Abstract

We present the design and characterization of a large optical modulator array based on GaAs multiple quantum wells for amplitude and phase modulation. The device shows two high-reflectance states with a phase difference close to 180° for use as a binary phase modulator. It also shows a third, low-reflectance state for use as an amplitude modulator. It is segmented into 64 pixels in a single row, giving an active area of 2mm × 5mm. We discuss the device performance as a ternary binary amplitude and binary phase modulator, including contrast ratio and uniformity, and show that a voltage swing of only 5V is needed to drive it.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Wakita, I. Kotaka, O. Mitomi, H. Asai, Y. Kawamura, and M. Naganuma, "High-speed InGaAlAs /InAlAs Multiple Quantum Well Optical Modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1027-1032 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Devaux, P. Bordes, A. Ougazzaden, M. Carré, and F. Huet, "Experimental optimisation of MQW electroabsorption modulators with up to 40GHz bandwidths," Electron Lett. 30, 1347-1348 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Spickermann, N. Dagli and M. G. Peters, "GaAs/AlGaAs electro-optic modulator with bandwidth >40GHz," Electron Lett. 31, 915-916 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. K. Loi, L. Shen, H. H. Wieder, and W. S. C. Chang, "Electroabsorption Waveguide Modulators at 1.3 µm Fabricated on GaAs Substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1229-1231 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Liu, C.-Chung Lin, and J. S. Harris, Jr., "High-speed, dual-function vertical cavity multiple quantum well modulators and photodetectors for optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 40, 1186-1191 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, "Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles," Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Ågren, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, "Fabry-Pérot Electroabsorption Modulators for High-Speed Free-Space Optical Communication," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1471-1473 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. U. Efron and G. Livescu, "Multiple quantum well spatial light modulators," in Spatial light modulator technology: materials, devices and applications, Uzi Efron, ed. (Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1994).
  9. K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Araso, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossive, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, "GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. U. Arad, E. Redmard, M. Shamay, A. Averboukh, S. Levit, and U. Efron, "Development of a large high-performance 2-D array of GaAs_AlGaAs multiple quantum-well modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1531-1533 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Stéphane Junique, Qin Wang, Susanne Almqvist, Jianhua Guo, Henk Martijn, Bertrand Noharet, and Jan Y. Andersson, "GaAs-based multiple-quantum-well spatial light modulators fabricated by a wafer-scale process," Appl. Opt. 44, 1635-1641 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. Pezeshki, D. Thomas, and J. S. HarrisJr, "Optimization of modulation ratio and insertion loss in reflective electroabsorption modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1491-1492 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Zouganeli, P. J. Stevens, D. Atkinson, and G. Parry, "Design Trade-offs and Evaluation of the Performance Attainable by GaAs-Al0.3Ga0.7As Asymmetric Fabry-Perot Modulators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 927-943 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Zouganeli and G. Parry, " Evaluation of the Tolerance of Asymmetric Fabry-Perot Modulators with Respect to Realistic Operating Conditions," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1140-1151 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Noharet and S. Junique, "Multiple quantum well spatial light modulators for correlation-based processors," in Optoelectronic Information Processing: Optics for Information Systems, P. Réfrégier, B. Javidi, C. Ferreira, and S. Vallmitjana, eds. (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 2001), pp. 314-364.
  16. K. Wakita, I. Kotaka, and H. Asai, "High-speed InGaAlAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well electrooptic phase modulators with bandwidth in excess of 20GHz," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 4, 29-31 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Chen, J. E. Zucker, N. J. Sauer, and T. Y. Chang, "Polarization-independent strained InGaAs/InGaAlAs quantum-well phase modulators," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 4, 1120-1123 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Mohseni, H. An, Z. A. Shellenbarger, M. H. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, "Highly linear and efficient phase modulators based on GaInAsP-InP three-step quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Pezeshki, G. A. Williams, and J. S. Harris, Jr, "Optical phase modulator utilizing electroabsorption in a Fabry-Perot cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1061-1063 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. A. Trezza and J. S. Harris, "Creation and optimization of vertical cavity phase flip modulators," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4878-4884 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. A. Trezza, and J. S. Harris, "Two-state electrically controllable phase diffraction grating using arrays of vertical-cavity phase flip modulators," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 8, 1211-1213 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Institute of Physics, Bristol, 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. Yeh, Optical waves in layered media (John Wiley Sons, Inc., 1988).
  24. G. Bastard, Wave Mechanics Applied to Semiconductor Heterostructures (Les Éditions de Physique, Paris, 1988).
  25. H. Malm, C. Asplund, S. Becanovic, J. Borgling, A. Parekh, and B. Hirschauer, "Advanced process control for high quality R&D and production of MOVPE material by RealTemp," J. Cryst. Growth 248, 229-234 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Ågren, S. Almqvist and B. Noharet, "Arrays of vertical-cavity electroabsorption modulators for parallel signal processing," Opt. Express 13, 3323-3330 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Ågren, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, "Fabry-Pérot Electroabsorption Modulators for High-Speed Free-Space Optical Communication," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1471-1473 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

U. Arad, E. Redmard, M. Shamay, A. Averboukh, S. Levit, and U. Efron, "Development of a large high-performance 2-D array of GaAs_AlGaAs multiple quantum-well modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1531-1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Malm, C. Asplund, S. Becanovic, J. Borgling, A. Parekh, and B. Hirschauer, "Advanced process control for high quality R&D and production of MOVPE material by RealTemp," J. Cryst. Growth 248, 229-234 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

H. Liu, C.-Chung Lin, and J. S. Harris, Jr., "High-speed, dual-function vertical cavity multiple quantum well modulators and photodetectors for optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 40, 1186-1191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, "Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles," Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. K. Loi, L. Shen, H. H. Wieder, and W. S. C. Chang, "Electroabsorption Waveguide Modulators at 1.3 µm Fabricated on GaAs Substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1229-1231 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. A. Trezza, and J. S. Harris, "Two-state electrically controllable phase diffraction grating using arrays of vertical-cavity phase flip modulators," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 8, 1211-1213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

R. Spickermann, N. Dagli and M. G. Peters, "GaAs/AlGaAs electro-optic modulator with bandwidth >40GHz," Electron Lett. 31, 915-916 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Araso, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossive, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, "GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Zouganeli, P. J. Stevens, D. Atkinson, and G. Parry, "Design Trade-offs and Evaluation of the Performance Attainable by GaAs-Al0.3Ga0.7As Asymmetric Fabry-Perot Modulators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 927-943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Zouganeli and G. Parry, " Evaluation of the Tolerance of Asymmetric Fabry-Perot Modulators with Respect to Realistic Operating Conditions," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1140-1151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

F. Devaux, P. Bordes, A. Ougazzaden, M. Carré, and F. Huet, "Experimental optimisation of MQW electroabsorption modulators with up to 40GHz bandwidths," Electron Lett. 30, 1347-1348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Trezza and J. S. Harris, "Creation and optimization of vertical cavity phase flip modulators," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4878-4884 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

K. Wakita, I. Kotaka, and H. Asai, "High-speed InGaAlAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well electrooptic phase modulators with bandwidth in excess of 20GHz," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 4, 29-31 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, J. E. Zucker, N. J. Sauer, and T. Y. Chang, "Polarization-independent strained InGaAs/InGaAlAs quantum-well phase modulators," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 4, 1120-1123 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Pezeshki, G. A. Williams, and J. S. Harris, Jr, "Optical phase modulator utilizing electroabsorption in a Fabry-Perot cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1061-1063 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

B. Pezeshki, D. Thomas, and J. S. HarrisJr, "Optimization of modulation ratio and insertion loss in reflective electroabsorption modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1491-1492 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Wakita, I. Kotaka, O. Mitomi, H. Asai, Y. Kawamura, and M. Naganuma, "High-speed InGaAlAs /InAlAs Multiple Quantum Well Optical Modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1027-1032 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, J. H.

H. Mohseni, H. An, Z. A. Shellenbarger, M. H. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, "Highly linear and efficient phase modulators based on GaInAsP-InP three-step quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ågren, D.

Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Ågren, S. Almqvist and B. Noharet, "Arrays of vertical-cavity electroabsorption modulators for parallel signal processing," Opt. Express 13, 3323-3330 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Ågren, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, "Fabry-Pérot Electroabsorption Modulators for High-Speed Free-Space Optical Communication," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1471-1473 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Almqvist, S.

An, H.

H. Mohseni, H. An, Z. A. Shellenbarger, M. H. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, "Highly linear and efficient phase modulators based on GaInAsP-InP three-step quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, J. Y.

Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Ågren, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, "Fabry-Pérot Electroabsorption Modulators for High-Speed Free-Space Optical Communication," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1471-1473 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arad, U.

U. Arad, E. Redmard, M. Shamay, A. Averboukh, S. Levit, and U. Efron, "Development of a large high-performance 2-D array of GaAs_AlGaAs multiple quantum-well modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1531-1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Asai, H.

K. Wakita, I. Kotaka, and H. Asai, "High-speed InGaAlAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well electrooptic phase modulators with bandwidth in excess of 20GHz," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 4, 29-31 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Wakita, I. Kotaka, O. Mitomi, H. Asai, Y. Kawamura, and M. Naganuma, "High-speed InGaAlAs /InAlAs Multiple Quantum Well Optical Modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1027-1032 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Asplund, C.

H. Malm, C. Asplund, S. Becanovic, J. Borgling, A. Parekh, and B. Hirschauer, "Advanced process control for high quality R&D and production of MOVPE material by RealTemp," J. Cryst. Growth 248, 229-234 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, D.

P. Zouganeli, P. J. Stevens, D. Atkinson, and G. Parry, "Design Trade-offs and Evaluation of the Performance Attainable by GaAs-Al0.3Ga0.7As Asymmetric Fabry-Perot Modulators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 927-943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Averboukh, A.

U. Arad, E. Redmard, M. Shamay, A. Averboukh, S. Levit, and U. Efron, "Development of a large high-performance 2-D array of GaAs_AlGaAs multiple quantum-well modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1531-1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bacon, D. D.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Araso, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossive, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, "GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barbehenn, R.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, "Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles," Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Becanovic, S.

H. Malm, C. Asplund, S. Becanovic, J. Borgling, A. Parekh, and B. Hirschauer, "Advanced process control for high quality R&D and production of MOVPE material by RealTemp," J. Cryst. Growth 248, 229-234 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bordes, P.

F. Devaux, P. Bordes, A. Ougazzaden, M. Carré, and F. Huet, "Experimental optimisation of MQW electroabsorption modulators with up to 40GHz bandwidths," Electron Lett. 30, 1347-1348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Borgling, J.

H. Malm, C. Asplund, S. Becanovic, J. Borgling, A. Parekh, and B. Hirschauer, "Advanced process control for high quality R&D and production of MOVPE material by RealTemp," J. Cryst. Growth 248, 229-234 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bovais, C. S.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, "Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles," Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burris, R.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, "Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles," Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carré, M.

F. Devaux, P. Bordes, A. Ougazzaden, M. Carré, and F. Huet, "Experimental optimisation of MQW electroabsorption modulators with up to 40GHz bandwidths," Electron Lett. 30, 1347-1348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. Y.

Y. Chen, J. E. Zucker, N. J. Sauer, and T. Y. Chang, "Polarization-independent strained InGaAs/InGaAlAs quantum-well phase modulators," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 4, 1120-1123 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. S. C.

K. K. Loi, L. Shen, H. H. Wieder, and W. S. C. Chang, "Electroabsorption Waveguide Modulators at 1.3 µm Fabricated on GaAs Substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1229-1231 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, J. E. Zucker, N. J. Sauer, and T. Y. Chang, "Polarization-independent strained InGaAs/InGaAlAs quantum-well phase modulators," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 4, 1120-1123 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Araso, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossive, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, "GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cochrell, K.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, "Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles," Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D’Araso, L. A.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Araso, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossive, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, "GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dagli, N.

R. Spickermann, N. Dagli and M. G. Peters, "GaAs/AlGaAs electro-optic modulator with bandwidth >40GHz," Electron Lett. 31, 915-916 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dahringer, D.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Araso, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossive, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, "GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, F.

F. Devaux, P. Bordes, A. Ougazzaden, M. Carré, and F. Huet, "Experimental optimisation of MQW electroabsorption modulators with up to 40GHz bandwidths," Electron Lett. 30, 1347-1348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Efron, U.

U. Arad, E. Redmard, M. Shamay, A. Averboukh, S. Levit, and U. Efron, "Development of a large high-performance 2-D array of GaAs_AlGaAs multiple quantum-well modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1531-1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, M.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, "Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles," Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gilbreath, G. C.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, "Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles," Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goins, K. C.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, "Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles," Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goossen, K. W.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Araso, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossive, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, "GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

J. A. Trezza, and J. S. Harris, "Two-state electrically controllable phase diffraction grating using arrays of vertical-cavity phase flip modulators," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 8, 1211-1213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Trezza and J. S. Harris, "Creation and optimization of vertical cavity phase flip modulators," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4878-4884 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Pezeshki, G. A. Williams, and J. S. Harris, Jr, "Optical phase modulator utilizing electroabsorption in a Fabry-Perot cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1061-1063 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Pezeshki, D. Thomas, and J. S. HarrisJr, "Optimization of modulation ratio and insertion loss in reflective electroabsorption modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1491-1492 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hirschauer, B.

H. Malm, C. Asplund, S. Becanovic, J. Borgling, A. Parekh, and B. Hirschauer, "Advanced process control for high quality R&D and production of MOVPE material by RealTemp," J. Cryst. Growth 248, 229-234 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huet, F.

F. Devaux, P. Bordes, A. Ougazzaden, M. Carré, and F. Huet, "Experimental optimisation of MQW electroabsorption modulators with up to 40GHz bandwidths," Electron Lett. 30, 1347-1348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hui, S. P.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Araso, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossive, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, "GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ikossi-Anastasiou, K.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, "Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles," Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Junique, S.

Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Ågren, S. Almqvist and B. Noharet, "Arrays of vertical-cavity electroabsorption modulators for parallel signal processing," Opt. Express 13, 3323-3330 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Ågren, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, "Fabry-Pérot Electroabsorption Modulators for High-Speed Free-Space Optical Communication," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1471-1473 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Katzer, D. S.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, "Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles," Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, Y.

K. Wakita, I. Kotaka, O. Mitomi, H. Asai, Y. Kawamura, and M. Naganuma, "High-speed InGaAlAs /InAlAs Multiple Quantum Well Optical Modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1027-1032 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kossive, D.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Araso, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossive, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, "GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kotaka, I.

K. Wakita, I. Kotaka, and H. Asai, "High-speed InGaAlAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well electrooptic phase modulators with bandwidth in excess of 20GHz," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 4, 29-31 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Wakita, I. Kotaka, O. Mitomi, H. Asai, Y. Kawamura, and M. Naganuma, "High-speed InGaAlAs /InAlAs Multiple Quantum Well Optical Modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1027-1032 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kwakernaak, M. H.

H. Mohseni, H. An, Z. A. Shellenbarger, M. H. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, "Highly linear and efficient phase modulators based on GaInAsP-InP three-step quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Araso, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossive, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, "GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Araso, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossive, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, "GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Levit, S.

U. Arad, E. Redmard, M. Shamay, A. Averboukh, S. Levit, and U. Efron, "Development of a large high-performance 2-D array of GaAs_AlGaAs multiple quantum-well modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1531-1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, C.-Chung Lin, and J. S. Harris, Jr., "High-speed, dual-function vertical cavity multiple quantum well modulators and photodetectors for optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 40, 1186-1191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Loi, K. K.

K. K. Loi, L. Shen, H. H. Wieder, and W. S. C. Chang, "Electroabsorption Waveguide Modulators at 1.3 µm Fabricated on GaAs Substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1229-1231 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mahon, R.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, "Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles," Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Malm, H.

H. Malm, C. Asplund, S. Becanovic, J. Borgling, A. Parekh, and B. Hirschauer, "Advanced process control for high quality R&D and production of MOVPE material by RealTemp," J. Cryst. Growth 248, 229-234 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meehan, T. J.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, "Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles," Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Araso, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossive, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, "GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mitomi, O.

K. Wakita, I. Kotaka, O. Mitomi, H. Asai, Y. Kawamura, and M. Naganuma, "High-speed InGaAlAs /InAlAs Multiple Quantum Well Optical Modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1027-1032 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mohseni, H.

H. Mohseni, H. An, Z. A. Shellenbarger, M. H. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, "Highly linear and efficient phase modulators based on GaInAsP-InP three-step quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Montes, M. J.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, "Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles," Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Naganuma, M.

K. Wakita, I. Kotaka, O. Mitomi, H. Asai, Y. Kawamura, and M. Naganuma, "High-speed InGaAlAs /InAlAs Multiple Quantum Well Optical Modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1027-1032 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Noharet, B.

Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Ågren, S. Almqvist and B. Noharet, "Arrays of vertical-cavity electroabsorption modulators for parallel signal processing," Opt. Express 13, 3323-3330 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Ågren, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, "Fabry-Pérot Electroabsorption Modulators for High-Speed Free-Space Optical Communication," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1471-1473 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ougazzaden, A.

F. Devaux, P. Bordes, A. Ougazzaden, M. Carré, and F. Huet, "Experimental optimisation of MQW electroabsorption modulators with up to 40GHz bandwidths," Electron Lett. 30, 1347-1348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Parekh, A.

H. Malm, C. Asplund, S. Becanovic, J. Borgling, A. Parekh, and B. Hirschauer, "Advanced process control for high quality R&D and production of MOVPE material by RealTemp," J. Cryst. Growth 248, 229-234 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Parry, G.

P. Zouganeli, P. J. Stevens, D. Atkinson, and G. Parry, "Design Trade-offs and Evaluation of the Performance Attainable by GaAs-Al0.3Ga0.7As Asymmetric Fabry-Perot Modulators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 927-943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Zouganeli and G. Parry, " Evaluation of the Tolerance of Asymmetric Fabry-Perot Modulators with Respect to Realistic Operating Conditions," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1140-1151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Peters, M. G.

R. Spickermann, N. Dagli and M. G. Peters, "GaAs/AlGaAs electro-optic modulator with bandwidth >40GHz," Electron Lett. 31, 915-916 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pezeshki, B.

B. Pezeshki, G. A. Williams, and J. S. Harris, Jr, "Optical phase modulator utilizing electroabsorption in a Fabry-Perot cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1061-1063 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Pezeshki, D. Thomas, and J. S. HarrisJr, "Optimization of modulation ratio and insertion loss in reflective electroabsorption modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1491-1492 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rabinovich, W. S.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, "Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles," Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Redmard, E.

U. Arad, E. Redmard, M. Shamay, A. Averboukh, S. Levit, and U. Efron, "Development of a large high-performance 2-D array of GaAs_AlGaAs multiple quantum-well modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1531-1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, N. J.

Y. Chen, J. E. Zucker, N. J. Sauer, and T. Y. Chang, "Polarization-independent strained InGaAs/InGaAlAs quantum-well phase modulators," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 4, 1120-1123 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shamay, M.

U. Arad, E. Redmard, M. Shamay, A. Averboukh, S. Levit, and U. Efron, "Development of a large high-performance 2-D array of GaAs_AlGaAs multiple quantum-well modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1531-1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shellenbarger, Z. A.

H. Mohseni, H. An, Z. A. Shellenbarger, M. H. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, "Highly linear and efficient phase modulators based on GaInAsP-InP three-step quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, L.

K. K. Loi, L. Shen, H. H. Wieder, and W. S. C. Chang, "Electroabsorption Waveguide Modulators at 1.3 µm Fabricated on GaAs Substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1229-1231 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Solkolsky, I.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, "Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles," Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spickermann, R.

R. Spickermann, N. Dagli and M. G. Peters, "GaAs/AlGaAs electro-optic modulator with bandwidth >40GHz," Electron Lett. 31, 915-916 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, P. J.

P. Zouganeli, P. J. Stevens, D. Atkinson, and G. Parry, "Design Trade-offs and Evaluation of the Performance Attainable by GaAs-Al0.3Ga0.7As Asymmetric Fabry-Perot Modulators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 927-943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, D.

B. Pezeshki, D. Thomas, and J. S. HarrisJr, "Optimization of modulation ratio and insertion loss in reflective electroabsorption modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1491-1492 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Trezza, J. A.

J. A. Trezza, and J. S. Harris, "Two-state electrically controllable phase diffraction grating using arrays of vertical-cavity phase flip modulators," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 8, 1211-1213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Trezza and J. S. Harris, "Creation and optimization of vertical cavity phase flip modulators," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4878-4884 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, B.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Araso, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossive, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, "GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vasquez, J. A.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, "Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles," Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vilcheck, M. J.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, "Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles," Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wakita, K.

K. Wakita, I. Kotaka, and H. Asai, "High-speed InGaAlAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well electrooptic phase modulators with bandwidth in excess of 20GHz," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 4, 29-31 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Wakita, I. Kotaka, O. Mitomi, H. Asai, Y. Kawamura, and M. Naganuma, "High-speed InGaAlAs /InAlAs Multiple Quantum Well Optical Modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1027-1032 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. A.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Araso, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossive, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, "GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Ågren, S. Almqvist and B. Noharet, "Arrays of vertical-cavity electroabsorption modulators for parallel signal processing," Opt. Express 13, 3323-3330 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Ågren, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, "Fabry-Pérot Electroabsorption Modulators for High-Speed Free-Space Optical Communication," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1471-1473 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wieder, H. H.

K. K. Loi, L. Shen, H. H. Wieder, and W. S. C. Chang, "Electroabsorption Waveguide Modulators at 1.3 µm Fabricated on GaAs Substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1229-1231 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. A.

B. Pezeshki, G. A. Williams, and J. S. Harris, Jr, "Optical phase modulator utilizing electroabsorption in a Fabry-Perot cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1061-1063 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zouganeli, P.

P. Zouganeli and G. Parry, " Evaluation of the Tolerance of Asymmetric Fabry-Perot Modulators with Respect to Realistic Operating Conditions," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1140-1151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Zouganeli, P. J. Stevens, D. Atkinson, and G. Parry, "Design Trade-offs and Evaluation of the Performance Attainable by GaAs-Al0.3Ga0.7As Asymmetric Fabry-Perot Modulators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 927-943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zucker, J. E.

Y. Chen, J. E. Zucker, N. J. Sauer, and T. Y. Chang, "Polarization-independent strained InGaAs/InGaAlAs quantum-well phase modulators," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 4, 1120-1123 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

B. Pezeshki, D. Thomas, and J. S. HarrisJr, "Optimization of modulation ratio and insertion loss in reflective electroabsorption modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1491-1492 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Mohseni, H. An, Z. A. Shellenbarger, M. H. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, "Highly linear and efficient phase modulators based on GaInAsP-InP three-step quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Pezeshki, G. A. Williams, and J. S. Harris, Jr, "Optical phase modulator utilizing electroabsorption in a Fabry-Perot cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1061-1063 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron Lett. (2)

F. Devaux, P. Bordes, A. Ougazzaden, M. Carré, and F. Huet, "Experimental optimisation of MQW electroabsorption modulators with up to 40GHz bandwidths," Electron Lett. 30, 1347-1348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Spickermann, N. Dagli and M. G. Peters, "GaAs/AlGaAs electro-optic modulator with bandwidth >40GHz," Electron Lett. 31, 915-916 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

P. Zouganeli, P. J. Stevens, D. Atkinson, and G. Parry, "Design Trade-offs and Evaluation of the Performance Attainable by GaAs-Al0.3Ga0.7As Asymmetric Fabry-Perot Modulators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 927-943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Zouganeli and G. Parry, " Evaluation of the Tolerance of Asymmetric Fabry-Perot Modulators with Respect to Realistic Operating Conditions," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1140-1151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. (3)

K. Wakita, I. Kotaka, and H. Asai, "High-speed InGaAlAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well electrooptic phase modulators with bandwidth in excess of 20GHz," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 4, 29-31 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, J. E. Zucker, N. J. Sauer, and T. Y. Chang, "Polarization-independent strained InGaAs/InGaAlAs quantum-well phase modulators," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 4, 1120-1123 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Trezza, and J. S. Harris, "Two-state electrically controllable phase diffraction grating using arrays of vertical-cavity phase flip modulators," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 8, 1211-1213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

K. K. Loi, L. Shen, H. H. Wieder, and W. S. C. Chang, "Electroabsorption Waveguide Modulators at 1.3 µm Fabricated on GaAs Substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1229-1231 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Ågren, B. Noharet, and J. Y. Andersson, "Fabry-Pérot Electroabsorption Modulators for High-Speed Free-Space Optical Communication," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1471-1473 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Araso, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossive, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, "GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360-362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Arad, E. Redmard, M. Shamay, A. Averboukh, S. Levit, and U. Efron, "Development of a large high-performance 2-D array of GaAs_AlGaAs multiple quantum-well modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1531-1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. A. Trezza and J. S. Harris, "Creation and optimization of vertical cavity phase flip modulators," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4878-4884 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

H. Malm, C. Asplund, S. Becanovic, J. Borgling, A. Parekh, and B. Hirschauer, "Advanced process control for high quality R&D and production of MOVPE material by RealTemp," J. Cryst. Growth 248, 229-234 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. Wakita, I. Kotaka, O. Mitomi, H. Asai, Y. Kawamura, and M. Naganuma, "High-speed InGaAlAs /InAlAs Multiple Quantum Well Optical Modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1027-1032 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

H. Liu, C.-Chung Lin, and J. S. Harris, Jr., "High-speed, dual-function vertical cavity multiple quantum well modulators and photodetectors for optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 40, 1186-1191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, "Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles," Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (5)

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Institute of Physics, Bristol, 2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Yeh, Optical waves in layered media (John Wiley Sons, Inc., 1988).

G. Bastard, Wave Mechanics Applied to Semiconductor Heterostructures (Les Éditions de Physique, Paris, 1988).

U. Efron and G. Livescu, "Multiple quantum well spatial light modulators," in Spatial light modulator technology: materials, devices and applications, Uzi Efron, ed. (Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1994).

B. Noharet and S. Junique, "Multiple quantum well spatial light modulators for correlation-based processors," in Optoelectronic Information Processing: Optics for Information Systems, P. Réfrégier, B. Javidi, C. Ferreira, and S. Vallmitjana, eds. (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 2001), pp. 314-364.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Picture of a mounted device. It contains two rows of 64 pixels. Each row size is 2mm × 5mm, and each pixel 2mm × 78μm. The modulator chip was hybridized to a silicon carrier using flip-chip bonding technology, to allow independent electrical access to all pixels. In our experiment, only the bottom row of modulators was characterized.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Left: Sketch of the corner of the modulator array hybridized to its silicon carrier, showing the individual p-doped Bragg mirrors, intrinsic quantum well regions, and the n- doped, common contact region of the modulator array; the left-hand mesa is covered by a metal layer (shown in grey) all the way down to the n-doped region and is used as a common contact;. The other two mesas shown are active pixels. And right: microscope picture showing a top-view of the modulator corner before flip-chip bonding to the silicon carrier, with common contacts and active pixels.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reflectance profile at the center of the array, showing how the exciton peak red-shifts from 847nm (0V) to 851nm (-7V), while the resonant cavity first red-shifts from 853nm (0V) to 853.5nm (-5V), then blue-shifts to 851nm (-7V).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Reflectance as a function of the applied bias at three positions on the device, extreme left, center and extreme right. The illumination spot was centered vertically on the device row, with a diameter below 0.5mm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Phase shift as a function of the applied bias with regard to the phase at 0V, measured in ten contiguous regions across the modulator array.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Phase difference between chosen applied biases, showing the uniformity across the modulator array. The device region marked as x=4mm contains a shortcut pixel, to which we attribute the lower observed phase modulation.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Coding domains measured between -2V and -8V in steps of 1V at the device left (circles), center (crosses) and right (squares) measurement spots, at 853nm. The measurement points are plotted as complex numbers in the complex plane. The measured reflectance is used as the modulus, and the phase at -2V is taken as the phase origin for each of the three measurement locations on the device.

Metrics