Abstract

We report two emission bands corresponding to the spectral line narrowing (SLN) of the conjugated polymer [2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) in films. The SLN emission coming from the polymer chains closer to the glass substrate are at a different spectral position compared to the chains that lay further away from the glass substrate. We explain this phenomenon as a direct consequence of the “gas-to-crystal” effect. In solution form, as concentration was increased, and thus the proportion of aggregates, a decrease in the SLN bandwidth and a red shift of the emission peak was observed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, "Semiconducting (Conjugated) Polymers as materials for Solid-State Lasers," Adv. Mater. 22, 1655-1668 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, "Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers," Nature 347, 539-541 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Braun, A. J. Heeger, and H. Kroemer, "Improved efficiency in semiconducting polymer light-emitting diodes," J. Electron. Mater. 20945-948 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Turnbull, P. Andrews, W. Barnes, and I. Samuel, "Relationship between photonic band structure and emission characteristics of a polymer distributed feedback laser," Phys. Rev. B 64 125122-11 - 125122-6 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Sarangan Mahfoud and T. Nelson, "Optically pumped Photonic Crystal Lasers based on [2-metroxy-5-(2’ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylvinlene]," Opt. Express 13,3136-31432005.
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. S. Yang, S. Y. Song, J. Lee, H. Shim, and T. Zyung, "New orange-red light emitting diode from poly [2-(5-cyclo-hexylmethoxypentyloxy)-5-methoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene]," Macromolecules 2001101-1106 (1999).
  7. J. Gao, G. Yu, and A. J. Heeger, "Polymer p-i-n Junction Photovoltaic Cells," Adv. Mater. 10, 692-695 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Gao, F. Hide, and H. Wang, "Efficient photodetectors and photovoltaic cells from composites of fullerenes and conjugated polymers: Photoinduced electron transfer," Synth. Met. 84, 979-980 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Sakanoue, E. Fujiwara, R. Yamada, and H. Tada, "Visible light emission from polymer-based field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3037-3039 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Nguyen, I. B. Martini, J. Liu, B. J. Schwartz, "Controlling interchain interactions in conjugated polymers: the effects of chain morphology on exciton-exciton annihilation and aggregation in MEH-PPV Films," J. Phys. Chem. B. 104, 237-255 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Q. Nguyen,V. Doan, and B. J. Schwartz, "Conjugated polymer aggregates in solution: control of interchain interactions," J. Chem. Phys. 1104068-4078 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. C. Hess, G. S. Kanner, and Z. Vardeny, "Photoexcitation in polythiophene at high pressure," Phys. Rev. B 471407-1411 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. D. Mcgehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, " Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer," Phys. Rev. B 587035-7039, (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Hide, M. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Anderson, Q. Pei, and A. Heeger, "Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials," Science 2731833-1836 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. K. Sheridan, G. A. Turnbull, A. N. Safonov and D. W. Samuel, " Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the waveguide mode structure in conjugated polymer film," Phys. Rev. B 62,R11929-R11932 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Frolov, M. Osaki, W. Gellerman, K. Yoshino and Z. V. Vardeny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78729 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Kranzelbinder, M. Nisoli, S. S tagira, S. De Silvestri, G. Lanzani, K. Mullen, U. Scherf, W. Grauper, and G. Leising, "Cooperative effects in blue light emission of poly(para-phenylene)-type ladderpolymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2725-2727 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Gelinck, J. Warman, M. Remmers, and D. Neher, "Narrow-band emissions from conjugated-polymer films," Chem. Phys. Lett. 265320-326 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. K. Sheridan, J. M. Lupton, I. D. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Temperature dependence of the spectral line narrowing and photoluminescence of MEH-PPV," Synth. Met. 111-112531-534 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Mahfoud, A. Sarangan, T. J. Nelson, and E. A. Blubaugh, "Role of aggregation in the amplified spontaneous emission of ([2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene])," J. Lumin. 118,123-130 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Mahfoud, A. Sarangan, T. J. Nelson, and E. A. Blubaugh, "Role of aggregation in the amplified spontaneous emission of ([2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene])," J. Lumin. 118,123-130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Sarangan Mahfoud and T. Nelson, "Optically pumped Photonic Crystal Lasers based on [2-metroxy-5-(2’ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylvinlene]," Opt. Express 13,3136-31432005.
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Sakanoue, E. Fujiwara, R. Yamada, and H. Tada, "Visible light emission from polymer-based field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3037-3039 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Turnbull, P. Andrews, W. Barnes, and I. Samuel, "Relationship between photonic band structure and emission characteristics of a polymer distributed feedback laser," Phys. Rev. B 64 125122-11 - 125122-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

T. Nguyen, I. B. Martini, J. Liu, B. J. Schwartz, "Controlling interchain interactions in conjugated polymers: the effects of chain morphology on exciton-exciton annihilation and aggregation in MEH-PPV Films," J. Phys. Chem. B. 104, 237-255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, "Semiconducting (Conjugated) Polymers as materials for Solid-State Lasers," Adv. Mater. 22, 1655-1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sheridan, J. M. Lupton, I. D. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Temperature dependence of the spectral line narrowing and photoluminescence of MEH-PPV," Synth. Met. 111-112531-534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sheridan, G. A. Turnbull, A. N. Safonov and D. W. Samuel, " Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the waveguide mode structure in conjugated polymer film," Phys. Rev. B 62,R11929-R11932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

Q. Nguyen,V. Doan, and B. J. Schwartz, "Conjugated polymer aggregates in solution: control of interchain interactions," J. Chem. Phys. 1104068-4078 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Yang, S. Y. Song, J. Lee, H. Shim, and T. Zyung, "New orange-red light emitting diode from poly [2-(5-cyclo-hexylmethoxypentyloxy)-5-methoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene]," Macromolecules 2001101-1106 (1999).

1998 (2)

J. Gao, G. Yu, and A. J. Heeger, "Polymer p-i-n Junction Photovoltaic Cells," Adv. Mater. 10, 692-695 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Mcgehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, " Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer," Phys. Rev. B 587035-7039, (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

J. Gao, F. Hide, and H. Wang, "Efficient photodetectors and photovoltaic cells from composites of fullerenes and conjugated polymers: Photoinduced electron transfer," Synth. Met. 84, 979-980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Frolov, M. Osaki, W. Gellerman, K. Yoshino and Z. V. Vardeny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78729 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Kranzelbinder, M. Nisoli, S. S tagira, S. De Silvestri, G. Lanzani, K. Mullen, U. Scherf, W. Grauper, and G. Leising, "Cooperative effects in blue light emission of poly(para-phenylene)-type ladderpolymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2725-2727 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Gelinck, J. Warman, M. Remmers, and D. Neher, "Narrow-band emissions from conjugated-polymer films," Chem. Phys. Lett. 265320-326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

F. Hide, M. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Anderson, Q. Pei, and A. Heeger, "Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials," Science 2731833-1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

B. C. Hess, G. S. Kanner, and Z. Vardeny, "Photoexcitation in polythiophene at high pressure," Phys. Rev. B 471407-1411 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Braun, A. J. Heeger, and H. Kroemer, "Improved efficiency in semiconducting polymer light-emitting diodes," J. Electron. Mater. 20945-948 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, "Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers," Nature 347, 539-541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

J. Gao, G. Yu, and A. J. Heeger, "Polymer p-i-n Junction Photovoltaic Cells," Adv. Mater. 10, 692-695 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, "Semiconducting (Conjugated) Polymers as materials for Solid-State Lasers," Adv. Mater. 22, 1655-1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. Kranzelbinder, M. Nisoli, S. S tagira, S. De Silvestri, G. Lanzani, K. Mullen, U. Scherf, W. Grauper, and G. Leising, "Cooperative effects in blue light emission of poly(para-phenylene)-type ladderpolymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2725-2727 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakanoue, E. Fujiwara, R. Yamada, and H. Tada, "Visible light emission from polymer-based field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3037-3039 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Gelinck, J. Warman, M. Remmers, and D. Neher, "Narrow-band emissions from conjugated-polymer films," Chem. Phys. Lett. 265320-326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

Q. Nguyen,V. Doan, and B. J. Schwartz, "Conjugated polymer aggregates in solution: control of interchain interactions," J. Chem. Phys. 1104068-4078 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

D. Braun, A. J. Heeger, and H. Kroemer, "Improved efficiency in semiconducting polymer light-emitting diodes," J. Electron. Mater. 20945-948 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

A. Mahfoud, A. Sarangan, T. J. Nelson, and E. A. Blubaugh, "Role of aggregation in the amplified spontaneous emission of ([2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene])," J. Lumin. 118,123-130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B. (1)

T. Nguyen, I. B. Martini, J. Liu, B. J. Schwartz, "Controlling interchain interactions in conjugated polymers: the effects of chain morphology on exciton-exciton annihilation and aggregation in MEH-PPV Films," J. Phys. Chem. B. 104, 237-255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

M. S. Yang, S. Y. Song, J. Lee, H. Shim, and T. Zyung, "New orange-red light emitting diode from poly [2-(5-cyclo-hexylmethoxypentyloxy)-5-methoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene]," Macromolecules 2001101-1106 (1999).

Nature (1)

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, "Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers," Nature 347, 539-541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

G. Turnbull, P. Andrews, W. Barnes, and I. Samuel, "Relationship between photonic band structure and emission characteristics of a polymer distributed feedback laser," Phys. Rev. B 64 125122-11 - 125122-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sheridan, G. A. Turnbull, A. N. Safonov and D. W. Samuel, " Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the waveguide mode structure in conjugated polymer film," Phys. Rev. B 62,R11929-R11932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Hess, G. S. Kanner, and Z. Vardeny, "Photoexcitation in polythiophene at high pressure," Phys. Rev. B 471407-1411 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Mcgehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, " Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer," Phys. Rev. B 587035-7039, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Frolov, M. Osaki, W. Gellerman, K. Yoshino and Z. V. Vardeny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78729 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

F. Hide, M. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Anderson, Q. Pei, and A. Heeger, "Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials," Science 2731833-1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (2)

J. Gao, F. Hide, and H. Wang, "Efficient photodetectors and photovoltaic cells from composites of fullerenes and conjugated polymers: Photoinduced electron transfer," Synth. Met. 84, 979-980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sheridan, J. M. Lupton, I. D. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Temperature dependence of the spectral line narrowing and photoluminescence of MEH-PPV," Synth. Met. 111-112531-534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The experimental setup for the PL and ASE measurements 3. Results and discussion

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photoluminescence spectra of MEH-PPV in solution and film. The films were cast from the 5 g/dm3 solution. The excitation source was a Nd:YAG pulsed laser operating at 532 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectral line narrowing of MEH-PPV at different concentrations in solution. The excitation source was a Nd:YAG pulsed laser operating at 532 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spectral line narrowing of MEH-PPV in film. Two emission bands corresponding to the inner and outer layers of the polymer are observed. The excitation source was a Nd:YAG pulsed laser operating at 532 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectral line narrowing of MEH-PPV film cast from the toluene solution. Laser ablation removed just enough material from the surface of the samples so ASE emission from both inner and outer polymer chains takes place.

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