Abstract

We report experimental realization of a 5-layer three-dimensional (3D) metallic photonic crystal structure that exhibits characteristics of a 3D complete bandgap extending from near-infrared down to visible wavelength at around 650 nm. The structure also exhibits a new kind of non-localized passband mode in the infrared far beyond its metallic waveguide cutoff. This new passband mode is drastically different from the well-known defect mode due to point or line defects. Three-dimensional finite-difference-time-domain simulations were carried out and the results suggest that the passband modes are due to intra-structure resonances.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  4. S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, E. Chow, J. Bur, K. K. Choi, and A. Goldberg, "Enhancement and suppression of thermal emission by a three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 62, R2243-2246 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, "All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap," Nature 417, 52-55 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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  8. M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Sato, K. Miura, N. Ishino, Y. Ohtera, T. Tamamura, and S. Kawakami, "Photonic crystals for the visible range fabricated by autocloning technique and their application," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 63-70 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  14. S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, and I. El-Kady, "Highly efficient light emission at λ = 1.5 μm by a three-dimensional tungsten photonic crystal," Opt. Lett. 28, 1683-1685 (2003).
  15. D. L. C. Chan, M. Soljacic, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Direct calculation of thermal emission for three-dimensionally periodic photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036615 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. C. R. Simovski and P. A. Belov, "Low-frequency spatial dispersion in wire media," Phys. Rev. E 70, 046616 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Subramania, and S. Y. Lin, "Fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystal with alignment based on electron beam lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5037-5039 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Z. Y. Li and L. L. Lin, "Photonic band structures solved by a plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method," Phys. Rev. E 67, 046607 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of optical constants of solids (Academic Press, San Diego, 1998), pp. 294-295.
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    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Y. Sang, Z. Y. Li, and B. Y. Gu, "Engineering the structure-induced enhanced absorption in three-dimensional metallic photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066611 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Y. Sang, Z. Y. Li, and B. Y. Gu, "Photonic states deep into the waveguide cutoff frequency of metallic mesh photonic crystal filters," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Z. Y. Li and K. M. Ho, "Analytic modal solution to light propagation through layer-by-layer metallic photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 67, 165104 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Z. Y. Li, I. El-Kady, K. M. Ho, S. Y. Lin, and J. G. Fleming, "Photonic band gap effect in layer-by-layer metallic photonic crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 38-42 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Laroche, R. Carminati, and J. J. Greffet, "Resonant optical transmission through a photonic crystal in the forbidden gap," Phys. Rev. B 71, 155113 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. L. Chang, L. Esaki, and R. Tsu, "Resonant tunneling in semiconductor double barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 593-595 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. Y. Lin and G. Arjavalingam, "Photonic bound states in two-dimensional photonic crystals probed by coherent-microwave transient spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2124-2127 (1994).
  29. S. Y. Lin, V. M. Hietala, and S. K. Lyo, "Photonic band gap quantum well and quantum box structures: a high-Q resonant cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3233-3235 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  30. E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. Sigalas, G. Tuttle, C. M. Soukuolis, and K. M. Ho, "Defect structures in metallic photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3797-3799 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2006

S. Y. Lin, D. X. Ye, T. M. Lu, J. Bur, Y. S. Kim, and K. M. Ho, "Achieving a photonic band edge near visible wavelengths by metallic coatings," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 083104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. L. C. Chan, M. Soljacic, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Direct calculation of thermal emission for three-dimensionally periodic photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Lin, P. R. Herman, and K. Darmawikarta, "Design and holographic fabrication of tetragonal and cubic photonic crystals with phase mask: toward the mass-production of three-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Sang, Z. Y. Li, and B. Y. Gu, "Photonic states deep into the waveguide cutoff frequency of metallic mesh photonic crystal filters," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Laroche, R. Carminati, and J. J. Greffet, "Resonant optical transmission through a photonic crystal in the forbidden gap," Phys. Rev. B 71, 155113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, "A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects," Nature 429, 538-542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Sang, Z. Y. Li, and B. Y. Gu, "Engineering the structure-induced enhanced absorption in three-dimensional metallic photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066611 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Simovski and P. A. Belov, "Low-frequency spatial dispersion in wire media," Phys. Rev. E 70, 046616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Subramania, and S. Y. Lin, "Fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystal with alignment based on electron beam lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5037-5039 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Z. Y. Li and L. L. Lin, "Photonic band structures solved by a plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method," Phys. Rev. E 67, 046607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Li and K. M. Ho, "Analytic modal solution to light propagation through layer-by-layer metallic photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 67, 165104 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Li, I. El-Kady, K. M. Ho, S. Y. Lin, and J. G. Fleming, "Photonic band gap effect in layer-by-layer metallic photonic crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 38-42 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, Z. Y. Li, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, "Origin of absorption enhancement in a tungsten, three-dimensional photonic crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1538-1541 (2003).

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, and I. El-Kady, "Highly efficient light emission at λ = 1.5 μm by a three-dimensional tungsten photonic crystal," Opt. Lett. 28, 1683-1685 (2003).

2002

T. Sato, K. Miura, N. Ishino, Y. Ohtera, T. Tamamura, and S. Kawakami, "Photonic crystals for the visible range fabricated by autocloning technique and their application," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 63-70 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, "All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap," Nature 417, 52-55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, E. Chow, J. Bur, K. K. Choi, and A. Goldberg, "Enhancement and suppression of thermal emission by a three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 62, R2243-2246 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Whittaker, "Inhibited emission in photonic crystal lattices," Opt. Lett. 25, 779-781 (2000).

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, "Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths," Nature 289, 604-606 (2000).

1999

1998

J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven and W. L. Vos, "Preparation of photonic crystals made of air spheres in titania," Science 281, 802-804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Loboda, C. M. Grove, and R. F. Schneider, "Properties of a-SiOx:H thin films deposited from hydrogen silsesquioxane resins," J. Electrochem. Soc. 145, 2861-2866 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Y. Lin, V. M. Hietala, and S. K. Lyo, "Photonic band gap quantum well and quantum box structures: a high-Q resonant cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3233-3235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. Sigalas, G. Tuttle, C. M. Soukuolis, and K. M. Ho, "Defect structures in metallic photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3797-3799 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

1987

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1974

L. L. Chang, L. Esaki, and R. Tsu, "Resonant tunneling in semiconductor double barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 593-595 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Lin, P. R. Herman, and K. Darmawikarta, "Design and holographic fabrication of tetragonal and cubic photonic crystals with phase mask: toward the mass-production of three-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Subramania, and S. Y. Lin, "Fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystal with alignment based on electron beam lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5037-5039 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chang, L. Esaki, and R. Tsu, "Resonant tunneling in semiconductor double barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 593-595 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, V. M. Hietala, and S. K. Lyo, "Photonic band gap quantum well and quantum box structures: a high-Q resonant cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3233-3235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. Sigalas, G. Tuttle, C. M. Soukuolis, and K. M. Ho, "Defect structures in metallic photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3797-3799 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Y. Sang, Z. Y. Li, and B. Y. Gu, "Photonic states deep into the waveguide cutoff frequency of metallic mesh photonic crystal filters," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Li, I. El-Kady, K. M. Ho, S. Y. Lin, and J. G. Fleming, "Photonic band gap effect in layer-by-layer metallic photonic crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 38-42 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, D. X. Ye, T. M. Lu, J. Bur, Y. S. Kim, and K. M. Ho, "Achieving a photonic band edge near visible wavelengths by metallic coatings," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 083104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

M. J. Loboda, C. M. Grove, and R. F. Schneider, "Properties of a-SiOx:H thin films deposited from hydrogen silsesquioxane resins," J. Electrochem. Soc. 145, 2861-2866 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Mater.

M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, "Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths," Nature 289, 604-606 (2000).

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, "A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects," Nature 429, 538-542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, "All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap," Nature 417, 52-55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

T. Sato, K. Miura, N. Ishino, Y. Ohtera, T. Tamamura, and S. Kawakami, "Photonic crystals for the visible range fabricated by autocloning technique and their application," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 63-70 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, E. Chow, J. Bur, K. K. Choi, and A. Goldberg, "Enhancement and suppression of thermal emission by a three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 62, R2243-2246 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Laroche, R. Carminati, and J. J. Greffet, "Resonant optical transmission through a photonic crystal in the forbidden gap," Phys. Rev. B 71, 155113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Li and K. M. Ho, "Analytic modal solution to light propagation through layer-by-layer metallic photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 67, 165104 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

H. Y. Sang, Z. Y. Li, and B. Y. Gu, "Engineering the structure-induced enhanced absorption in three-dimensional metallic photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066611 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Li and L. L. Lin, "Photonic band structures solved by a plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method," Phys. Rev. E 67, 046607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Simovski and P. A. Belov, "Low-frequency spatial dispersion in wire media," Phys. Rev. E 70, 046616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. L. C. Chan, M. Soljacic, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Direct calculation of thermal emission for three-dimensionally periodic photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven and W. L. Vos, "Preparation of photonic crystals made of air spheres in titania," Science 281, 802-804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of optical constants of solids (Academic Press, San Diego, 1998), pp. 294-295.

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