part II)," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 1362-1369 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Ashkenasi, G. Müller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. A 77, 223-228 (2003).
  13. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Marcinkevicius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, "Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica," Opt. Lett. 26, 277-279 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P.L. Cavallotti, "Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,191107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Microchannels in conventional single-mode fibers," Opt. Lett 31, 2559-2561 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

S. Smolka, M. Barth, and O. Benson, "Selectively coated photonic crystal fiber for highly sensitive fluorescence detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, "Micromachining structured optical fibers using focused ion beam milling," Opt. Lett. 32, 1575-1577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

C. M. B. Cordeiro, E. M. dos Santos, C. H. B. Cruz, C. J. S. de Matos, and D. S. Ferreira, "Lateral access to the holes of photonic crystal fibers - selective filling and sensing applications," Opt. Express 14, 8403-8412 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Thapa, K. Knabe, K. L. Corwin, and B. R. Washburn, "Arc fusion splicing of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers for gas-filled fiber cells," Opt. Express 14, 9576-9583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. K. Malek, "Laser processing for bio-microfluidics applications (part II)," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 1362-1369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P.L. Cavallotti, "Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Microchannels in conventional single-mode fibers," Opt. Lett 31, 2559-2561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, "Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors," Proc. SPIE 5855, 419-422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Petrovich, A. van Brakel, F. Poletti, K. Mukasa, E. Austin, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, E. O'Driscoll, M. Watson, T. DelMonte, T. M. Monro, J. P. Dakin, and D. J. Richardson, "Microstructured fibers for sensing applications," Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, J. Ju, and D. N. Wang, "Gas diffusion measurement using hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Sens. Actuators B 105, 183-186 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. StJ. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, "Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor," Appl. Opt. 42, 3509-3515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ashkenasi, G. Müller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. A 77, 223-228 (2003).

2001 (2)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Marcinkevicius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, "Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica," Opt. Lett. 26, 277-279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ashkenasi, D.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Müller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. A 77, 223-228 (2003).

Austin, E.

M. N. Petrovich, A. van Brakel, F. Poletti, K. Mukasa, E. Austin, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, E. O'Driscoll, M. Watson, T. DelMonte, T. M. Monro, J. P. Dakin, and D. J. Richardson, "Microstructured fibers for sensing applications," Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barth, M.

S. Smolka, M. Barth, and O. Benson, "Selectively coated photonic crystal fiber for highly sensitive fluorescence detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. StJ. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennion, I.

Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Microchannels in conventional single-mode fibers," Opt. Lett 31, 2559-2561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benson, O.

S. Smolka, M. Barth, and O. Benson, "Selectively coated photonic crystal fiber for highly sensitive fluorescence detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. StJ. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brodeur, A.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brueckner, S.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, "Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors," Proc. SPIE 5855, 419-422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bulgakova, N. M.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Müller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. A 77, 223-228 (2003).

Campbell, E. E. B.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Müller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. A 77, 223-228 (2003).

Canning, J.

Cavallotti, P.L.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P.L. Cavallotti, "Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P.L. Cavallotti, "Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

Corwin, K. L.

Couny, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. StJ. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cruz, C. H. B.

Dakin, J. P.

M. N. Petrovich, A. van Brakel, F. Poletti, K. Mukasa, E. Austin, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, E. O'Driscoll, M. Watson, T. DelMonte, T. M. Monro, J. P. Dakin, and D. J. Richardson, "Microstructured fibers for sensing applications," Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050E (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Matos, C. J. S.

DelMonte, T.

M. N. Petrovich, A. van Brakel, F. Poletti, K. Mukasa, E. Austin, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, E. O'Driscoll, M. Watson, T. DelMonte, T. M. Monro, J. P. Dakin, and D. J. Richardson, "Microstructured fibers for sensing applications," Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050E (2005).
[CrossRef]

dos Santos, E. M.

Ferreira, D. S.

Finazzi, V.

M. N. Petrovich, A. van Brakel, F. Poletti, K. Mukasa, E. Austin, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, E. O'Driscoll, M. Watson, T. DelMonte, T. M. Monro, J. P. Dakin, and D. J. Richardson, "Microstructured fibers for sensing applications," Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, B.

Groothoff, N.

Hansen, T. P.

Hertel, I. V.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Müller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. A 77, 223-228 (2003).

Ho, H. L.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, J. Ju, and D. N. Wang, "Gas diffusion measurement using hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Sens. Actuators B 105, 183-186 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, "Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor," Appl. Opt. 42, 3509-3515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoo, Y. L.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, J. Ju, and D. N. Wang, "Gas diffusion measurement using hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Sens. Actuators B 105, 183-186 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, "Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor," Appl. Opt. 42, 3509-3515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huntington, S.

Jin, W.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, J. Ju, and D. N. Wang, "Gas diffusion measurement using hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Sens. Actuators B 105, 183-186 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, "Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor," Appl. Opt. 42, 3509-3515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ju, J.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, J. Ju, and D. N. Wang, "Gas diffusion measurement using hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Sens. Actuators B 105, 183-186 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

Knabe, K.

Knight, J. C.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. StJ. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobelke, J.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, "Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors," Proc. SPIE 5855, 419-422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.

Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Microchannels in conventional single-mode fibers," Opt. Lett 31, 2559-2561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laporta, P.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P.L. Cavallotti, "Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, H.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, "Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors," Proc. SPIE 5855, 419-422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ludvigsen, H.

Magagnin, L.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P.L. Cavallotti, "Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Malek, C. G. K.

C. G. K. Malek, "Laser processing for bio-microfluidics applications (part II)," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 1362-1369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marcinkevicius, A.

Martelli, C.

Maselli, V.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P.L. Cavallotti, "Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

Mazur, E.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

Miwa, M.

Monro, T. M.

M. N. Petrovich, A. van Brakel, F. Poletti, K. Mukasa, E. Austin, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, E. O'Driscoll, M. Watson, T. DelMonte, T. M. Monro, J. P. Dakin, and D. J. Richardson, "Microstructured fibers for sensing applications," Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mukasa, K.

M. N. Petrovich, A. van Brakel, F. Poletti, K. Mukasa, E. Austin, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, E. O'Driscoll, M. Watson, T. DelMonte, T. M. Monro, J. P. Dakin, and D. J. Richardson, "Microstructured fibers for sensing applications," Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Müller, G.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Müller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. A 77, 223-228 (2003).

Nishii, J.

O'Driscoll, E.

M. N. Petrovich, A. van Brakel, F. Poletti, K. Mukasa, E. Austin, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, E. O'Driscoll, M. Watson, T. DelMonte, T. M. Monro, J. P. Dakin, and D. J. Richardson, "Microstructured fibers for sensing applications," Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olivero, P.

Osellame, R.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P.L. Cavallotti, "Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, J. C.

Petropoulos, P.

M. N. Petrovich, A. van Brakel, F. Poletti, K. Mukasa, E. Austin, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, E. O'Driscoll, M. Watson, T. DelMonte, T. M. Monro, J. P. Dakin, and D. J. Richardson, "Microstructured fibers for sensing applications," Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petrovich, M. N.

M. N. Petrovich, A. van Brakel, F. Poletti, K. Mukasa, E. Austin, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, E. O'Driscoll, M. Watson, T. DelMonte, T. M. Monro, J. P. Dakin, and D. J. Richardson, "Microstructured fibers for sensing applications," Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poletti, F.

M. N. Petrovich, A. van Brakel, F. Poletti, K. Mukasa, E. Austin, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, E. O'Driscoll, M. Watson, T. DelMonte, T. M. Monro, J. P. Dakin, and D. J. Richardson, "Microstructured fibers for sensing applications," Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P.L. Cavallotti, "Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

M. N. Petrovich, A. van Brakel, F. Poletti, K. Mukasa, E. Austin, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, E. O'Driscoll, M. Watson, T. DelMonte, T. M. Monro, J. P. Dakin, and D. J. Richardson, "Microstructured fibers for sensing applications," Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ritari, T.

Rosenfeld, A.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Müller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. A 77, 223-228 (2003).

Ruan, S. C.

Russell, J.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. StJ. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, K.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, "Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors," Proc. SPIE 5855, 419-422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwotzer, G.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, "Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors," Proc. SPIE 5855, 419-422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, C.

Simonsen, H. R.

Smolka, S.

S. Smolka, M. Barth, and O. Benson, "Selectively coated photonic crystal fiber for highly sensitive fluorescence detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorensen, T.

St, P.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. StJ. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoian, R.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Müller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. A 77, 223-228 (2003).

Thapa, R.

Tuominen, J.

van Brakel, A.

M. N. Petrovich, A. van Brakel, F. Poletti, K. Mukasa, E. Austin, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, E. O'Driscoll, M. Watson, T. DelMonte, T. M. Monro, J. P. Dakin, and D. J. Richardson, "Microstructured fibers for sensing applications," Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. N.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, J. Ju, and D. N. Wang, "Gas diffusion measurement using hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Sens. Actuators B 105, 183-186 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, "Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor," Appl. Opt. 42, 3509-3515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Washburn, B. R.

Watanabe, M.

Watson, M.

M. N. Petrovich, A. van Brakel, F. Poletti, K. Mukasa, E. Austin, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, E. O'Driscoll, M. Watson, T. DelMonte, T. M. Monro, J. P. Dakin, and D. J. Richardson, "Microstructured fibers for sensing applications," Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Willsch, R.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, "Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors," Proc. SPIE 5855, 419-422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Microchannels in conventional single-mode fibers," Opt. Lett 31, 2559-2561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, K.

Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Microchannels in conventional single-mode fibers," Opt. Lett 31, 2559-2561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

C. G. K. Malek, "Laser processing for bio-microfluidics applications (part II)," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 1362-1369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

D. Ashkenasi, G. Müller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. A 77, 223-228 (2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P.L. Cavallotti, "Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Smolka, M. Barth, and O. Benson, "Selectively coated photonic crystal fiber for highly sensitive fluorescence detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. StJ. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett (1)

Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Microchannels in conventional single-mode fibers," Opt. Lett 31, 2559-2561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. N. Petrovich, A. van Brakel, F. Poletti, K. Mukasa, E. Austin, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, E. O'Driscoll, M. Watson, T. DelMonte, T. M. Monro, J. P. Dakin, and D. J. Richardson, "Microstructured fibers for sensing applications," Proc. SPIE 6005, 60050E (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, "Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors," Proc. SPIE 5855, 419-422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, J. Ju, and D. N. Wang, "Gas diffusion measurement using hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Sens. Actuators B 105, 183-186 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM image of HC-PBGF microstructure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM images of the SC-HF structure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM image of a micro-channel fabricated in HC-PBGF: arrows indicate damage caused by laser ‘scoring’ (insert shows channel and ‘scoring’ lines on uncoated fiber surface, prior to cleaving).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical microscope images of micro-channel fabricated in coated HC-PBGF: a) channel cross-section (showing guidance via higher-order bandgap); b) at polymer surface; c) at silica surface.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Acetylene absorption spectra recorded at several times during the fabrication of two micro-channels in a single HC-PBGF cell (curves correspond to times labeled in Fig. 6).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Acetylene out-diffusion curves obtained by plotting diminishing linestrengths of acetylene’s P10 absorption line during fabrication of one and two micro-channels in HC-PBGF cells.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Optical microscope image showing cross-section of micro-channel fabricated in SC-HF.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Acetylene P11 absorption spectra recorded for a single micro-channel in SC-HF.

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