Abstract

We present a study characterizing the properties of femtosecond laser nanosurgery applied to individual axons in live Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) using nano-Joule laser pulses at 1 kHz repetition rate. Emphasis is placed on the characterization of the damage threshold, the extent of damage, and the statistical rates of axonal recovery as a function of laser parameters. The ablation threshold decreases with increasing number of pulses applied during nanoaxotomy. This dependency suggests the existence of an incubation effect. In terms of extent of damage, the energy per pulse is found to be a more critical parameter than the number of pulses. Axonal recovery improves when surgery is performed using a large number of low energy pulses.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006

S.H. Chung, D.A. Clark, C.V. Gabel, E. Mazur and A.D.T. Samuel, "The role of the AFD neuron in C. elegans thermotaxis analyzed using femtosecond laser ablation," BMC Neuro. 7:30 (2006).

F. Yanik, H. Cinar, N. Cinar, A. Chisholm, Y. Jin and A. Ben-Yakar, "Nerve regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans after femtosecond laser axotomy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12 (6) (2006).

2005

B. Beirowski,R. Adalbert, D. Wagner, D.S. Grumme, K. Addicks, R.R. Ribchester and M.P. Coleman, "The progressive nature of Wallerian degeneration in wild-type and slow Wallerian degeneration (WldS) nerves," BMC Neurosci. 6 (6), (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Heisterkamp, I. Zaharieva Maxwell, E. Mazur, J. M. Underwood, J. A. Nickerson, S. Kumar and D. E. Ingber, "Pulse energy dependence of subcellular dissection by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 13, 3690-3696 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Shen, D. Datta, C.B. Schaffer, P. LeDuc, D.E. Ingber and E. Mazur, "Ablation of cytoskeletal filaments and mitochondria in cells using a femtosecond laser nanocissor," Mech. Chem. Biosyst. 2, 17 (2005).

M. Kerschensteiner, M.E. Schwab, J.W. Lichtman and T. Misgeld, "In vivo imaging of axonal degereneration and regeneration in the injured spinal cord," Nature Med. 11(5), 572-577 (2005).

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman and G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," App. Phys. B, 10.1007 (2005).

2004

D.H. Bhatt, S.J. Otto, B. Depoister and J.R. Fetcho, "Cyclic AMP-induced repair of zebrafish spinal circuits," Science 305, 254-258 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M.F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H.N. Cinar, A.D. Chisholm, Y. Jin and A. Ben-Yakar, "Functional regeneration after laser axotomy," Nature 432, 882 (2004).

H. Urey, "Spot size, depth of focus and diffraction ring intensity formulas for truncated Gaussian beams." App. Phys. 43 (3), 620-625 (2004).

W. Watanabe and N. Arakawa, "Femtosecond laser disruption of subcellular organelles in a living cell," Opt. Express 12 (18), 4203-4213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

X. Huang, H.J. Cheng, M. Tessier-Lavigne, Y. Jin, "MAX-1, a novel PH/MyTH4/FERM domain cytoplasmic protein implicated in netrin-mediated axon repulsion" Neuron 34, 563-576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U.K. Tirlapur and K. König, "Targeted transfection by femtosecond laser," Nature 418, 290-291 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Venugopalan, A. GuerraIII, K. Hahen and A. Vogel, "Role of laser-induced plasma formation in pulse cellular microsurgery and micromanipulation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 078103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

P.J. Horner and F.H. Gage, "Regenerating the damaged central nervous system," Nature 407, 963-970 (2000).

1999

M.D. Perry, D.C. Stuart, P.S. Banks, M.D. Feit, V. Yanovsky and A.M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian and D. Ashkenasi, "Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation." Appl. Phys. A 69 [Suppl.], S373-S376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

M. Chalfie, "The differentiation and function of the touch receptor neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans" Prog. Brain. Res. 105, 179-82 (1995).

1991

M. Driscoll and M. Chalfie, "The mec-4 gene is a member of a family of Caenorhabditis elegans genes that can mutate to induce neuronal degeneration." Nature 349, 588-593 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

1986

J.G. White, F. Southgate, J.N. Thomson and S. Brenner, "The structure of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans." Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London Series B. Bio.Scien. 314, 1-340 (1986).

1973

S. Brenner, "The genetics of behaviour," Brit. Med. Bull. 29, 269-271 (1973).

1850

A. Waller, "Experiments on the section of glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves of the frog and observations of the alternatives produced thereby in the structure of their primitive fibers," Philos Trans R Soc Lond Biol. 140, 423 (1850).

Adalbert, R.

B. Beirowski,R. Adalbert, D. Wagner, D.S. Grumme, K. Addicks, R.R. Ribchester and M.P. Coleman, "The progressive nature of Wallerian degeneration in wild-type and slow Wallerian degeneration (WldS) nerves," BMC Neurosci. 6 (6), (2005).
[CrossRef]

Addicks, K.

B. Beirowski,R. Adalbert, D. Wagner, D.S. Grumme, K. Addicks, R.R. Ribchester and M.P. Coleman, "The progressive nature of Wallerian degeneration in wild-type and slow Wallerian degeneration (WldS) nerves," BMC Neurosci. 6 (6), (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, N.

Ashkenasi, D.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian and D. Ashkenasi, "Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation." Appl. Phys. A 69 [Suppl.], S373-S376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Banks, P.S.

M.D. Perry, D.C. Stuart, P.S. Banks, M.D. Feit, V. Yanovsky and A.M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Becker, M.F.

Beirowski, B.

B. Beirowski,R. Adalbert, D. Wagner, D.S. Grumme, K. Addicks, R.R. Ribchester and M.P. Coleman, "The progressive nature of Wallerian degeneration in wild-type and slow Wallerian degeneration (WldS) nerves," BMC Neurosci. 6 (6), (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Yakar, A.

F. Yanik, H. Cinar, N. Cinar, A. Chisholm, Y. Jin and A. Ben-Yakar, "Nerve regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans after femtosecond laser axotomy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12 (6) (2006).

M.F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H.N. Cinar, A.D. Chisholm, Y. Jin and A. Ben-Yakar, "Functional regeneration after laser axotomy," Nature 432, 882 (2004).

Bhatt, D.H.

D.H. Bhatt, S.J. Otto, B. Depoister and J.R. Fetcho, "Cyclic AMP-induced repair of zebrafish spinal circuits," Science 305, 254-258 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, S.

J.G. White, F. Southgate, J.N. Thomson and S. Brenner, "The structure of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans." Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London Series B. Bio.Scien. 314, 1-340 (1986).

S. Brenner, "The genetics of behaviour," Brit. Med. Bull. 29, 269-271 (1973).

Chalfie, M.

M. Chalfie, "The differentiation and function of the touch receptor neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans" Prog. Brain. Res. 105, 179-82 (1995).

M. Driscoll and M. Chalfie, "The mec-4 gene is a member of a family of Caenorhabditis elegans genes that can mutate to induce neuronal degeneration." Nature 349, 588-593 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H.J.

X. Huang, H.J. Cheng, M. Tessier-Lavigne, Y. Jin, "MAX-1, a novel PH/MyTH4/FERM domain cytoplasmic protein implicated in netrin-mediated axon repulsion" Neuron 34, 563-576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chisholm, A.

F. Yanik, H. Cinar, N. Cinar, A. Chisholm, Y. Jin and A. Ben-Yakar, "Nerve regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans after femtosecond laser axotomy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12 (6) (2006).

Chisholm, A.D.

M.F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H.N. Cinar, A.D. Chisholm, Y. Jin and A. Ben-Yakar, "Functional regeneration after laser axotomy," Nature 432, 882 (2004).

Chung, S.H.

S.H. Chung, D.A. Clark, C.V. Gabel, E. Mazur and A.D.T. Samuel, "The role of the AFD neuron in C. elegans thermotaxis analyzed using femtosecond laser ablation," BMC Neuro. 7:30 (2006).

Cinar, H.

F. Yanik, H. Cinar, N. Cinar, A. Chisholm, Y. Jin and A. Ben-Yakar, "Nerve regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans after femtosecond laser axotomy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12 (6) (2006).

M.F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H.N. Cinar, A.D. Chisholm, Y. Jin and A. Ben-Yakar, "Functional regeneration after laser axotomy," Nature 432, 882 (2004).

Cinar, H.N.

M.F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H.N. Cinar, A.D. Chisholm, Y. Jin and A. Ben-Yakar, "Functional regeneration after laser axotomy," Nature 432, 882 (2004).

Cinar, N.

F. Yanik, H. Cinar, N. Cinar, A. Chisholm, Y. Jin and A. Ben-Yakar, "Nerve regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans after femtosecond laser axotomy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12 (6) (2006).

Clark, D.A.

S.H. Chung, D.A. Clark, C.V. Gabel, E. Mazur and A.D.T. Samuel, "The role of the AFD neuron in C. elegans thermotaxis analyzed using femtosecond laser ablation," BMC Neuro. 7:30 (2006).

Coleman, M.P.

B. Beirowski,R. Adalbert, D. Wagner, D.S. Grumme, K. Addicks, R.R. Ribchester and M.P. Coleman, "The progressive nature of Wallerian degeneration in wild-type and slow Wallerian degeneration (WldS) nerves," BMC Neurosci. 6 (6), (2005).
[CrossRef]

Datta, D.

N. Shen, D. Datta, C.B. Schaffer, P. LeDuc, D.E. Ingber and E. Mazur, "Ablation of cytoskeletal filaments and mitochondria in cells using a femtosecond laser nanocissor," Mech. Chem. Biosyst. 2, 17 (2005).

Depoister, B.

D.H. Bhatt, S.J. Otto, B. Depoister and J.R. Fetcho, "Cyclic AMP-induced repair of zebrafish spinal circuits," Science 305, 254-258 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, M.

M. Driscoll and M. Chalfie, "The mec-4 gene is a member of a family of Caenorhabditis elegans genes that can mutate to induce neuronal degeneration." Nature 349, 588-593 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M.D.

M.D. Perry, D.C. Stuart, P.S. Banks, M.D. Feit, V. Yanovsky and A.M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fetcho, J.R.

D.H. Bhatt, S.J. Otto, B. Depoister and J.R. Fetcho, "Cyclic AMP-induced repair of zebrafish spinal circuits," Science 305, 254-258 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fritzsche, W.

Gabel, C.V.

S.H. Chung, D.A. Clark, C.V. Gabel, E. Mazur and A.D.T. Samuel, "The role of the AFD neuron in C. elegans thermotaxis analyzed using femtosecond laser ablation," BMC Neuro. 7:30 (2006).

Gage, F.H.

P.J. Horner and F.H. Gage, "Regenerating the damaged central nervous system," Nature 407, 963-970 (2000).

Grumme, D.S.

B. Beirowski,R. Adalbert, D. Wagner, D.S. Grumme, K. Addicks, R.R. Ribchester and M.P. Coleman, "The progressive nature of Wallerian degeneration in wild-type and slow Wallerian degeneration (WldS) nerves," BMC Neurosci. 6 (6), (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guerra, A.

V. Venugopalan, A. GuerraIII, K. Hahen and A. Vogel, "Role of laser-induced plasma formation in pulse cellular microsurgery and micromanipulation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 078103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guild, J.B.

Hahen, K.

V. Venugopalan, A. GuerraIII, K. Hahen and A. Vogel, "Role of laser-induced plasma formation in pulse cellular microsurgery and micromanipulation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 078103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heisterkamp, A.

Horner, P.J.

P.J. Horner and F.H. Gage, "Regenerating the damaged central nervous system," Nature 407, 963-970 (2000).

Huang, X.

X. Huang, H.J. Cheng, M. Tessier-Lavigne, Y. Jin, "MAX-1, a novel PH/MyTH4/FERM domain cytoplasmic protein implicated in netrin-mediated axon repulsion" Neuron 34, 563-576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hüttman, G.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman and G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," App. Phys. B, 10.1007 (2005).

Ingber, D. E.

Ingber, D.E.

N. Shen, D. Datta, C.B. Schaffer, P. LeDuc, D.E. Ingber and E. Mazur, "Ablation of cytoskeletal filaments and mitochondria in cells using a femtosecond laser nanocissor," Mech. Chem. Biosyst. 2, 17 (2005).

Jin, Y.

F. Yanik, H. Cinar, N. Cinar, A. Chisholm, Y. Jin and A. Ben-Yakar, "Nerve regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans after femtosecond laser axotomy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12 (6) (2006).

M.F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H.N. Cinar, A.D. Chisholm, Y. Jin and A. Ben-Yakar, "Functional regeneration after laser axotomy," Nature 432, 882 (2004).

X. Huang, H.J. Cheng, M. Tessier-Lavigne, Y. Jin, "MAX-1, a novel PH/MyTH4/FERM domain cytoplasmic protein implicated in netrin-mediated axon repulsion" Neuron 34, 563-576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kerschensteiner, M.

M. Kerschensteiner, M.E. Schwab, J.W. Lichtman and T. Misgeld, "In vivo imaging of axonal degereneration and regeneration in the injured spinal cord," Nature Med. 11(5), 572-577 (2005).

König, K.

Kumar, S.

LeDuc, P.

N. Shen, D. Datta, C.B. Schaffer, P. LeDuc, D.E. Ingber and E. Mazur, "Ablation of cytoskeletal filaments and mitochondria in cells using a femtosecond laser nanocissor," Mech. Chem. Biosyst. 2, 17 (2005).

Lee, Y.

Lichtman, J.W.

M. Kerschensteiner, M.E. Schwab, J.W. Lichtman and T. Misgeld, "In vivo imaging of axonal degereneration and regeneration in the injured spinal cord," Nature Med. 11(5), 572-577 (2005).

Lorenz, M.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian and D. Ashkenasi, "Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation." Appl. Phys. A 69 [Suppl.], S373-S376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

S.H. Chung, D.A. Clark, C.V. Gabel, E. Mazur and A.D.T. Samuel, "The role of the AFD neuron in C. elegans thermotaxis analyzed using femtosecond laser ablation," BMC Neuro. 7:30 (2006).

N. Shen, D. Datta, C.B. Schaffer, P. LeDuc, D.E. Ingber and E. Mazur, "Ablation of cytoskeletal filaments and mitochondria in cells using a femtosecond laser nanocissor," Mech. Chem. Biosyst. 2, 17 (2005).

A. Heisterkamp, I. Zaharieva Maxwell, E. Mazur, J. M. Underwood, J. A. Nickerson, S. Kumar and D. E. Ingber, "Pulse energy dependence of subcellular dissection by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 13, 3690-3696 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Misgeld, T.

M. Kerschensteiner, M.E. Schwab, J.W. Lichtman and T. Misgeld, "In vivo imaging of axonal degereneration and regeneration in the injured spinal cord," Nature Med. 11(5), 572-577 (2005).

Nickerson, J. A.

Noack, J.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman and G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," App. Phys. B, 10.1007 (2005).

Otto, S.J.

D.H. Bhatt, S.J. Otto, B. Depoister and J.R. Fetcho, "Cyclic AMP-induced repair of zebrafish spinal circuits," Science 305, 254-258 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paltauf, G.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman and G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," App. Phys. B, 10.1007 (2005).

Perry, M.D.

M.D. Perry, D.C. Stuart, P.S. Banks, M.D. Feit, V. Yanovsky and A.M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ribchester, R.R.

B. Beirowski,R. Adalbert, D. Wagner, D.S. Grumme, K. Addicks, R.R. Ribchester and M.P. Coleman, "The progressive nature of Wallerian degeneration in wild-type and slow Wallerian degeneration (WldS) nerves," BMC Neurosci. 6 (6), (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riemann, W.

Rosenfeld, A.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian and D. Ashkenasi, "Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation." Appl. Phys. A 69 [Suppl.], S373-S376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A.M.

M.D. Perry, D.C. Stuart, P.S. Banks, M.D. Feit, V. Yanovsky and A.M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, A.D.T.

S.H. Chung, D.A. Clark, C.V. Gabel, E. Mazur and A.D.T. Samuel, "The role of the AFD neuron in C. elegans thermotaxis analyzed using femtosecond laser ablation," BMC Neuro. 7:30 (2006).

Schaffer, C.B.

N. Shen, D. Datta, C.B. Schaffer, P. LeDuc, D.E. Ingber and E. Mazur, "Ablation of cytoskeletal filaments and mitochondria in cells using a femtosecond laser nanocissor," Mech. Chem. Biosyst. 2, 17 (2005).

Schwab, M.E.

M. Kerschensteiner, M.E. Schwab, J.W. Lichtman and T. Misgeld, "In vivo imaging of axonal degereneration and regeneration in the injured spinal cord," Nature Med. 11(5), 572-577 (2005).

Shen, N.

N. Shen, D. Datta, C.B. Schaffer, P. LeDuc, D.E. Ingber and E. Mazur, "Ablation of cytoskeletal filaments and mitochondria in cells using a femtosecond laser nanocissor," Mech. Chem. Biosyst. 2, 17 (2005).

Southgate, F.

J.G. White, F. Southgate, J.N. Thomson and S. Brenner, "The structure of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans." Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London Series B. Bio.Scien. 314, 1-340 (1986).

Stoian, R.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian and D. Ashkenasi, "Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation." Appl. Phys. A 69 [Suppl.], S373-S376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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M.D. Perry, D.C. Stuart, P.S. Banks, M.D. Feit, V. Yanovsky and A.M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tessier-Lavigne, M.

X. Huang, H.J. Cheng, M. Tessier-Lavigne, Y. Jin, "MAX-1, a novel PH/MyTH4/FERM domain cytoplasmic protein implicated in netrin-mediated axon repulsion" Neuron 34, 563-576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, J.N.

J.G. White, F. Southgate, J.N. Thomson and S. Brenner, "The structure of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans." Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London Series B. Bio.Scien. 314, 1-340 (1986).

Tirlapur, U.K.

U.K. Tirlapur and K. König, "Targeted transfection by femtosecond laser," Nature 418, 290-291 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. M.

Urey, H.

H. Urey, "Spot size, depth of focus and diffraction ring intensity formulas for truncated Gaussian beams." App. Phys. 43 (3), 620-625 (2004).

Venugopalan, V.

V. Venugopalan, A. GuerraIII, K. Hahen and A. Vogel, "Role of laser-induced plasma formation in pulse cellular microsurgery and micromanipulation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 078103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman and G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," App. Phys. B, 10.1007 (2005).

V. Venugopalan, A. GuerraIII, K. Hahen and A. Vogel, "Role of laser-induced plasma formation in pulse cellular microsurgery and micromanipulation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 078103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, D.

B. Beirowski,R. Adalbert, D. Wagner, D.S. Grumme, K. Addicks, R.R. Ribchester and M.P. Coleman, "The progressive nature of Wallerian degeneration in wild-type and slow Wallerian degeneration (WldS) nerves," BMC Neurosci. 6 (6), (2005).
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A. Waller, "Experiments on the section of glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves of the frog and observations of the alternatives produced thereby in the structure of their primitive fibers," Philos Trans R Soc Lond Biol. 140, 423 (1850).

Walser, R.M.

Watanabe, W.

Webb, W.W.

White, J.G.

J.G. White, F. Southgate, J.N. Thomson and S. Brenner, "The structure of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans." Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London Series B. Bio.Scien. 314, 1-340 (1986).

Xu, C.

Yanik, F.

F. Yanik, H. Cinar, N. Cinar, A. Chisholm, Y. Jin and A. Ben-Yakar, "Nerve regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans after femtosecond laser axotomy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12 (6) (2006).

Yanik, M.F.

M.F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H.N. Cinar, A.D. Chisholm, Y. Jin and A. Ben-Yakar, "Functional regeneration after laser axotomy," Nature 432, 882 (2004).

Yanovsky, V.

M.D. Perry, D.C. Stuart, P.S. Banks, M.D. Feit, V. Yanovsky and A.M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zaharieva Maxwell, I.

App. Phys.

H. Urey, "Spot size, depth of focus and diffraction ring intensity formulas for truncated Gaussian beams." App. Phys. 43 (3), 620-625 (2004).

App. Phys. B

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman and G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," App. Phys. B, 10.1007 (2005).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian and D. Ashkenasi, "Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation." Appl. Phys. A 69 [Suppl.], S373-S376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

BMC Neuro.

S.H. Chung, D.A. Clark, C.V. Gabel, E. Mazur and A.D.T. Samuel, "The role of the AFD neuron in C. elegans thermotaxis analyzed using femtosecond laser ablation," BMC Neuro. 7:30 (2006).

BMC Neurosci.

B. Beirowski,R. Adalbert, D. Wagner, D.S. Grumme, K. Addicks, R.R. Ribchester and M.P. Coleman, "The progressive nature of Wallerian degeneration in wild-type and slow Wallerian degeneration (WldS) nerves," BMC Neurosci. 6 (6), (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brit. Med. Bull.

S. Brenner, "The genetics of behaviour," Brit. Med. Bull. 29, 269-271 (1973).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

F. Yanik, H. Cinar, N. Cinar, A. Chisholm, Y. Jin and A. Ben-Yakar, "Nerve regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans after femtosecond laser axotomy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12 (6) (2006).

J. Appl. Phys.

M.D. Perry, D.C. Stuart, P.S. Banks, M.D. Feit, V. Yanovsky and A.M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Mech. Chem. Biosyst.

N. Shen, D. Datta, C.B. Schaffer, P. LeDuc, D.E. Ingber and E. Mazur, "Ablation of cytoskeletal filaments and mitochondria in cells using a femtosecond laser nanocissor," Mech. Chem. Biosyst. 2, 17 (2005).

Nature

M.F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H.N. Cinar, A.D. Chisholm, Y. Jin and A. Ben-Yakar, "Functional regeneration after laser axotomy," Nature 432, 882 (2004).

M. Driscoll and M. Chalfie, "The mec-4 gene is a member of a family of Caenorhabditis elegans genes that can mutate to induce neuronal degeneration." Nature 349, 588-593 (1991).
[CrossRef]

U.K. Tirlapur and K. König, "Targeted transfection by femtosecond laser," Nature 418, 290-291 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P.J. Horner and F.H. Gage, "Regenerating the damaged central nervous system," Nature 407, 963-970 (2000).

Nature Med.

M. Kerschensteiner, M.E. Schwab, J.W. Lichtman and T. Misgeld, "In vivo imaging of axonal degereneration and regeneration in the injured spinal cord," Nature Med. 11(5), 572-577 (2005).

Neuron

X. Huang, H.J. Cheng, M. Tessier-Lavigne, Y. Jin, "MAX-1, a novel PH/MyTH4/FERM domain cytoplasmic protein implicated in netrin-mediated axon repulsion" Neuron 34, 563-576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond Biol.

A. Waller, "Experiments on the section of glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves of the frog and observations of the alternatives produced thereby in the structure of their primitive fibers," Philos Trans R Soc Lond Biol. 140, 423 (1850).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

V. Venugopalan, A. GuerraIII, K. Hahen and A. Vogel, "Role of laser-induced plasma formation in pulse cellular microsurgery and micromanipulation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 078103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Brain. Res.

M. Chalfie, "The differentiation and function of the touch receptor neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans" Prog. Brain. Res. 105, 179-82 (1995).

Scien.

J.G. White, F. Southgate, J.N. Thomson and S. Brenner, "The structure of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans." Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London Series B. Bio.Scien. 314, 1-340 (1986).

Science

D.H. Bhatt, S.J. Otto, B. Depoister and J.R. Fetcho, "Cyclic AMP-induced repair of zebrafish spinal circuits," Science 305, 254-258 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

W.B. Wood, S. Brenner, R.K. Herman, S.W. Emmons, J. White, J. Sulston, H.R. Horvitz, J. Kimble, S. Ward, J. Hodgkin, R.H. Waterston, M. Chalfie and D.L. Riddle, The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, (Cold Spring Harbor, 1988).

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