Abstract

We develop a new technique for simultaneously monitoring the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and multi-path interference (MPI) noises in distributed Raman amplified (DRA) systems. This technique utilizes the facts that the degree-of polarization (DOP) of the MPI noise is 1/9, while the ASE noise is unpolarized. The results show that the proposed technique can accurately monitor both of these noises regardless of the bit rates, modulation formats, and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) levels of the signals.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Bromage, L. E. Nelson, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, "Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance," in Proc. of OFC 2002, TuR3 (2002).
  2. S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, M.-J. Chu, and J.-H. Lee, "Limitations in fibre Raman amplifiers imposed by Rayleigh scattering of signals," Electron. Lett. 38, 865-867 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, "Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 528-530 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. R. S. Fludger and R. J. Mears, "Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 536-545 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88-90 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. H. Lee, H. Y. Choi, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, "A review of the polarization-nulling technique for monitoring optical-signal-to-noise ratio in dynamic WDM networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4162-4171 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Y. Choi, S. B. Jun, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, "Monitoring technique for ASE and MPI noises in distributed Raman amplified systems," in Proc. of OFC 2007, OMM2 (2007).
  8. M. O. van Deventer, "Polarization properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single mode fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1895-1899 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Kobyakov, S. Gray, and M. Vasilyev, "Quantitative analysis of Rayleigh crosstalk in Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 732-733 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, "Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification," Electron. Lett. 37, 970-972 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, and K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Xie and D. C. Kilper, "Influence of polarization scattering on polarization-assisted OSNR monitoring in dense WDM systems with NZ-DSF and Raman amplification," in Proc. of OFC 2005, JWA40 (2005).
  13. C. Xie, D. C. Kilper, L. Moller, and R. Ryf, "Orthogonal polarization heterodyne OSNR monitoring technique insensitive to polarization effects," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 177-183 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Zhu, S. N. Knudsen, L. E. Nelson, D. W. Peckham, M. O. Pederson, and S. Stulz, "800 Gbits/s (80x10.664 Gbits/s) WDM transmission over 5200 km of fibre employing 100 km dispersion-managed spans," Electron. Lett. 37, 1467-1469 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. F. Grosz, A. Agarwal, A. P. Kung, S. Banerjee, D. N. Maywar, and T. H. Wood, "Performance of a ULH single wide-band all-Raman DWDM transmission system over dispersion-managed spans," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1197-1199 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2004 (1)

D. F. Grosz, A. Agarwal, A. P. Kung, S. Banerjee, D. N. Maywar, and T. H. Wood, "Performance of a ULH single wide-band all-Raman DWDM transmission system over dispersion-managed spans," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1197-1199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Kobyakov, S. Gray, and M. Vasilyev, "Quantitative analysis of Rayleigh crosstalk in Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 732-733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, M.-J. Chu, and J.-H. Lee, "Limitations in fibre Raman amplifiers imposed by Rayleigh scattering of signals," Electron. Lett. 38, 865-867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

C. R. S. Fludger and R. J. Mears, "Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 536-545 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88-90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, "Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification," Electron. Lett. 37, 970-972 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, S. N. Knudsen, L. E. Nelson, D. W. Peckham, M. O. Pederson, and S. Stulz, "800 Gbits/s (80x10.664 Gbits/s) WDM transmission over 5200 km of fibre employing 100 km dispersion-managed spans," Electron. Lett. 37, 1467-1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, "Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 528-530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. O. van Deventer, "Polarization properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single mode fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1895-1899 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

D. F. Grosz, A. Agarwal, A. P. Kung, S. Banerjee, D. N. Maywar, and T. H. Wood, "Performance of a ULH single wide-band all-Raman DWDM transmission system over dispersion-managed spans," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1197-1199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, S.

D. F. Grosz, A. Agarwal, A. P. Kung, S. Banerjee, D. N. Maywar, and T. H. Wood, "Performance of a ULH single wide-band all-Raman DWDM transmission system over dispersion-managed spans," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1197-1199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. H.

S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, M.-J. Chu, and J.-H. Lee, "Limitations in fibre Raman amplifiers imposed by Rayleigh scattering of signals," Electron. Lett. 38, 865-867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chernikov, S. V.

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, "Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 528-530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. Y.

Chu, M.-J.

S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, M.-J. Chu, and J.-H. Lee, "Limitations in fibre Raman amplifiers imposed by Rayleigh scattering of signals," Electron. Lett. 38, 865-867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y. C.

J. H. Lee, H. Y. Choi, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, "A review of the polarization-nulling technique for monitoring optical-signal-to-noise ratio in dynamic WDM networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4162-4171 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88-90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fludger, C. R. S.

C. R. S. Fludger and R. J. Mears, "Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 536-545 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, "Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification," Electron. Lett. 37, 970-972 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

Gray, S.

A. Kobyakov, S. Gray, and M. Vasilyev, "Quantitative analysis of Rayleigh crosstalk in Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 732-733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grosz, D. F.

D. F. Grosz, A. Agarwal, A. P. Kung, S. Banerjee, D. N. Maywar, and T. H. Wood, "Performance of a ULH single wide-band all-Raman DWDM transmission system over dispersion-managed spans," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1197-1199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Handerek, V.

C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, "Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification," Electron. Lett. 37, 970-972 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iwatsuki, K.

Jung, D. K.

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88-90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kani, J.

Kilper, D. C.

Kim, C. H.

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88-90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. K.

S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, M.-J. Chu, and J.-H. Lee, "Limitations in fibre Raman amplifiers imposed by Rayleigh scattering of signals," Electron. Lett. 38, 865-867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knudsen, S. N.

B. Zhu, S. N. Knudsen, L. E. Nelson, D. W. Peckham, M. O. Pederson, and S. Stulz, "800 Gbits/s (80x10.664 Gbits/s) WDM transmission over 5200 km of fibre employing 100 km dispersion-managed spans," Electron. Lett. 37, 1467-1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kobyakov, A.

A. Kobyakov, S. Gray, and M. Vasilyev, "Quantitative analysis of Rayleigh crosstalk in Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 732-733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kung, A. P.

D. F. Grosz, A. Agarwal, A. P. Kung, S. Banerjee, D. N. Maywar, and T. H. Wood, "Performance of a ULH single wide-band all-Raman DWDM transmission system over dispersion-managed spans," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1197-1199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, H. Y. Choi, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, "A review of the polarization-nulling technique for monitoring optical-signal-to-noise ratio in dynamic WDM networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4162-4171 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88-90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, M.-J. Chu, and J.-H. Lee, "Limitations in fibre Raman amplifiers imposed by Rayleigh scattering of signals," Electron. Lett. 38, 865-867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, S. A. E.

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, "Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 528-530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maywar, D. N.

D. F. Grosz, A. Agarwal, A. P. Kung, S. Banerjee, D. N. Maywar, and T. H. Wood, "Performance of a ULH single wide-band all-Raman DWDM transmission system over dispersion-managed spans," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1197-1199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mears, R. J.

C. R. S. Fludger and R. J. Mears, "Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 536-545 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, "Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification," Electron. Lett. 37, 970-972 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moller, L.

Nelson, L. E.

B. Zhu, S. N. Knudsen, L. E. Nelson, D. W. Peckham, M. O. Pederson, and S. Stulz, "800 Gbits/s (80x10.664 Gbits/s) WDM transmission over 5200 km of fibre employing 100 km dispersion-managed spans," Electron. Lett. 37, 1467-1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peckham, D. W.

B. Zhu, S. N. Knudsen, L. E. Nelson, D. W. Peckham, M. O. Pederson, and S. Stulz, "800 Gbits/s (80x10.664 Gbits/s) WDM transmission over 5200 km of fibre employing 100 km dispersion-managed spans," Electron. Lett. 37, 1467-1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pederson, M. O.

B. Zhu, S. N. Knudsen, L. E. Nelson, D. W. Peckham, M. O. Pederson, and S. Stulz, "800 Gbits/s (80x10.664 Gbits/s) WDM transmission over 5200 km of fibre employing 100 km dispersion-managed spans," Electron. Lett. 37, 1467-1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ryf, R.

Shin, S. K.

Stulz, S.

B. Zhu, S. N. Knudsen, L. E. Nelson, D. W. Peckham, M. O. Pederson, and S. Stulz, "800 Gbits/s (80x10.664 Gbits/s) WDM transmission over 5200 km of fibre employing 100 km dispersion-managed spans," Electron. Lett. 37, 1467-1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

Taylor, J. R.

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, "Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 528-530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van Deventer, M. O.

M. O. van Deventer, "Polarization properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single mode fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1895-1899 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vasilyev, M.

A. Kobyakov, S. Gray, and M. Vasilyev, "Quantitative analysis of Rayleigh crosstalk in Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 732-733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wood, T. H.

D. F. Grosz, A. Agarwal, A. P. Kung, S. Banerjee, D. N. Maywar, and T. H. Wood, "Performance of a ULH single wide-band all-Raman DWDM transmission system over dispersion-managed spans," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1197-1199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

Zhu, B.

B. Zhu, S. N. Knudsen, L. E. Nelson, D. W. Peckham, M. O. Pederson, and S. Stulz, "800 Gbits/s (80x10.664 Gbits/s) WDM transmission over 5200 km of fibre employing 100 km dispersion-managed spans," Electron. Lett. 37, 1467-1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, "Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification," Electron. Lett. 37, 970-972 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, M.-J. Chu, and J.-H. Lee, "Limitations in fibre Raman amplifiers imposed by Rayleigh scattering of signals," Electron. Lett. 38, 865-867 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Kobyakov, S. Gray, and M. Vasilyev, "Quantitative analysis of Rayleigh crosstalk in Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 732-733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, "Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification," Electron. Lett. 37, 970-972 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, S. N. Knudsen, L. E. Nelson, D. W. Peckham, M. O. Pederson, and S. Stulz, "800 Gbits/s (80x10.664 Gbits/s) WDM transmission over 5200 km of fibre employing 100 km dispersion-managed spans," Electron. Lett. 37, 1467-1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

D. F. Grosz, A. Agarwal, A. P. Kung, S. Banerjee, D. N. Maywar, and T. H. Wood, "Performance of a ULH single wide-band all-Raman DWDM transmission system over dispersion-managed spans," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1197-1199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, "Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 528-530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88-90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Other (3)

J. Bromage, L. E. Nelson, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, "Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance," in Proc. of OFC 2002, TuR3 (2002).

C. Xie and D. C. Kilper, "Influence of polarization scattering on polarization-assisted OSNR monitoring in dense WDM systems with NZ-DSF and Raman amplification," in Proc. of OFC 2005, JWA40 (2005).

H. Y. Choi, S. B. Jun, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, "Monitoring technique for ASE and MPI noises in distributed Raman amplified systems," in Proc. of OFC 2007, OMM2 (2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Configuration of the proposed monitoring technique.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Operating principle (a) Signal spectrum in the presence of ASE and MPI noises, (b) Filtered signal at two different wavelengths, (c) Polarized noises.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured OSNR errors at various MPI noise levels (a) 10-Gb/s NRZ signal, (b) 10-Gb/s RZ signal, (c) 40-Gb/s NRZ signal, (d) 40-Gb/s RZ signal. (oe-15-14-8660-i001 r = -15 dB, oe-15-14-8660-i002 r = -20 dB, ▿ r = -25 dB, oe-15-14-8660-i003 r = -30 dB)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured MPI noise levels at various OSNR values (a) 10-Gb/s NRZ signal, (b) 10-Gb/s RZ signal, (c) 40-Gb/s NRZ signal, (d) 40-Gb/s RZ signal. (∎ OSNR = 15 dB, ▾ OSNR = 20 dB, ▴ OSNR = 25 dB, ● OSNR = 30 dB)

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

MPI noise levels measured in a real DRA system. The solid curve and symbols represent the calculated values and the measured data, respectively.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P 2 = 1 2 P A S E + 1 d 2 r 1 + r ( P 1 P A S E ) P 4 = 1 2 P A S E + 1 d 2 r 1 + r ( P 3 P A S E )
P A S E = 2 ( P 1 P 4 P 2 P 3 P 1 P 3 2 P 2 + 2 P 4 r = 1 4 9 P 1 P 3 P 2 P 4 1

Metrics