Abstract

We develop a new technique for simultaneously monitoring the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and multi-path interference (MPI) noises in distributed Raman amplified (DRA) systems. This technique utilizes the facts that the degree-of polarization (DOP) of the MPI noise is 1/9, while the ASE noise is unpolarized. The results show that the proposed technique can accurately monitor both of these noises regardless of the bit rates, modulation formats, and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) levels of the signals.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Bromage, L. E. Nelson, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, “Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance,” in Proc. of OFC 2002, TuR3 (2002).
  2. S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, M.-J. Chu, and J.-H. Lee, “Limitations in fibre Raman amplifiers imposed by Rayleigh scattering of signals,” Electron. Lett. 38, 865–867 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, “Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 12, 528–530 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. R. S. Fludger and R. J. Mears, “Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 536–545 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 13, 88–90 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. H. Lee, H. Y. Choi, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, “A review of the polarization-nulling technique for monitoring optical-signal-to-noise ratio in dynamic WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4162–4171 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Y. Choi, S. B. Jun, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, “Monitoring technique for ASE and MPI noises in distributed Raman amplified systems,” in Proc. of OFC 2007, OMM2 (2007).
  8. M. O. van Deventer, “Polarization properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single mode fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1895–1899 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Kobyakov, S. Gray, and M. Vasilyev, “Quantitative analysis of Rayleigh crosstalk in Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 732–733 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, “Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 37, 970–972 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, and K. Iwatsuki, “Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 740–746 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. Xie and D. C. Kilper, “Influence of polarization scattering on polarization-assisted OSNR monitoring in dense WDM systems with NZ-DSF and Raman amplification,” in Proc. of OFC 2005, JWA40 (2005).
  13. C. Xie, D. C. Kilper, L. Moller, and R. Ryf, “Orthogonal polarization heterodyne OSNR monitoring technique insensitive to polarization effects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 177–183 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. B. Zhu, S. N. Knudsen, L. E. Nelson, D. W. Peckham, M. O. Pederson, and S. Stulz, “800 Gbits/s (80×10.664 Gbits/s) WDM transmission over 5200 km of fibre employing 100 km dispersion-managed spans,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1467–1469 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. F. Grosz, A. Agarwal, A. P. Kung, S. Banerjee, D. N. Maywar, and T. H. Wood, “Performance of a ULH single wide-band all-Raman DWDM transmission system over dispersion-managed spans,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1197–1199 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2007 (2)

H. Y. Choi, S. B. Jun, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, “Monitoring technique for ASE and MPI noises in distributed Raman amplified systems,” in Proc. of OFC 2007, OMM2 (2007).

C. Xie, D. C. Kilper, L. Moller, and R. Ryf, “Orthogonal polarization heterodyne OSNR monitoring technique insensitive to polarization effects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 177–183 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

C. Xie and D. C. Kilper, “Influence of polarization scattering on polarization-assisted OSNR monitoring in dense WDM systems with NZ-DSF and Raman amplification,” in Proc. of OFC 2005, JWA40 (2005).

2004 (1)

D. F. Grosz, A. Agarwal, A. P. Kung, S. Banerjee, D. N. Maywar, and T. H. Wood, “Performance of a ULH single wide-band all-Raman DWDM transmission system over dispersion-managed spans,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1197–1199 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Kobyakov, S. Gray, and M. Vasilyev, “Quantitative analysis of Rayleigh crosstalk in Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 732–733 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

J. Bromage, L. E. Nelson, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, “Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance,” in Proc. of OFC 2002, TuR3 (2002).

S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, M.-J. Chu, and J.-H. Lee, “Limitations in fibre Raman amplifiers imposed by Rayleigh scattering of signals,” Electron. Lett. 38, 865–867 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (4)

C. R. S. Fludger and R. J. Mears, “Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 536–545 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 13, 88–90 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, “Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 37, 970–972 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, S. N. Knudsen, L. E. Nelson, D. W. Peckham, M. O. Pederson, and S. Stulz, “800 Gbits/s (80×10.664 Gbits/s) WDM transmission over 5200 km of fibre employing 100 km dispersion-managed spans,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1467–1469 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, “Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 12, 528–530 (2000).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. O. van Deventer, “Polarization properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single mode fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1895–1899 (1993).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A.

D. F. Grosz, A. Agarwal, A. P. Kung, S. Banerjee, D. N. Maywar, and T. H. Wood, “Performance of a ULH single wide-band all-Raman DWDM transmission system over dispersion-managed spans,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1197–1199 (2004).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, S.

D. F. Grosz, A. Agarwal, A. P. Kung, S. Banerjee, D. N. Maywar, and T. H. Wood, “Performance of a ULH single wide-band all-Raman DWDM transmission system over dispersion-managed spans,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1197–1199 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bromage, J.

J. Bromage, L. E. Nelson, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, “Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance,” in Proc. of OFC 2002, TuR3 (2002).

Chang, S. H.

S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, M.-J. Chu, and J.-H. Lee, “Limitations in fibre Raman amplifiers imposed by Rayleigh scattering of signals,” Electron. Lett. 38, 865–867 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chernikov, S. V.

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, “Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 12, 528–530 (2000).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. Y.

H. Y. Choi, S. B. Jun, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, “Monitoring technique for ASE and MPI noises in distributed Raman amplified systems,” in Proc. of OFC 2007, OMM2 (2007).

J. H. Lee, H. Y. Choi, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, “A review of the polarization-nulling technique for monitoring optical-signal-to-noise ratio in dynamic WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4162–4171 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chu, M.-J.

S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, M.-J. Chu, and J.-H. Lee, “Limitations in fibre Raman amplifiers imposed by Rayleigh scattering of signals,” Electron. Lett. 38, 865–867 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chung, Y. C.

H. Y. Choi, S. B. Jun, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, “Monitoring technique for ASE and MPI noises in distributed Raman amplified systems,” in Proc. of OFC 2007, OMM2 (2007).

J. H. Lee, H. Y. Choi, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, “A review of the polarization-nulling technique for monitoring optical-signal-to-noise ratio in dynamic WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4162–4171 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 13, 88–90 (2001).
[Crossref]

Essiambre, R.-J.

J. Bromage, L. E. Nelson, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, “Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance,” in Proc. of OFC 2002, TuR3 (2002).

Fludger, C. R. S.

C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, “Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 37, 970–972 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. R. S. Fludger and R. J. Mears, “Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 536–545 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, M.

Gray, S.

A. Kobyakov, S. Gray, and M. Vasilyev, “Quantitative analysis of Rayleigh crosstalk in Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 732–733 (2003).
[Crossref]

Grosz, D. F.

D. F. Grosz, A. Agarwal, A. P. Kung, S. Banerjee, D. N. Maywar, and T. H. Wood, “Performance of a ULH single wide-band all-Raman DWDM transmission system over dispersion-managed spans,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1197–1199 (2004).
[Crossref]

Handerek, V.

C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, “Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 37, 970–972 (2001).
[Crossref]

Iwatsuki, K.

Jopson, R. M.

J. Bromage, L. E. Nelson, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, “Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance,” in Proc. of OFC 2002, TuR3 (2002).

Jun, S. B.

H. Y. Choi, S. B. Jun, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, “Monitoring technique for ASE and MPI noises in distributed Raman amplified systems,” in Proc. of OFC 2007, OMM2 (2007).

Jung, D. K.

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 13, 88–90 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kani, J.

Kilper, D. C.

C. Xie, D. C. Kilper, L. Moller, and R. Ryf, “Orthogonal polarization heterodyne OSNR monitoring technique insensitive to polarization effects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 177–183 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Xie and D. C. Kilper, “Influence of polarization scattering on polarization-assisted OSNR monitoring in dense WDM systems with NZ-DSF and Raman amplification,” in Proc. of OFC 2005, JWA40 (2005).

Kim, C. H.

J. Bromage, L. E. Nelson, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, “Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance,” in Proc. of OFC 2002, TuR3 (2002).

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 13, 88–90 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. K.

S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, M.-J. Chu, and J.-H. Lee, “Limitations in fibre Raman amplifiers imposed by Rayleigh scattering of signals,” Electron. Lett. 38, 865–867 (2002).
[Crossref]

Knudsen, S. N.

B. Zhu, S. N. Knudsen, L. E. Nelson, D. W. Peckham, M. O. Pederson, and S. Stulz, “800 Gbits/s (80×10.664 Gbits/s) WDM transmission over 5200 km of fibre employing 100 km dispersion-managed spans,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1467–1469 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kobyakov, A.

A. Kobyakov, S. Gray, and M. Vasilyev, “Quantitative analysis of Rayleigh crosstalk in Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 732–733 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kung, A. P.

D. F. Grosz, A. Agarwal, A. P. Kung, S. Banerjee, D. N. Maywar, and T. H. Wood, “Performance of a ULH single wide-band all-Raman DWDM transmission system over dispersion-managed spans,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1197–1199 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, H. Y. Choi, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, “A review of the polarization-nulling technique for monitoring optical-signal-to-noise ratio in dynamic WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4162–4171 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 13, 88–90 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, M.-J. Chu, and J.-H. Lee, “Limitations in fibre Raman amplifiers imposed by Rayleigh scattering of signals,” Electron. Lett. 38, 865–867 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lewis, S. A. E.

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, “Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 12, 528–530 (2000).
[Crossref]

Maywar, D. N.

D. F. Grosz, A. Agarwal, A. P. Kung, S. Banerjee, D. N. Maywar, and T. H. Wood, “Performance of a ULH single wide-band all-Raman DWDM transmission system over dispersion-managed spans,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1197–1199 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mears, R. J.

C. R. S. Fludger and R. J. Mears, “Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 536–545 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, “Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 37, 970–972 (2001).
[Crossref]

Moller, L.

Nelson, L. E.

J. Bromage, L. E. Nelson, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, “Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance,” in Proc. of OFC 2002, TuR3 (2002).

B. Zhu, S. N. Knudsen, L. E. Nelson, D. W. Peckham, M. O. Pederson, and S. Stulz, “800 Gbits/s (80×10.664 Gbits/s) WDM transmission over 5200 km of fibre employing 100 km dispersion-managed spans,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1467–1469 (2001).
[Crossref]

Peckham, D. W.

B. Zhu, S. N. Knudsen, L. E. Nelson, D. W. Peckham, M. O. Pederson, and S. Stulz, “800 Gbits/s (80×10.664 Gbits/s) WDM transmission over 5200 km of fibre employing 100 km dispersion-managed spans,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1467–1469 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pederson, M. O.

B. Zhu, S. N. Knudsen, L. E. Nelson, D. W. Peckham, M. O. Pederson, and S. Stulz, “800 Gbits/s (80×10.664 Gbits/s) WDM transmission over 5200 km of fibre employing 100 km dispersion-managed spans,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1467–1469 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ryf, R.

Shin, S. K.

H. Y. Choi, S. B. Jun, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, “Monitoring technique for ASE and MPI noises in distributed Raman amplified systems,” in Proc. of OFC 2007, OMM2 (2007).

J. H. Lee, H. Y. Choi, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, “A review of the polarization-nulling technique for monitoring optical-signal-to-noise ratio in dynamic WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4162–4171 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stulz, S.

B. Zhu, S. N. Knudsen, L. E. Nelson, D. W. Peckham, M. O. Pederson, and S. Stulz, “800 Gbits/s (80×10.664 Gbits/s) WDM transmission over 5200 km of fibre employing 100 km dispersion-managed spans,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1467–1469 (2001).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, H.

Taylor, J. R.

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, “Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 12, 528–530 (2000).
[Crossref]

van Deventer, M. O.

M. O. van Deventer, “Polarization properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single mode fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1895–1899 (1993).
[Crossref]

Vasilyev, M.

A. Kobyakov, S. Gray, and M. Vasilyev, “Quantitative analysis of Rayleigh crosstalk in Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 732–733 (2003).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P. J.

J. Bromage, L. E. Nelson, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, “Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance,” in Proc. of OFC 2002, TuR3 (2002).

Wood, T. H.

D. F. Grosz, A. Agarwal, A. P. Kung, S. Banerjee, D. N. Maywar, and T. H. Wood, “Performance of a ULH single wide-band all-Raman DWDM transmission system over dispersion-managed spans,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1197–1199 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xie, C.

C. Xie, D. C. Kilper, L. Moller, and R. Ryf, “Orthogonal polarization heterodyne OSNR monitoring technique insensitive to polarization effects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 177–183 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Xie and D. C. Kilper, “Influence of polarization scattering on polarization-assisted OSNR monitoring in dense WDM systems with NZ-DSF and Raman amplification,” in Proc. of OFC 2005, JWA40 (2005).

Zhu, B.

B. Zhu, S. N. Knudsen, L. E. Nelson, D. W. Peckham, M. O. Pederson, and S. Stulz, “800 Gbits/s (80×10.664 Gbits/s) WDM transmission over 5200 km of fibre employing 100 km dispersion-managed spans,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1467–1469 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, “Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 37, 970–972 (2001).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (4)

S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, M.-J. Chu, and J.-H. Lee, “Limitations in fibre Raman amplifiers imposed by Rayleigh scattering of signals,” Electron. Lett. 38, 865–867 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Kobyakov, S. Gray, and M. Vasilyev, “Quantitative analysis of Rayleigh crosstalk in Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 732–733 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, “Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 37, 970–972 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, S. N. Knudsen, L. E. Nelson, D. W. Peckham, M. O. Pederson, and S. Stulz, “800 Gbits/s (80×10.664 Gbits/s) WDM transmission over 5200 km of fibre employing 100 km dispersion-managed spans,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1467–1469 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. F. Grosz, A. Agarwal, A. P. Kung, S. Banerjee, D. N. Maywar, and T. H. Wood, “Performance of a ULH single wide-band all-Raman DWDM transmission system over dispersion-managed spans,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1197–1199 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. (2)

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, “Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 12, 528–530 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 13, 88–90 (2001).
[Crossref]

in Proc. of OFC 2002, TuR3 (1)

J. Bromage, L. E. Nelson, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, “Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance,” in Proc. of OFC 2002, TuR3 (2002).

in Proc. of OFC 2005, JWA40 (1)

C. Xie and D. C. Kilper, “Influence of polarization scattering on polarization-assisted OSNR monitoring in dense WDM systems with NZ-DSF and Raman amplification,” in Proc. of OFC 2005, JWA40 (2005).

in Proc. of OFC 2007, OMM2 (1)

H. Y. Choi, S. B. Jun, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, “Monitoring technique for ASE and MPI noises in distributed Raman amplified systems,” in Proc. of OFC 2007, OMM2 (2007).

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Configuration of the proposed monitoring technique.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Operating principle (a) Signal spectrum in the presence of ASE and MPI noises, (b) Filtered signal at two different wavelengths, (c) Polarized noises.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured OSNR errors at various MPI noise levels (a) 10-Gb/s NRZ signal, (b) 10-Gb/s RZ signal, (c) 40-Gb/s NRZ signal, (d) 40-Gb/s RZ signal. (oe-15-14-8660-i001 r = -15 dB, oe-15-14-8660-i002 r = -20 dB, ▿ r = -25 dB, oe-15-14-8660-i003 r = -30 dB)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured MPI noise levels at various OSNR values (a) 10-Gb/s NRZ signal, (b) 10-Gb/s RZ signal, (c) 40-Gb/s NRZ signal, (d) 40-Gb/s RZ signal. (∎ OSNR = 15 dB, ▾ OSNR = 20 dB, ▴ OSNR = 25 dB, ● OSNR = 30 dB)

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

MPI noise levels measured in a real DRA system. The solid curve and symbols represent the calculated values and the measured data, respectively.

Equations (2)

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P 2 = 1 2 P A S E + 1 d 2 r 1 + r ( P 1 P A S E ) P 4 = 1 2 P A S E + 1 d 2 r 1 + r ( P 3 P A S E )
P A S E = 2 ( P 1 P 4 P 2 P 3 P 1 P 3 2 P 2 + 2 P 4 r = 1 4 9 P 1 P 3 P 2 P 4 1

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