Abstract

We report structural and optical properties of three-dimensional periodic metallic woodpile structures obtained by direct laser writing in dielectric photoresist SU-8 and subsequent electroless coating by a thin Ni film. Signatures of photonic stop gaps were observed in optical reflection spectra of the structures at infrared wavelengths. This study demonstrates that the combination of DLW and chemical infiltration of metals is attractive as a simple and cost-efficient method for the fabrication of metalo-dielectric photonic crystals.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Sigalas, C. Chan, K. Ho, and C. Soukoulis, "Metallic photonic band-gap materials," Phys. Rev. B 52, 11744- 11751 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, "3D wire mesh photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480-2483 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. El-Kady, M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. Ho, and C. Soukoulis, "Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelengths," Phys. Rev. B 62, 15299-15302 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Enoch, J.-J. Simon, L. Escoubas, Z. Elalmy, F. L. P. Torchio, and G. Albrand, "Simple layer-by-layer photonic crystal for the control of thermal emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. T. K. Wana and C. T. Chan, "Thermal emission by metallic photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 41915 (2006).
  6. T. D. Drysdale, I. Gregory, C. Baker, E. H. Linfield, W. R. Tribe, and D. R. S. Cumming, "Transmittance of a tunable filter at terahertz frequencies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5173 - 5175 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Ovsianikov, A. Ostendorf, and B. Chichkov, "Three-dimensional photofabrication with femtosecond lasers for applicationsin photonics and biomedicine," Appl. Surf. Sci. (2007), in press, available online, doi:10:1016/j.apsuc.2007.01.058.
  8. V. Poborchii, T. Tada, T. Kanayama, and A. Moroz, "Silver-coated silicon pillar photonic crystals: enhancement of a photonic band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 508-510 (2002).
  9. V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal templates for infrared spectral range," Opt. Lett. 29, 2061 - 2063 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional spiral - architecture photonic crystals obtained by direct laser writing," Adv. Mat. 17, 541 - 545 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-7 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Spiral three-dimensional photonic crystals for telecommunications spectral range," Appl. Phys. A 82, 683-688 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Lindblom, H. Hertz, and A. Holmberg, "SU-8 plating mold for high-aspect-ratio nickel zone plates," Microelectron. Eng. (2007), in press, available online, doi:10:1016/j.mee.2007.01.109.
  14. F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, and A. I. S. Kawata, "Three-dimensional fabrication of metallic nanostructures over large areas by two-photon polymerization," Opt. Express 14, 800 - 809 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, A. Marcinkevicius, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Tailoring and characterization of photonic crystals," J. Photochem. Photobiol. C: Photochemistry Reviews 2, 35-69 (2001).
  16. V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Femtosecond laser microfabrication of photonic crystals," in "3D laser microfabrication," H. Misawa and S. Juodkazis, eds. (Willey-VCH Verlag, 2006), chap. 10, pp. 239-286.
  17. K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional circular spiral potonic crystal structures recordedby femtosecond pulses," J. Non-Crystal.Solids 352, 2390-2394 (2006).
  18. K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional horizontal circular spiral photonic crystals with stopgaps below 1 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221101 (2005).
  19. K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, "Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: New layer-by-layer periodic structures," Solid State Commun. 89, 413-416 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Noda, "Three-dimensional photonic crystals operating at optical wavelength region," Physica B 279, 142-149 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Ogawa,M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto,M. Okano, and S. Noda, "Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals," Science 305, 227-9 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Fleming, S. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. Ho, "All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap," Nature 417, 52-55 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Tarozaitÿe and A. Selskis, "Electroless nickel plating with Cu2+and dicarboxylic acids additives," Trans. IMF 84, 105 -112 (2006).
  24. H. Ong, X. Yuan, S. Tao, and S. C. Tjin, "Photothermally enabled lithography for refractive-index modulation in SU-8 photoresist," Opt. Lett. 31, 1367 - 1369 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. A. Anhoj, A. M. Jorgensen, D. A. Zauner, and J. Hubner, "The effect of soft bake temperature on the polymerization of SU-8 photoresist," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1819-1824 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Ordal, L. Long, J. Bell, S. Bell, R. Alexander, and C. Ward, "Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared," Appl. Opt. 22, 1099-1120 (1983).
  27. Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  28. T. Kondo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Fabrication of three-dimensional periodic microstructures in photoresist su-8 by phase-controlled holographic lithography," New J. Phys. 8, 250 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. Tarozaitÿe, M. Kurtinaitienÿe, A. D¡ziuvÿe, and Z. Jusys, "Composition, microstructure and magnetic properties of electroless-plated thin Co-P films," Surf. Coat. Technol. 115, 57-65 (1999).
  30. A. M. Luneckas, R. K. Tarozaitÿe, and I. K. Genutienÿe, "Properties of palladium coatings deposited using hypophosphite," Protection of metals (in Russian) 4, 496 - 498 (1971).
  31. M. ¡Salkauskas and A. Va¡skelis, Chemical Metallizing of Plastics, (in Russian), (Khimiya, Leningrad, 1985).
  32. A. Va¡skelis, J. Ja¡ciauskienÿe, A. Jagminienÿe, and E. Norkus, "Obtaining of 1B group metal films by novel electroless deposition method," Solid State Sci. 4, 1299 - 1304 (2002).

2006 (8)

J. T. K. Wana and C. T. Chan, "Thermal emission by metallic photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 41915 (2006).

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional circular spiral potonic crystal structures recordedby femtosecond pulses," J. Non-Crystal.Solids 352, 2390-2394 (2006).

R. Tarozaitÿe and A. Selskis, "Electroless nickel plating with Cu2+and dicarboxylic acids additives," Trans. IMF 84, 105 -112 (2006).

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Spiral three-dimensional photonic crystals for telecommunications spectral range," Appl. Phys. A 82, 683-688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Kondo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Fabrication of three-dimensional periodic microstructures in photoresist su-8 by phase-controlled holographic lithography," New J. Phys. 8, 250 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Anhoj, A. M. Jorgensen, D. A. Zauner, and J. Hubner, "The effect of soft bake temperature on the polymerization of SU-8 photoresist," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1819-1824 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, and A. I. S. Kawata, "Three-dimensional fabrication of metallic nanostructures over large areas by two-photon polymerization," Opt. Express 14, 800 - 809 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ong, X. Yuan, S. Tao, and S. C. Tjin, "Photothermally enabled lithography for refractive-index modulation in SU-8 photoresist," Opt. Lett. 31, 1367 - 1369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional spiral - architecture photonic crystals obtained by direct laser writing," Adv. Mat. 17, 541 - 545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional horizontal circular spiral photonic crystals with stopgaps below 1 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221101 (2005).

S. Enoch, J.-J. Simon, L. Escoubas, Z. Elalmy, F. L. P. Torchio, and G. Albrand, "Simple layer-by-layer photonic crystal for the control of thermal emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

T. D. Drysdale, I. Gregory, C. Baker, E. H. Linfield, W. R. Tribe, and D. R. S. Cumming, "Transmittance of a tunable filter at terahertz frequencies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5173 - 5175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Ogawa,M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto,M. Okano, and S. Noda, "Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals," Science 305, 227-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal templates for infrared spectral range," Opt. Lett. 29, 2061 - 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

J. Fleming, S. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. Ho, "All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap," Nature 417, 52-55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Poborchii, T. Tada, T. Kanayama, and A. Moroz, "Silver-coated silicon pillar photonic crystals: enhancement of a photonic band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 508-510 (2002).

A. Va¡skelis, J. Ja¡ciauskienÿe, A. Jagminienÿe, and E. Norkus, "Obtaining of 1B group metal films by novel electroless deposition method," Solid State Sci. 4, 1299 - 1304 (2002).

2001 (1)

V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, A. Marcinkevicius, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Tailoring and characterization of photonic crystals," J. Photochem. Photobiol. C: Photochemistry Reviews 2, 35-69 (2001).

2000 (2)

I. El-Kady, M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. Ho, and C. Soukoulis, "Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelengths," Phys. Rev. B 62, 15299-15302 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, "Three-dimensional photonic crystals operating at optical wavelength region," Physica B 279, 142-149 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. Tarozaitÿe, M. Kurtinaitienÿe, A. D¡ziuvÿe, and Z. Jusys, "Composition, microstructure and magnetic properties of electroless-plated thin Co-P films," Surf. Coat. Technol. 115, 57-65 (1999).

1996 (1)

D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, "3D wire mesh photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480-2483 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Sigalas, C. Chan, K. Ho, and C. Soukoulis, "Metallic photonic band-gap materials," Phys. Rev. B 52, 11744- 11751 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, "Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: New layer-by-layer periodic structures," Solid State Commun. 89, 413-416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Adv. Mat. (1)

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional spiral - architecture photonic crystals obtained by direct laser writing," Adv. Mat. 17, 541 - 545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Spiral three-dimensional photonic crystals for telecommunications spectral range," Appl. Phys. A 82, 683-688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Enoch, J.-J. Simon, L. Escoubas, Z. Elalmy, F. L. P. Torchio, and G. Albrand, "Simple layer-by-layer photonic crystal for the control of thermal emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. T. K. Wana and C. T. Chan, "Thermal emission by metallic photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 41915 (2006).

T. D. Drysdale, I. Gregory, C. Baker, E. H. Linfield, W. R. Tribe, and D. R. S. Cumming, "Transmittance of a tunable filter at terahertz frequencies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5173 - 5175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Poborchii, T. Tada, T. Kanayama, and A. Moroz, "Silver-coated silicon pillar photonic crystals: enhancement of a photonic band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 508-510 (2002).

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional horizontal circular spiral photonic crystals with stopgaps below 1 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221101 (2005).

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

T. A. Anhoj, A. M. Jorgensen, D. A. Zauner, and J. Hubner, "The effect of soft bake temperature on the polymerization of SU-8 photoresist," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1819-1824 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. C: Photochemistry Reviews (1)

V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, A. Marcinkevicius, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Tailoring and characterization of photonic crystals," J. Photochem. Photobiol. C: Photochemistry Reviews 2, 35-69 (2001).

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Fleming, S. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. Ho, "All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap," Nature 417, 52-55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

T. Kondo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Fabrication of three-dimensional periodic microstructures in photoresist su-8 by phase-controlled holographic lithography," New J. Phys. 8, 250 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

I. El-Kady, M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. Ho, and C. Soukoulis, "Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelengths," Phys. Rev. B 62, 15299-15302 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Sigalas, C. Chan, K. Ho, and C. Soukoulis, "Metallic photonic band-gap materials," Phys. Rev. B 52, 11744- 11751 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, "3D wire mesh photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480-2483 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Physica B (1)

S. Noda, "Three-dimensional photonic crystals operating at optical wavelength region," Physica B 279, 142-149 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Ogawa,M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto,M. Okano, and S. Noda, "Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals," Science 305, 227-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, "Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: New layer-by-layer periodic structures," Solid State Commun. 89, 413-416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Solids (1)

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional circular spiral potonic crystal structures recordedby femtosecond pulses," J. Non-Crystal.Solids 352, 2390-2394 (2006).

State Sciences (1)

A. Va¡skelis, J. Ja¡ciauskienÿe, A. Jagminienÿe, and E. Norkus, "Obtaining of 1B group metal films by novel electroless deposition method," Solid State Sci. 4, 1299 - 1304 (2002).

Surf. Coat. Technol. (1)

R. Tarozaitÿe, M. Kurtinaitienÿe, A. D¡ziuvÿe, and Z. Jusys, "Composition, microstructure and magnetic properties of electroless-plated thin Co-P films," Surf. Coat. Technol. 115, 57-65 (1999).

Trans. IMF (1)

R. Tarozaitÿe and A. Selskis, "Electroless nickel plating with Cu2+and dicarboxylic acids additives," Trans. IMF 84, 105 -112 (2006).

Other (5)

V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Femtosecond laser microfabrication of photonic crystals," in "3D laser microfabrication," H. Misawa and S. Juodkazis, eds. (Willey-VCH Verlag, 2006), chap. 10, pp. 239-286.

A. Ovsianikov, A. Ostendorf, and B. Chichkov, "Three-dimensional photofabrication with femtosecond lasers for applicationsin photonics and biomedicine," Appl. Surf. Sci. (2007), in press, available online, doi:10:1016/j.apsuc.2007.01.058.

A. M. Luneckas, R. K. Tarozaitÿe, and I. K. Genutienÿe, "Properties of palladium coatings deposited using hypophosphite," Protection of metals (in Russian) 4, 496 - 498 (1971).

M. ¡Salkauskas and A. Va¡skelis, Chemical Metallizing of Plastics, (in Russian), (Khimiya, Leningrad, 1985).

M. Lindblom, H. Hertz, and A. Holmberg, "SU-8 plating mold for high-aspect-ratio nickel zone plates," Microelectron. Eng. (2007), in press, available online, doi:10:1016/j.mee.2007.01.109.

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