Abstract

We use two-beam second-harmonic generation to perform a quantitative tensor analysis of the effective dipolar surface nonlinearity and the separable multipolar bulk nonlinearity for BK7 glass. The most straightforward, self-consistent interpretation of the results is obtained when the effective surface response is assumed to have approximate Kleinman symmetry and the bulk contribution is dominated by magnetic, rather than quadrupole, effects.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).
  2. P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, Y. R. Shen, "General considerations on optical second-harmonic generation from surfaces and interfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 8254-8263 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, "Optical Second-Harmonic Generation in Reflection from Media with Inversion Symmetry," Phys. Rev. 174, 813-822 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. E. Sipe, V. Mizrahi, G. I. Stegeman, "Fundamental difficulty in the use of 2nd-harmonic generation as a strictly surface probe," Phys. Rev. B 35, 9091-9094 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Guyot-Sionnest and Y. R. Shen, "Local and nonlocal surface nonlinearities for surface optical 2nd-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. B 35, 4420-4426 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Guyot-Sionnest and Y. R. Shen, "Bulk contribution in surface 2nd-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. B 38, 7985-7989 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. R. Shen, "Surface contribution versus bulk contribution in surface nonlinear optical spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B:Lasers Opt. 68, 295-300 (1999).
  8. X. Wei, S.-C. Hong, A. I. Lvovsky, H. Held, Y. R. Shen, "Evaluation of surface vs bulk contributions in sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy using reflection and transmission geometries," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 3349-3354 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Held, A. I. Lvovsky, X. Wei, Y. R. Shen, "Bulk contribution from isotropic media in surface sum-frequency generation," Phys. Rev. B 66, 205110 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Cattaneo and M. Kauranen, "Polarization-based identification of bulk contributions in surface nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. B 72, 033412 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Cattaneo and M. Kauranen, "Bulk versus surface contributions in nonlinear optics of isotropic centrosymmetric media," Phys. Status Solidi B 242, 3007-3011 (2005).
  12. L. Sun, P. Figliozzi, Y. Q. An, M. C. Downer, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Nonresonant quadrupolar second-harmonic generation in isotropic solids by use of two orthogonally polarized laser beams," Opt. Lett. 30, 2287-2289 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Single-beam and enhanced two-beam second-harmonic generation from silicon nanocrystals by use of spatially inhomogeneous femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047401 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Koopmans, "Separation Problems in Optical Spectroscopies," Phys. Scr. T109, 80-88 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Koopmans, Interface and Bulk Contributions in Optical Second-Harmonic Generation (Ph.D. thesis, University of Groningen, 1993).
  16. S. Cattaneo, Two-Beam Surface Second-Harmonic Generation (Ph.D. thesis, Tampere University of Technology, 2004).
  17. J. E. Sipe, "New green-function formalism for surface optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 481-489 (1987).
  18. T. F. Heinz, "Second-order nonlinear optical effects at surfaces and interfaces," in Nonlinear Surface Electromagnetic Phenomena, H. E. Ponath and G. I. Stegeman, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), pp. 353-416.
  19. S. Cattaneo, M. Siltanen, F. X. Wang, M. Kauranen, "Suppression of nonlinear optical signals in finite interaction volumes of bulk materials," Opt. Express. 13, 9714-9720 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Cattaneo, E. Vuorimaa, H. Lemmetyinen, M. Kauranen, "Advantages of polarized two-beam second-harmonic generation in precise characterization of thin films," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 9245-9252 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. Zhang, D. Zheng, Y. Xu, H. Bian, Y. Guo, H. Wang, "Reconsideration of second-harmonic generation from isotropic liquid interface: Broken Kleinman symmetry of neat air/water interface from dipolar contribution," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 224713 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 2003).
  23. M. Wohlfahrt, P. Strehlow, C. Enss, S. Hunklinger, "Magnetic-field effects in non-magnetic glasses," Europhys. Lett. 56, 690-694 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. Koopmans, A. M. Janner, H. T. Jonkman, G. A. Sawatzky, F. van der Woude, "Strong bulk magnetic dipole induced second-harmonic generation from C-60," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3569-3572 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. L. Oliveira, S. C. Rand, "Intense nonlinear magnetic dipole radiation at optical frequencies: molecular scattering in a dielectric liquid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 093901 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007

S. L. Oliveira, S. C. Rand, "Intense nonlinear magnetic dipole radiation at optical frequencies: molecular scattering in a dielectric liquid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 093901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Single-beam and enhanced two-beam second-harmonic generation from silicon nanocrystals by use of spatially inhomogeneous femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Cattaneo and M. Kauranen, "Polarization-based identification of bulk contributions in surface nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. B 72, 033412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Cattaneo and M. Kauranen, "Bulk versus surface contributions in nonlinear optics of isotropic centrosymmetric media," Phys. Status Solidi B 242, 3007-3011 (2005).

S. Cattaneo, M. Siltanen, F. X. Wang, M. Kauranen, "Suppression of nonlinear optical signals in finite interaction volumes of bulk materials," Opt. Express. 13, 9714-9720 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, D. Zheng, Y. Xu, H. Bian, Y. Guo, H. Wang, "Reconsideration of second-harmonic generation from isotropic liquid interface: Broken Kleinman symmetry of neat air/water interface from dipolar contribution," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 224713 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Sun, P. Figliozzi, Y. Q. An, M. C. Downer, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Nonresonant quadrupolar second-harmonic generation in isotropic solids by use of two orthogonally polarized laser beams," Opt. Lett. 30, 2287-2289 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Cattaneo, E. Vuorimaa, H. Lemmetyinen, M. Kauranen, "Advantages of polarized two-beam second-harmonic generation in precise characterization of thin films," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 9245-9252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Koopmans, "Separation Problems in Optical Spectroscopies," Phys. Scr. T109, 80-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Held, A. I. Lvovsky, X. Wei, Y. R. Shen, "Bulk contribution from isotropic media in surface sum-frequency generation," Phys. Rev. B 66, 205110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Wohlfahrt, P. Strehlow, C. Enss, S. Hunklinger, "Magnetic-field effects in non-magnetic glasses," Europhys. Lett. 56, 690-694 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

X. Wei, S.-C. Hong, A. I. Lvovsky, H. Held, Y. R. Shen, "Evaluation of surface vs bulk contributions in sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy using reflection and transmission geometries," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 3349-3354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

Y. R. Shen, "Surface contribution versus bulk contribution in surface nonlinear optical spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B:Lasers Opt. 68, 295-300 (1999).

1993

B. Koopmans, A. M. Janner, H. T. Jonkman, G. A. Sawatzky, F. van der Woude, "Strong bulk magnetic dipole induced second-harmonic generation from C-60," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3569-3572 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988

P. Guyot-Sionnest and Y. R. Shen, "Bulk contribution in surface 2nd-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. B 38, 7985-7989 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. E. Sipe, V. Mizrahi, G. I. Stegeman, "Fundamental difficulty in the use of 2nd-harmonic generation as a strictly surface probe," Phys. Rev. B 35, 9091-9094 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest and Y. R. Shen, "Local and nonlocal surface nonlinearities for surface optical 2nd-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. B 35, 4420-4426 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, "New green-function formalism for surface optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 481-489 (1987).

1986

P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, Y. R. Shen, "General considerations on optical second-harmonic generation from surfaces and interfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 8254-8263 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1968

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, "Optical Second-Harmonic Generation in Reflection from Media with Inversion Symmetry," Phys. Rev. 174, 813-822 (1968).
[CrossRef]

An, Y. Q.

Bian, H.

W. Zhang, D. Zheng, Y. Xu, H. Bian, Y. Guo, H. Wang, "Reconsideration of second-harmonic generation from isotropic liquid interface: Broken Kleinman symmetry of neat air/water interface from dipolar contribution," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 224713 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, "Optical Second-Harmonic Generation in Reflection from Media with Inversion Symmetry," Phys. Rev. 174, 813-822 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Cattaneo, S.

S. Cattaneo and M. Kauranen, "Bulk versus surface contributions in nonlinear optics of isotropic centrosymmetric media," Phys. Status Solidi B 242, 3007-3011 (2005).

S. Cattaneo and M. Kauranen, "Polarization-based identification of bulk contributions in surface nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. B 72, 033412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Cattaneo, M. Siltanen, F. X. Wang, M. Kauranen, "Suppression of nonlinear optical signals in finite interaction volumes of bulk materials," Opt. Express. 13, 9714-9720 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Cattaneo, E. Vuorimaa, H. Lemmetyinen, M. Kauranen, "Advantages of polarized two-beam second-harmonic generation in precise characterization of thin films," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 9245-9252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, "Optical Second-Harmonic Generation in Reflection from Media with Inversion Symmetry," Phys. Rev. 174, 813-822 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, Y. R. Shen, "General considerations on optical second-harmonic generation from surfaces and interfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 8254-8263 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

L. Sun, P. Figliozzi, Y. Q. An, M. C. Downer, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Nonresonant quadrupolar second-harmonic generation in isotropic solids by use of two orthogonally polarized laser beams," Opt. Lett. 30, 2287-2289 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Single-beam and enhanced two-beam second-harmonic generation from silicon nanocrystals by use of spatially inhomogeneous femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Enss, C.

M. Wohlfahrt, P. Strehlow, C. Enss, S. Hunklinger, "Magnetic-field effects in non-magnetic glasses," Europhys. Lett. 56, 690-694 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Figliozzi, P.

L. Sun, P. Figliozzi, Y. Q. An, M. C. Downer, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Nonresonant quadrupolar second-harmonic generation in isotropic solids by use of two orthogonally polarized laser beams," Opt. Lett. 30, 2287-2289 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Single-beam and enhanced two-beam second-harmonic generation from silicon nanocrystals by use of spatially inhomogeneous femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

W. Zhang, D. Zheng, Y. Xu, H. Bian, Y. Guo, H. Wang, "Reconsideration of second-harmonic generation from isotropic liquid interface: Broken Kleinman symmetry of neat air/water interface from dipolar contribution," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 224713 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guyot-Sionnest, P.

P. Guyot-Sionnest and Y. R. Shen, "Bulk contribution in surface 2nd-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. B 38, 7985-7989 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest and Y. R. Shen, "Local and nonlocal surface nonlinearities for surface optical 2nd-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. B 35, 4420-4426 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, Y. R. Shen, "General considerations on optical second-harmonic generation from surfaces and interfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 8254-8263 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Held, H.

H. Held, A. I. Lvovsky, X. Wei, Y. R. Shen, "Bulk contribution from isotropic media in surface sum-frequency generation," Phys. Rev. B 66, 205110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Wei, S.-C. Hong, A. I. Lvovsky, H. Held, Y. R. Shen, "Evaluation of surface vs bulk contributions in sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy using reflection and transmission geometries," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 3349-3354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S.-C.

X. Wei, S.-C. Hong, A. I. Lvovsky, H. Held, Y. R. Shen, "Evaluation of surface vs bulk contributions in sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy using reflection and transmission geometries," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 3349-3354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hunklinger, S.

M. Wohlfahrt, P. Strehlow, C. Enss, S. Hunklinger, "Magnetic-field effects in non-magnetic glasses," Europhys. Lett. 56, 690-694 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Janner, A. M.

B. Koopmans, A. M. Janner, H. T. Jonkman, G. A. Sawatzky, F. van der Woude, "Strong bulk magnetic dipole induced second-harmonic generation from C-60," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3569-3572 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jha, S. S.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, "Optical Second-Harmonic Generation in Reflection from Media with Inversion Symmetry," Phys. Rev. 174, 813-822 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Single-beam and enhanced two-beam second-harmonic generation from silicon nanocrystals by use of spatially inhomogeneous femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jonkman, H. T.

B. Koopmans, A. M. Janner, H. T. Jonkman, G. A. Sawatzky, F. van der Woude, "Strong bulk magnetic dipole induced second-harmonic generation from C-60," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3569-3572 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kauranen, M.

S. Cattaneo and M. Kauranen, "Bulk versus surface contributions in nonlinear optics of isotropic centrosymmetric media," Phys. Status Solidi B 242, 3007-3011 (2005).

S. Cattaneo, M. Siltanen, F. X. Wang, M. Kauranen, "Suppression of nonlinear optical signals in finite interaction volumes of bulk materials," Opt. Express. 13, 9714-9720 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Cattaneo and M. Kauranen, "Polarization-based identification of bulk contributions in surface nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. B 72, 033412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Cattaneo, E. Vuorimaa, H. Lemmetyinen, M. Kauranen, "Advantages of polarized two-beam second-harmonic generation in precise characterization of thin films," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 9245-9252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koopmans, B.

B. Koopmans, "Separation Problems in Optical Spectroscopies," Phys. Scr. T109, 80-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Koopmans, A. M. Janner, H. T. Jonkman, G. A. Sawatzky, F. van der Woude, "Strong bulk magnetic dipole induced second-harmonic generation from C-60," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3569-3572 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, "Optical Second-Harmonic Generation in Reflection from Media with Inversion Symmetry," Phys. Rev. 174, 813-822 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Lemmetyinen, H.

S. Cattaneo, E. Vuorimaa, H. Lemmetyinen, M. Kauranen, "Advantages of polarized two-beam second-harmonic generation in precise characterization of thin films," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 9245-9252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lvovsky, A. I.

H. Held, A. I. Lvovsky, X. Wei, Y. R. Shen, "Bulk contribution from isotropic media in surface sum-frequency generation," Phys. Rev. B 66, 205110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Wei, S.-C. Hong, A. I. Lvovsky, H. Held, Y. R. Shen, "Evaluation of surface vs bulk contributions in sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy using reflection and transmission geometries," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 3349-3354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matlis, N.

P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Single-beam and enhanced two-beam second-harmonic generation from silicon nanocrystals by use of spatially inhomogeneous femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mattern, B.

P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Single-beam and enhanced two-beam second-harmonic generation from silicon nanocrystals by use of spatially inhomogeneous femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mendoza, B. S.

P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Single-beam and enhanced two-beam second-harmonic generation from silicon nanocrystals by use of spatially inhomogeneous femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Sun, P. Figliozzi, Y. Q. An, M. C. Downer, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Nonresonant quadrupolar second-harmonic generation in isotropic solids by use of two orthogonally polarized laser beams," Opt. Lett. 30, 2287-2289 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, V.

J. E. Sipe, V. Mizrahi, G. I. Stegeman, "Fundamental difficulty in the use of 2nd-harmonic generation as a strictly surface probe," Phys. Rev. B 35, 9091-9094 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mochán, W. L.

P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Single-beam and enhanced two-beam second-harmonic generation from silicon nanocrystals by use of spatially inhomogeneous femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Sun, P. Figliozzi, Y. Q. An, M. C. Downer, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Nonresonant quadrupolar second-harmonic generation in isotropic solids by use of two orthogonally polarized laser beams," Opt. Lett. 30, 2287-2289 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, S. L.

S. L. Oliveira, S. C. Rand, "Intense nonlinear magnetic dipole radiation at optical frequencies: molecular scattering in a dielectric liquid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 093901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rand, S. C.

S. L. Oliveira, S. C. Rand, "Intense nonlinear magnetic dipole radiation at optical frequencies: molecular scattering in a dielectric liquid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 093901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sawatzky, G. A.

B. Koopmans, A. M. Janner, H. T. Jonkman, G. A. Sawatzky, F. van der Woude, "Strong bulk magnetic dipole induced second-harmonic generation from C-60," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3569-3572 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

H. Held, A. I. Lvovsky, X. Wei, Y. R. Shen, "Bulk contribution from isotropic media in surface sum-frequency generation," Phys. Rev. B 66, 205110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Wei, S.-C. Hong, A. I. Lvovsky, H. Held, Y. R. Shen, "Evaluation of surface vs bulk contributions in sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy using reflection and transmission geometries," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 3349-3354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Shen, "Surface contribution versus bulk contribution in surface nonlinear optical spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B:Lasers Opt. 68, 295-300 (1999).

P. Guyot-Sionnest and Y. R. Shen, "Bulk contribution in surface 2nd-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. B 38, 7985-7989 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest and Y. R. Shen, "Local and nonlocal surface nonlinearities for surface optical 2nd-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. B 35, 4420-4426 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, Y. R. Shen, "General considerations on optical second-harmonic generation from surfaces and interfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 8254-8263 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Siltanen, M.

S. Cattaneo, M. Siltanen, F. X. Wang, M. Kauranen, "Suppression of nonlinear optical signals in finite interaction volumes of bulk materials," Opt. Express. 13, 9714-9720 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, V. Mizrahi, G. I. Stegeman, "Fundamental difficulty in the use of 2nd-harmonic generation as a strictly surface probe," Phys. Rev. B 35, 9091-9094 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, "New green-function formalism for surface optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 481-489 (1987).

Stegeman, G. I.

J. E. Sipe, V. Mizrahi, G. I. Stegeman, "Fundamental difficulty in the use of 2nd-harmonic generation as a strictly surface probe," Phys. Rev. B 35, 9091-9094 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Strehlow, P.

M. Wohlfahrt, P. Strehlow, C. Enss, S. Hunklinger, "Magnetic-field effects in non-magnetic glasses," Europhys. Lett. 56, 690-694 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

L. Sun, P. Figliozzi, Y. Q. An, M. C. Downer, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Nonresonant quadrupolar second-harmonic generation in isotropic solids by use of two orthogonally polarized laser beams," Opt. Lett. 30, 2287-2289 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Single-beam and enhanced two-beam second-harmonic generation from silicon nanocrystals by use of spatially inhomogeneous femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van der Woude, F.

B. Koopmans, A. M. Janner, H. T. Jonkman, G. A. Sawatzky, F. van der Woude, "Strong bulk magnetic dipole induced second-harmonic generation from C-60," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3569-3572 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vuorimaa, E.

S. Cattaneo, E. Vuorimaa, H. Lemmetyinen, M. Kauranen, "Advantages of polarized two-beam second-harmonic generation in precise characterization of thin films," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 9245-9252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F. X.

S. Cattaneo, M. Siltanen, F. X. Wang, M. Kauranen, "Suppression of nonlinear optical signals in finite interaction volumes of bulk materials," Opt. Express. 13, 9714-9720 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

W. Zhang, D. Zheng, Y. Xu, H. Bian, Y. Guo, H. Wang, "Reconsideration of second-harmonic generation from isotropic liquid interface: Broken Kleinman symmetry of neat air/water interface from dipolar contribution," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 224713 (2005).
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Wei, X.

H. Held, A. I. Lvovsky, X. Wei, Y. R. Shen, "Bulk contribution from isotropic media in surface sum-frequency generation," Phys. Rev. B 66, 205110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Wei, S.-C. Hong, A. I. Lvovsky, H. Held, Y. R. Shen, "Evaluation of surface vs bulk contributions in sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy using reflection and transmission geometries," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 3349-3354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

White, C. W.

P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Single-beam and enhanced two-beam second-harmonic generation from silicon nanocrystals by use of spatially inhomogeneous femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Withrow, S. P.

P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Single-beam and enhanced two-beam second-harmonic generation from silicon nanocrystals by use of spatially inhomogeneous femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047401 (2005).
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Wohlfahrt, M.

M. Wohlfahrt, P. Strehlow, C. Enss, S. Hunklinger, "Magnetic-field effects in non-magnetic glasses," Europhys. Lett. 56, 690-694 (2001).
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W. Zhang, D. Zheng, Y. Xu, H. Bian, Y. Guo, H. Wang, "Reconsideration of second-harmonic generation from isotropic liquid interface: Broken Kleinman symmetry of neat air/water interface from dipolar contribution," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 224713 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, D. Zheng, Y. Xu, H. Bian, Y. Guo, H. Wang, "Reconsideration of second-harmonic generation from isotropic liquid interface: Broken Kleinman symmetry of neat air/water interface from dipolar contribution," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 224713 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, D.

W. Zhang, D. Zheng, Y. Xu, H. Bian, Y. Guo, H. Wang, "Reconsideration of second-harmonic generation from isotropic liquid interface: Broken Kleinman symmetry of neat air/water interface from dipolar contribution," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 224713 (2005).
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Europhys. Lett.

M. Wohlfahrt, P. Strehlow, C. Enss, S. Hunklinger, "Magnetic-field effects in non-magnetic glasses," Europhys. Lett. 56, 690-694 (2001).
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J. Chem. Phys.

S. Cattaneo, E. Vuorimaa, H. Lemmetyinen, M. Kauranen, "Advantages of polarized two-beam second-harmonic generation in precise characterization of thin films," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 9245-9252 (2004).
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W. Zhang, D. Zheng, Y. Xu, H. Bian, Y. Guo, H. Wang, "Reconsideration of second-harmonic generation from isotropic liquid interface: Broken Kleinman symmetry of neat air/water interface from dipolar contribution," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 224713 (2005).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. B

X. Wei, S.-C. Hong, A. I. Lvovsky, H. Held, Y. R. Shen, "Evaluation of surface vs bulk contributions in sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy using reflection and transmission geometries," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 3349-3354 (2000).
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Lasers Opt.

Y. R. Shen, "Surface contribution versus bulk contribution in surface nonlinear optical spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B:Lasers Opt. 68, 295-300 (1999).

Opt. Express.

S. Cattaneo, M. Siltanen, F. X. Wang, M. Kauranen, "Suppression of nonlinear optical signals in finite interaction volumes of bulk materials," Opt. Express. 13, 9714-9720 (2005).
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Phys. Rev.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, "Optical Second-Harmonic Generation in Reflection from Media with Inversion Symmetry," Phys. Rev. 174, 813-822 (1968).
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Phys. Rev. B

J. E. Sipe, V. Mizrahi, G. I. Stegeman, "Fundamental difficulty in the use of 2nd-harmonic generation as a strictly surface probe," Phys. Rev. B 35, 9091-9094 (1987).
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P. Guyot-Sionnest and Y. R. Shen, "Local and nonlocal surface nonlinearities for surface optical 2nd-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. B 35, 4420-4426 (1987).
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P. Guyot-Sionnest and Y. R. Shen, "Bulk contribution in surface 2nd-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. B 38, 7985-7989 (1988).
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H. Held, A. I. Lvovsky, X. Wei, Y. R. Shen, "Bulk contribution from isotropic media in surface sum-frequency generation," Phys. Rev. B 66, 205110 (2002).
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S. Cattaneo and M. Kauranen, "Polarization-based identification of bulk contributions in surface nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. B 72, 033412 (2005).
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P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, Y. R. Shen, "General considerations on optical second-harmonic generation from surfaces and interfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 8254-8263 (1986).
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Phys. Rev. Lett.

B. Koopmans, A. M. Janner, H. T. Jonkman, G. A. Sawatzky, F. van der Woude, "Strong bulk magnetic dipole induced second-harmonic generation from C-60," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3569-3572 (1993).
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S. L. Oliveira, S. C. Rand, "Intense nonlinear magnetic dipole radiation at optical frequencies: molecular scattering in a dielectric liquid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 093901 (2007).
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P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, B. S. Mendoza, "Single-beam and enhanced two-beam second-harmonic generation from silicon nanocrystals by use of spatially inhomogeneous femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047401 (2005).
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Phys. Scr.

B. Koopmans, "Separation Problems in Optical Spectroscopies," Phys. Scr. T109, 80-88 (2004).
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Phys. Status Solidi B

S. Cattaneo and M. Kauranen, "Bulk versus surface contributions in nonlinear optics of isotropic centrosymmetric media," Phys. Status Solidi B 242, 3007-3011 (2005).

Other

T. F. Heinz, "Second-order nonlinear optical effects at surfaces and interfaces," in Nonlinear Surface Electromagnetic Phenomena, H. E. Ponath and G. I. Stegeman, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), pp. 353-416.

B. Koopmans, Interface and Bulk Contributions in Optical Second-Harmonic Generation (Ph.D. thesis, University of Groningen, 1993).

S. Cattaneo, Two-Beam Surface Second-Harmonic Generation (Ph.D. thesis, Tampere University of Technology, 2004).

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 2003).

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